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Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress  in  the  year  1889,  by 

In  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington, 

All  Rlykts  Reserved. 

C  --J 


In  the  history  of  Utah  we  come  upon  a  new  series 
of  social  phenomena,  whose  multiformity  and  uncon- 
ventionality  awaken  the  liveliest  interest.  We  find 
ourselves  at  ooce  outside  the  beaten  track  of  conquest 
for  gold  and  glory;  of  wholesale  robberies  and  human 
slaughters  for  the  love  of  Christ;  of  encomiendas,  re- 
partimientos,  serfdoms,  or  other  species  of  civilized 
imposition;  of  missionary  invasion  resulting  in  cer- 
taia  death  to  the  aborigines,  but  in  broad  acres  and 
well  filled  storehouses  for  the  men  of  practical  piety; 
of  emigration  for  rich  and  cheap  lands,  or  for  coloni- 
zation and  empire  alone;  nor  have  we  here  a  hurried 
scramble  for  wealth,  or  a  corporation  for  the  manage- 
ment of  a  game  preserve.  There  is  the  charm  of 
novelty  about  the  present  subject,  if  no  other;  for  in 
our  analyses  of  human  progress  we  never  tire  of  watch- 
ing the  behavior  of  various  elements  under  various 

There  is  only  one  example  in  the  annals  of  Amer- 
ica of  the  organization  of  a  commonwealth  upon  prin- 
ciples of  pure  theocracy.  There  is  here  one  example 
only  where  the  founding  of  a  state  grew  out  of  the 
founding  of  a  new  religion.  Other  instances  there 
have  been  of  the  occupation  of  wild  tracts  on  this  con- 
tinent by  people  flying  before  persecution,  or  desirous 


of  greater  religious  liberty;  there  were  the  quakers, 
the  huguenots,  and  the  pilgrim  fathers,  though  their 
spiritual  interests  were  so  soon  subordinated  to  politi- 
cal necessities;  religion  has  often  played  a  conspicu- 
ous part  in  the  settlement  of  the  New  World,  and 
there  has  at  times  been  present  in  some  degree  the 
theocratic,  if  not  indeed  the  hierarchal,  idea;  but  it 
has  been  long  since  the  world,  the  old  continent  or  the 
new,  has  witnessed  anything  like  a  new  religion  suc- 
cessfully established  and  set  in  prosperous  running  or- 
der upon  the  fullest  and  combined  principles  of  theoc- 
racy, hierarchy,  and  patriarchy. 

With  this  new  series  of  phenomena,  a  new  series 
of  difficulties  arises  in  attempting  their  elucidation: 
not  alone  the  perplexities  always  attending  unexplored 
fields,  but  formidable  embarrassments  which  render 
the  task  at  once  delicate  and  dangerous. 

If  the  writer  is  fortunate  enough  to  escape  the 
many  pitfalls  of  fallacy  and  illusion  which  beset  his 
wa}^;  if  he  is  wise  and  successful  enough  to  find  and 
follow  the  exact  line  of  equity  which  should  be  drawn 
between  the  hotly  contending  factions ;  in  a  word,  if  he 
is  honest  and  capable,  and  speaks  honestly  and  openly 
in  the  treatment  of  such  a  subject,  he  is  pretty  sure 
to  offend,  and  bring  upon  himself  condemnation  from 
all  parties.  But  where  there  are  palpable  faults  on 
both  sides  of  a  case,  the  judge  who  unites  equity  with 
due  discrimination  may  be  sure  he  is  not  in  the  main 
far  from  right  if  he  succeeds  in  ofiending  both  sides. 
Therefore,  amidst  the  multiformity  of  conflicting  ideas 
and  evidence,  having  abandoned  all  hope  of  satisfying 
others,  I  fall  back  upon  the  next  most  reasonable  prop- 
osition left— that  of  satisfying  myself. 


In  regard  to  the  quality  of  evidence  I  here  encoun- 
ter, I  will  say  that  never  before  has  it  been  my  lot  to 
meet  with  such  a  mass  of  mendacity.  The  attempts 
of  almost  all  who  have  written  upon  the  subject  seem 
to  have  been  to  make  out  a  case  rather  than  to  state 
the  facts.  Of  course,  by  any  religious  sect  dealing 
largely  in  the  supernatural,  fancying  itself  under  the 
direct  guidance  of  God,  its  daily  doings  a  standing 
miracle,  commingling  in  all  the  ordinary  affairs  of  life 
prophecies,  special  interpositions,  and  revelations  with 
agriculture,  commerce,  and  manufactures,  we  must  ex- 
pect to  find  much  written  which  none  but  that  sect 
can  accept  as  true. 

And  in  relation  to  opposing  evidence,  almost  every 
book  that  has  been  put  forth  respecting  the  people 
of  Utah  by  one  not  a  Mormon  is  full  of  calumny, 
each  author  apparently  endeavoring  to  surpass  his 
predecessor  in  the  libertinism  of  abuse.  Most  of 
these  are  written  in  a  sensational  style,  and  for  the 
purpose  of  deriving  profit  by  pandering  to  a  vitiated 
public  taste,  and  are  wholly  unreliable  as  to  facts. 
Some  few,  more  especially  among  those  first  appear- 
ing, whose  data  were  gathered  by  men  upon  the 
spot,  and  for  the  purpose  of  destroying  what  they 
regarded  as  a  sacrilegious  and  pernicious  fanaticism, 
though  as  vehement  in  their  opposition  as  any,  make 
some  pretensions  to  honesty  and  sincerity,  and  are 
more  worthy  of  credit.  There  is  much  in  govern- 
ment reports,  and  in  the  writings  of  the  later  resi- 
dents in  Utah,  dictated  by  honest  patriotism,  and  to 
which  the  historian  should  give  careful  attention. 
In  using  my  authorities,  I  distinguish  between  these 
classes,  as  it  is  not  profitable  either  to  pass  by  any- 
thing illustrating  principles  or  affecting  progress,  or 

^iii  PREFACE. 

to  print  pages  of  pure  invention,  palpable  lies,  even 
for  the  purpose  of  proving  them  such.  Every  work 
upon  the  subject,  however,  receives  proper  bibliograph- 
ical notice. 

The  materials  for  Mormon  church  history  are 
exceptionally  full.  Early  in  his  career  the  first  presi- 
dent appointed  a  historiographer,  whose  office  has 
been  continuous  ever  since.  To  his  people  he  himself 
gave  their  early  history,  both  the  inner  and  intangi- 
ble and  the  outer  and  material  portions  of  it.  Then 
missionaries  to  different  posts  were  instructed  to  make 
a  record  of  all  pertinent  doings,  and  lodge  the  same 
in  the  church  archives.  A  sacred  obligation  seems  to 
have  been  implied  in  this  respect  from  the  beginning, 
the  Booh  of  Mormon  itself  being  largely  descriptive  of 
such  migrations  and  actions  as  usually  constitute  the 
history  of  a  people.  And  save  in  the  matters  of  spir- 
itual manifestations,  which  the  merely  secular  histo- 
rian cannot  follow,  and  in  speaking  of  their  enemies, 
whose  treatment  we  must  admit  in  too  many  instances 
has  been  severe,  the  church  records  are  truthful  and 
reliable.  In  addition  to  this,  concerning  the  settle- 
ment of  the  country,  I  have  here,  as  in  other  sections 
of  my  historical  field,  visited  the  people  in  person,  and 
gathered  from  them  no  inconsiderable  stores  of  orig- 
inal and  interesting  information. 

Upon  due  consideration,  and  with  the  problem 
fairly  before  me,  three  methods  of  treatment  pre- 
sented themselves  from  which  to  choose:  first,  to 
follow  the  beaten  track  of  calumny  and  vituperation, 
heaping  upon  the  Mormons  every  species  of  abuse, 
from  the  lofty  sarcasm  employed  by  some  to  the  vul- 
gar scurrility  applied  by  others;  second,  to  espouse 


the  cause  of  the  Mormons  as  the  weaker  party,  and 
defend  them  from  the  seeming  inj  astice  to  which  from 
the  first  they  have  been  subjected;  third,  in  a  spirit  of 
equity  to  present  both  sides,  leaving  the  reader  to 
draw  his  own  conclusions.  The  first  course,  however 
popular,  would  be  beyond  my  power  to  follow;  the 
second  method,  likewise,  is  not  to  be  considered;  I 
therefore  adopt  the  third  course,  and  while  giving 
the  new  sect  a  full  and  respectful  hearing,  withhold 
nothing  that  their  most  violent  opposers  have  to  say 
against  them. 

Anything  written  at  the  present  day  which  may 
properly  be  called  a  history  of  Utah  must  be  largely 
a  history  of  the  Mormons,  these  being  the  first  white 
people  to  settle  in  the  country,  and  at  present  largely 
occupying  it.  As  others  with  opposing  interests  and 
influences  appear,  they  and  the  great  principles  thereby 
brought  to  an  issue  receive  the  most  careful  considera- 
tion. And  I  have  deemed  it  but  fair,  in  presenting  the 
early  history  of  the  church,  to  give  respectful  consid- 
eration to  and  a  sober  recital  of  Mormon  faith  and 
experiences,  common  and  miraculous.  The  story  of 
Mormonism,  therefore,  beginning  with  chapter  iii.,  as 
told  in  the  text,  is  from  the  Mormon  standpoint,  and 
based  entirely  on  Mormon  authorities;  while  in  the 
notes,  and  running  side  by  side  with  the  subject- 
matter  in  the  text,  I  give  in  full  all  anti-Mormon 
arguments  and  counter-statements,  thus  enabling  the 
reader  to  carry  along  both  sides  at  once,  instead  of 
having  to  consider  first  all  that  is  to  be  said  on  one 
side,  and  then  all  that  is  to  be  said  on  the  other. 

In  following  this  plan,  I  only  apply  to  the  history 
of  Utah  the  same  principles  employed  in  all  my  his- 
torical eflforts,  namely,  to  give  all  the  facts  on  every 


side  pertinent  to  the  subject.  In  giving  the  history 
of  the  invasion  and  occupation  of  the  several  sections 
of  the  Pacific  States  from  Panama  to  Alaska,  I  have 
been  obliged  to  treat  of  the  idiosjmcrasies,  motives, 
and  actions  of  Koman  catholics,  methodists,  presby- 
terians,  episcopalians,  and  members  of  the  Greek 
church:  not  of  the  nature  or  validity  of  their  re- 
spective creeds,  but  of  their  doings,  praising  or  blam- 
ing as  praise  or  blame  were  due,  judged  purely  from 
a  standpoint  of  morals  and  humanity  according  to 
the  highest  standards  of  the  foremost  civilization  of 
the  world.  It  was  not  necessary — it  was  wholly 
outside  the  province  of  the  historian,  and  contrary  to 
my  method  as  practised  elsewhere — to  discuss  the 
truth  or  falsity  of  their  convictions,  any  more  than 
when  writing  the  history  of  Mexico,  California,  or 
Oregon  to  advance  my  opinions  regarding  the  in- 
spiration of  the  scriptures,  the  divinity  of  Christ, 
prophecies,  miracles,  or  the  immaculate  conception. 
On  all  these  questions,  as  on  the  doctrines  of  the 
Mormons  and  of  other  sects,  I  have  of  course  my 
opinions,  which  it  were  not  only  out  of  place  but 
odious  to  be  constantly  thrusting  upon  the  attention 
of  the  reader,  who  is  seeking  for  facts  only. 

In  one  respect  only  I  deem  it  necessary  to  go  a  little 
further  here :  inasmuch  as  doctrines  and  beliefs  enter 
more  infiuentially  than  elsewhere  into  the  origin  and 
evolution  of  this  society,  I  give  the  history  of  the  rise 
and  progress  of  those  doctrines.  Theirs  was  not  an 
old  faith,  the  tenets  of  which  have  been  fought  for 
and  discussed  for  centuries,  but  professedly  a  new  reve- 
lation, whose  principles  are  for  the  most  part  unknown 
to  the  outside  world,  where  their  purity  is  severely 
questioned.     The  settlement  of  this  section   sprung 


primarily  from  the  evolution  of  a  new  religion,  with 
all  its  attendant  trials  and  persecutions.  To  give 
their  actions  without  their  motives  would  leave  the 
work  obviously  imperfect;  to  give  their  motives  with- 
out the  origin  and  nature  of  their  belief  would  be 

In  conclusion,  I  will  say  that  those  who  desire  a 
knowledge  of  people  and  events  impartially  viewed, 
a  statement  of  facts  fairly  and  dispassionately  pre- 
sented, I  am  confident  will  find  them  here  as  else- 
where in  my  writings. 






Francisco  Vazquez  de  Coroiiado  at  Cibola — Expedition  of  Pedro  de  Tobar 
and  Father  Juan  de  Padilla— They  Hear  of  a  Large  River — Garcia 
Lopez  de  Cdrdenas  Sent  in  Search  of  It — The  First  Europeans  to 
Approach  Utah — Route  of  Cdrdenas — Mythical  Maps — Part  of  the 
Northern  Mystery — Journey  of  Dominguez  and  Escalante — The 
Course  They  Followed — The  Rivers  They  Crossed — The  Comanches 
— Region  of  the  Great  Lakes — Rivers  Timpanogos,  San  Buenaven- 
tura, and  Others — The  Country  of  the  Yutas — Route  from  Santa  F6 
to  Monterey — The  Friars  Talk  of  the  Lake  Country — Return  of  the 
Spaniards  to  Zuni  and  March  to  Santa  F^ 1 



Invasion  by  Fur-hunters — Baron  la  Hontan  and  his  Fables — The  Popu- 
lar Geographic  Idea — Discovery  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake — James 
Bridger  Deciding  a  Bet — He  Determines  the  Course  of  Bear  River, 
and  Comes  upon  the  Great  Lake — Henry,  Ashley,  Green,  and  Beck- 
wourth  on  the  Ground — Fort  Built  at  Utah  Lake — Peter  Skeen  Og- 
den — Journey  of  Jedediah  S.  Smith — A  Strange  Country — Pegleg 
Smith — Wolfskin,  Yount,  and  Burton  Traverse  the  Country — 
Walker's  Visit  to  California — Some  Old  Maps — The  Bartleson  Com- 
pany— Statements  of  Bidwell  and  Belden  Compared — Whitman 
and  Lovejoy — Fremont — Pacific  Coast  Immigrations  of  1845  and 
1846— Origin  of  the  Name  Utah 18 



A  Glance  Eiastward — The  Middle  States  Sixty  Years  Ago — Birth  and 
Parentage  of  Joseph  Smith — Spiritual  Manifestations — Joseph  'Tells 




his  Vision— And  is  Reviled— Moroni  Appears— Persecutions— Copy- 
ing the  Plates — Martin  Harris — Oliver  Cowdery— Translation— The 
Book  of  Mormon— Aaronic  Priesthood  Conferred— Conversions— The 
Whitmer  Family— The  Witnesses— Span Iding  Theory— Printing  of 
the  Book — Melchisedec  Priesthood  Conferred — Duties  of  Elders  an- 1 
Others— Church  of  Latter-day  Saints  Organized— First  Miracle-- 
First  Conference — Oliver  Cowdery  Ordered  to  the  West 36 



Parley  Pratt's  Conversion — Mission  to  the  Lamanites — ^The  Missionaries 
at  Kirtland — Conversion  of  Sidney  Rigdon — Mormon  Success  at  Kirt- 
land — The  Missionaries  in  Missouri— Rigdon  Visits  Smith — Edward 
Partridge— The  Melchisedec  Priesthood  Given — Smith  and  Rigdon 
Journey  to  Missouri — Bible  Translation — Smith's  Second  Visit  to 
Missouri — Unexampled  Prosperity — Causes  of  Persecutions — Mob- 
ocracy — The  Saints  are  Driven  from  Jackson  County — Treachery  of 
Boggs — Military  Organization  at  Kirtland — The  Name  Latter-day 
Saints — March  to  Missouri 71 



President  Smith  at  Kirtland — First  Quorum  of  Twelve  Apostles — The 
Kirtland  Temple  Completed — Kirtland  Safety  Society  Bank — Li 
Zion  Again — The  Saints  in  Missouri — Apostasy — Zeal  and  Indis- 
cretion— Military  Organization — The  War  Opens — Depredations  on 
Both  Sides — Movements  of  Atchison,  Parks,  and  Doniphan — Atti- 
tude of  Boggs — Wight  and  Gilliam— Death  of  Patten — Danite  Or- 
ganization— Order  Lodge— Haun  Mill  Tragedy — Mobs  and  Militia — 
The  Tables  Turned — Boggs'  Exterminating  Order — Lucas  and  Clark 
at  Far  West — Surrender  of  the  Mormons — Prisoners — Petitions  and 
Memorials — Expulsion — Gathering  at  Quincy — Opinions Ill 



The  City  of  Nauvoo — Its  Temple  and  University — The  Nanvoo  Legion— 
The  Mormons  in  Illinois— Evil  Reports — Revelation  on  Polygamy- 
Its  Reception  and  Practice— The  Prophet  a  Candidate  for  the  Presi- 
dency—The Nauvoo  Expositor— Joseph  Arrested— Governor  Ford 
and  his  Measures^Joseph  and  Hyrum  Proceed  to  Carthage— Their 
Imprisonment— The  Governor's  Pledge — Assassination  of  the  Prophet 



and  his  Brother— Character  of  Joseph  Smith— A  Panic  at  Carthage — 
Addresses  of  Richards  and  Taylor— Peaceful  Attitude  of  the  Mor- 
mons   » 143 



The  Question  of  Succession— Biography  of  Brigham  Young— His  Early- 
Life — Conversion — Missionary  Work — Made  President  of  the  Twelve 
— His  Devotion  to  the  Prophet — Sidney  Rigdon  and  Brigham  Young 
Rival  Aspirants  for  the  Presidency — Rigdon 's  Claims — Public  Meet- 
ings— Brigham  Elected  President  of  the  Church — His  Character — 
Temple-building — Fresh  Disasters — The  AflFair  at  Morley — The  Men 
of  Quincy  and  the  Men  of  Carthage — ^The  Mormons  Consent  to 
Abandon  their  City , 193 



A  Busy  City — Meeting  in  the  Temple— Sacrifice  of  Property— Detach- 
ments Move  Forward— A  Singular  Exodus— The  First  Encampment 
— Cool  Proposal  from  Brother  Brannan— The  Journey — Courage  and 
Good  Cheer — Swelling  of  their  Numbers — The  Remnant  of  the  Saints 
in  Nauvoo — Attitude  of  the  Gentiles — The  Mormons  Attacked — 
Continued  Hostilities — The  Final  Departures — The  Poor  Camp — A 
Deserted  City 214 



Native  Races  of  the  Missouri — The  Pottawattamies  and  the  Omahas — 
The  Mormons  Welcomed  as  Brethren — War  with  Mexico — California 
Territory — Mexican  Boundaries — Application  to  the  United  States 
Government  for  Aid — An  Offer  to  Serve  as  Soldiers  Accepted — Or- 
ganization of  the  Mormon  Battalion — Departure  of  the  Battalion — 
Bounty  Money — March  across  the  Continent — The  Battalion  in  Cal- 
ifornia— Matters  on  the  Missouri 236 



Camp  Near  the  Missouri — Preparations  at  Winter  Quarters — Departure 
of  the  Pioneer  Band — Elkhorn  Rendezvous — Route  and  Routine — 
Incidents  of  Journey — Approach  to  Zion — In  the  Cafion— Hosaunal 



Hallelujah!— Entry  into  the  Valley  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake— Plough- 
ing and  Planting — Praying  and  Praising — Site  for  a  City  Chosen — 
Temple  Block  Selected — Return  of  Companies  to  Winter  Quarters — 
Their  Meeting  with  the  Westward-bound — General  Epistle  of  the 
Twelve 252 



Food  and  Raiment — Houses— Home  Manufactures — The  Fort — Wild 
Beasts — Cannon  from  Sutter's  Fort — Indian  Children  for  Sale — 
Measles — Population — Mills  and  Farming  Machinery — The  Plague 
of  Crickets — They  are  Destroyed  by  Gulls — Scarcity  of  Provisions — 
The  Harvest  Feast — Immigration — Five  Thousand  Saints  Gathered 
in  the  Valley — Fencing  and  Farming  — Distribution  of  Lots — Organ- 
ization of  County  Government — Association  for  the  Extermination 
of  Wild  Beasts 275 



Food  Supply  and  Shelter — Building  Lots — Currency  Issue — Bank  Notes  - 
and  Coinage — Private  and  Public  Buildings — Wide  Area  of  the  City 
— Second  Anniversary  of  the  Pioneers — Festivals  and  Amusements 
— Labor  a  Duty  among  the  Saints— Effect  of  the  California  Gold  Dis- 
covery— Immigration — Carrying  Company — California-bound  Emi- 
grants— Their  Traffic  with  the  Mormons — Products  and  Prices — 
Gold-hunting  Frowned  upon  by  the  Church 288 



Founding  of  Centreville — Bountiful — Ogden— Lynne — Easton — Marriots- 
ville — San  Pete — Provo — Indian  War — Walled  Cities — Evansville — 
Lehi— Battle  Creek — Pleasant  Grove — American  Fork — Payson — 
Nephi—Manti— Chief  Walker— Fillmore— Site  Chosen  for  the  Capi- 
tal— Tooele — Grantsville—Kaysville— Little  Salt  Lake — Parowan — 
Cedar  City — Paragoonah — Forts  Walker  and  Harmony — Box  Elder 
Creek— Brigham  City— Willard  City— San  Bernardino  in  California.  305 



Boundaries  and  Extent  of  Utah— Configuration  and  Physical  Features  of 
the  Country— Its  Lands  and  W^aters— Flora  and  Fauna— State  Uni- 

CONTENTS.  xvii 


versity — Curriculum — Educational  Ideas—  Library— Periodicals- 
Tabernacle  and  Temple— New  Fort— Progress  of  the  Useful  Arts- 
Mills,  Factories,  and  Manufactures — Farm  Products — Traffic — Popu- 
lation— Revenue — Mortality — Healthful  Airs  and  Medicinal  Springs.  321 



What  is  Mormonism? — Tenets  of  the  Church — Sacred  Books  and  Person- 
ages— Organization — Priesthood — First  Presidency  —  The  Twelve 
Apostles — Patriarchs — Elders,  Bishops,  Priests,  Teachers,  and  Dea- 
cons— The  Seventies — Stakes  and  Wards — Marriage — Temple-build- 
ing— Tabernacle — Political  Aspect — Polygamy  as  a  Church  Tenet — 
Celestial  Marriage — Attitude  and  Arguments  of  Civilization — Polyg- 
amy's Reply — Ethics  and  Law — The  Charge  of  Disloyalty — Proposed 
Remedies 333 



Mormon  Missionaries — Parley  Pratt  and  his  Colleagues — Missionary 
Labor  in  Canada — In  Great  Britain — Missionaries  in  Europe — And  in 
Other  Parts  of  the  World — The  Perpetual  Emigration  Fund — A  Gen- 
eral Epistle  of  the  Twelve — From  Liverpool  to  Salt  Lake  City  for 
Fifty  Dollars — Emigrant  Ships — Report  of  a  Liverpool  Manager — 
The  Passage  to  New  Orleans — Overland  Travel — Classes  of  Emi- 
grants— George  A.  Smith's  Companies  at  South  Pass — The  Hand- 
cart Emigration — Biographical 397 



Need  of  Civil  Government — The  State  of  Deseret  Organized — Memorials 
for  Admission  into  the  Union — Proposed  Consolidation  with  Califor- 
nia— Administration  of  Justice — Proceedings  of  the  Legislature — 
Babbit's  Reception  at  Washington — The  State  of  Deseret  before 
Congress — Act  to  Establish  a  Territorial  Government — Appointment 
of  Officials — 111  Feeling  between  Them  and  the  Mormons — The  Offi- 
cials Depart  for  Washington — Measures  of  the  Legislative  Assembly 
— Stansbury's  Survey — The  Gunnison  Massacre — Indian  Outbreaks — 
The  Walker  War — Mexican  Slave-traders 439 



Brigham  as  Dictator — Utah  Seeks  Admission  as  a  State — Dissatisfaction 
among  the  Saints — Conflicting  Judiciaries — The  New  Federal  Offi- 
HisT.  Utah.    It 


cials— Disputes  with  Judge  Drummond— Colonel  Steptoe— An  Expe- 
dition Ordered  to  Utah— Official  Blunders— The  Troops  Assemble  at 
Fort  Leavenworth— Hockaday  and  Magraw's  Mail  Contract— The 
Brigham  Young  Express— Celebration  of  the  Pioneer  Anniversary- 
News  of  the  Coming  Invasion— Its  Effect  on  the  Mormons— Arrival 
of  Major  Van  Vliet— The  Nauvoo  Legion— Mormon  Tactics 481 



-  1857-1858. 
Opening  of  the  Campaign— Burning  of  Supply  Trains— Strategic  Move- 
ment of  Colonel  Alexander— His  Retreat— Arrival  of  Albert  Sidney 
Johnston— The  March  to  Fort  Bridger— Winter  at  Camp  gcott— 
Mission  of  Colonel  Kane— Governor  Cumming  at  Salt  Lake  City — 
Pardon  Proclaimed— The  Peace  Commissioners— The  Army  of  Utah 
Advances  on  ffion— The  City  Deserted— The  Mormons  Return  to 
Their  Homes— The  Troops  Cantoned  at  Camp  Floyd— Conduct  of 
the  Soldiery  and  Camp  Followers— Judges  Sinclair  and  Cradlebaugh. 
—The  Reformation  in  Utah 512 



An  Arkansas  Emigrant  Party  Arrives  at  Salt  Lake  City — Assassination 
of  Parley  P.  Pratt — 111  Feeling  against  the  Emigrants — Alleged  Out- 
rages— Their  Arrival  at  Mountain  Meadows — They  are  Attacked  by 
Indians— A  Flag  of  Truce — Plan  of  the  Massacre — Surrender  of  the 
Emigrants— The  Butchery — Burial  of  the  Slain — The  Survivors — 
Judge  Cradlebaugh's  Investigation — The  Aiken  Massacre — John  D. 
Lee  on  Trial— Tlje  Jury  Disagree — The  Second  Trial — Lee  Convicted, 
and  Sentenced — His  Confession  and  Execution 543 



Brigham  Threatened  with  Arrest — The  Federal  Judges  Reproved — De- 
parture of  Governor  Cumming —  And  of  the  Army  of  Utah — Popu- 
lation of  the  Territory — Mortality — Wealth — Industries — Prices — 
Wages— Trade— Salt  Lake  City  in  1860— The  Temple  Block— Social 
Gatherings — Theatricals — Scientific  and  Other  Institutions — Char- 
acter of  the  Population — Carson  Valley — San  Bernardino — Summit 
County  and  Its  Settlements — Purchase  of  Fort  Bridger — Wasatch 
County — Morgan  County — Cache  Valley — Settlements  in  Southern 
Utah 572 






Governor  Dawson's  Gallantry — Utah  Refused  Admission  as  a  State — 
Passage  of  a  Bill  against  Polygamy — Measures  of  the  Legislature — 
Arrival  of  Grovemor  Harding — Disputes  between  Brigham  and  the 
Federal  Officials — Arrival  of  the  California  Volunteers — A  False 
Alarm — The  Morrisite  Troubles — Governors  Doty  and  Durkee — The 
Limits  of  Utah  Curtailed — Celebration  of  Lincoln's  Second  Inaugu- 
ration— The  Brassfield  and  Robinson  Murders — Indian  Outbreaks 
— The  Battle  of  Bsar  River — Disturbances  in  Southern  Utah — Trea- 
ties with  Indian  Tribes — The  Uintah  Valley  Reservation — Biblio- 
graphical  604 



The  Strangites — The  Gatherers — Brannan's  Followers — The  Gladdenitea 
— The  Reorganized  Church  of  Latter-day  Saints — Alexander  and 
David  Hyrum  Smith — The  Utah  Magazine — Trial  of  Godbe  and  Har- 
rison— Success  of  the  Godbeite  Movement — The  Struggle  for  Commer- 
cial Control — Persecution  of  Gentile  Merchants — Zion's  Cooperative 
Mercantile  Institution — Extent  of  its  Operations — Disastrous  Eflfect 
on  Gentile  Trade — Reaction  in  Favor  of  the  Reformers 641 



Visit  of  Schuyler  Colfax — Godbe's  Interview  with  President  Grant — 
Governor  Shaj6fer — Military  Riot  at  Provo — Governor  Woods — Judge 
ISIcKean — Burlesque  of  Justice — Arrest  of  Brigham  Young  and 
Others — George  Q.  Cannon  Chosen  Delegate — Axtell's  Administra- 
tion— Governor  Emery — Death  of  Brigham — His  Obsequies — His 
Character— His  Will 656 



Conference  of  the  Church — Reorganization  of  the  First  Presidency — 
John  Taylor  Appointed  President — His  Appearance  and  Mien — The 
Edmunds  Bill — Its  Penalties— An  Ex  Post  Facto  Law — Polygamists 
Disfranchised — Utah  again  Refused  Admission  as  a  State — Opera- 
tions of  the  Utah  Commission — Governor  Murray's  Message — His 
Administration 677 





Population  and  Statistics— Salt  Lake  City— The  Temple— The  New  Tab- 
ernacle— The  Museum — Condition  of  the  Inhabitants — Distinctive 
Features — Salt  Lake  County — Davis  County — Ogden— Cache  County 
—Rich  County— Summit  County— Brigham  City— Nephi— Provo — 
Uintah,  Emery,  San  Juan,  Garfield,  and  Piute  Counties— Sanpete 
and  Sevier  Counties — Iron,  Kane,  and  Washington  Counties — 
Schools— The  University  of  Deseret — The  Deseret  Alphabet— Libra- 
ries— Journals  and  Journalism 691 



Agricultural  Products  and  Yield  per  Acre — Irrigation — Character  of  the 
Soil — Fruit  Culture — Viticulture — Sericulture — Timber  and  Timber- 
lands  —  Bunch-grass  —  Cattle-raising  —  Dairy  Products — Horses — 
Sheep — Woollen  Manufactures  —  Leather — Other  Manufactures— 
Iron-mining — Coal-mining — Copper — Sulphur — Gypsum  and  Mica — 
Other  Minerals — Building  Stone — Gold  and  Silver — The  West 
Mountain  District — The  Rush  Valley  District — The  Cottonwood 
District — The  American  Fork  District — The  Tintic  District — The 
Ontario  Mine — Other  Mining  Districts — Mining  Products — Milling, 
Smelting,  and  Reduction-works 720 



Common  Roadways — ^Railroads — The  Union  and  Central  Pacific — The 
Utah  Central— The  Utah  Southern— The  Utah  and  Northern— The 
Utah  Eastern— The  Salt  Lake  and  Western— The  Utah  and  Nevada 
— The  Denver  and  Rio  Grande  Western — Imports  and  Exports — 
Commerce  and  Trade — Banking— Insurance — Taxation  and  Revenue 
— Mails  and  Mail  Services — The  First  Telegraphic  Message — The. 
Deseret  Telegraph  Company 751 

Index .^^  ^^ ^..„ ,  ^. . .  785 




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President  John  Tyler.     New  York,  1844. 

Address  by  a  Minister  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  to 
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Nauvoo.     Philadelphia,  n.d. 

A  Friendly  Warning  to  the  Latter-day  Saints.     London,  1860. 

Albany  (Or. ),  Journal. 

Aldrich  (Hazen),  The  Olive  Branch,  monthly.    Kirtland  (0.),  1851-2. 

Alegre,  Hist.  Comp.  Jesus,  i.  233-8. 

Alexander  (W.  C),  Princ.  Mag.,  xxiv.  687. 

Alta  (Utah),  Times. 

Amberley,  in  Fortnightly  Rev.,  xii.  511. 

American  Almanac.     Boston  and  New  York,  1830  et  seq. 

American  Geog.  and  Statis.  Soc.  Mag.     New  York,  1850  et  seq. 

American  Quarterly  Register  and  Magazine.     Philadelphia,  1848  et  seq. 

American  Whig  Review.     New  York,  1845-51.  13  vols. 

Among  the  Mormons,  in  All  the  Year  Round,    x.  1863. 

Among  the  Mormons,  in  Gent.  Mag.,  new  ser.,  vii. 

Ampere  (J.  J.),  Promenade  en  Am6rique,  etc.  Paris,  1855.  2  vols.  Paris, 
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Ancient  American  Records,    n.d. 

Ancient  and  Modem  Michilimackinac.  (History  of  James  J.  Strang's  Move- 
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Anderson  (R.  R. ),  Salt  Lake  City  Street- Railroad.    MS. 

Andouard,  Far  West. 

Andree  (Karl),  Die  Mormonen  und  ihr  Land.     Dresden,  1859. 

An  Exposure  of  Mormonism.     Dunstable  (Eng.),  n.d. 

Anti-Mormon  Almanac.     New  York,  1842. 

Antiooh  (Cal.),  Ledger. 

A  Plan  to  Solve  the  Utah  Problem.     Salt  Lake  aty,  1880. 

Apples  of  Sodom.     Cleveland  (0.),  1883. 

Appleton  (D.  &  Co.),  Amer.  Cycloped.,  N.  Y.,  1873,  1875;  Journal,  N.  Y. 

Appleton's  Illustrated  Hand-book  of  Amer.  Travel.     New  York,  1856  et  seq. 

Arch.  Cal.,  Pro  v.  Rec.     MS.,  i.  47-8,  vi.  59. 

Archives  du  Christianisme  (1852-3). 

Ashland  (Or.),  Tidings. 

Astoria  (Or. ),  Astorian. 

Athrawiaeth  a  Chyfammodau  (Wales),    n.d. 

Atlantic  Monthly.     Boston,  1858  et  seq. 



Austin  (Nev.),  Reese  River  Reveille. 

Authentic  History  of  Remarkable  Persons,  etc.     New  York,  1849. 

A  Visit  to  the  Mormons,  in  Westra.  Rev.,  Ixxvi.  1861. 

A  Voice  from  the  Mountains.     Salt  Lake  City,  1881. 

Balch  (W.  R.),  Mines  of  the  U.  S.     Philadelphia,  1882. 

Ballantyne  (Richard),  Proclamation  of  the  Gospel.  Madras  (Hind.),  1853; 
Only  Way  to  be  Saved.  Madras  (Hind.),  1853;  Replies  to  Rev.  J.  Rich- 
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Bancroft  (H.  H.),  History  of  California;  History  of  Nevada;  History  of 
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Barber  (F.  C),  inDe  Bow,  Comml.  Rev.,  xvi.  368. 

Barber  (J.  W.),  History  of  the  Western  States,  etc.     Cincinnati,  1867. 

Barclay  (Jas  W.),  Mormonism  Exposed.     London,  1884. 

Barfoot  (J.  L.),  Brief  History  of  the  Deseret  Museum.     MS.;  Hand-book 

Guide  to  the  Salt  Lake  Museum.     Salt  Lake  City,  1880. 
Bameby  (W.  H.),  Life  and  Labor  in  the  Far,  Far  West.     London,  Paris,  and 

New  York,  1884. 
Barnes  (D.),  From  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  Overland.     New  York,  1866. 
Barr,  Treatise  on  the  Atonement,  etc. 
Bates  (Geo.  C),  Argument  on  Jurisdiction  of  Probate  Courts,  etc.     Salt  Lake 

City,  n.d. 
Battle  of  Bear  River,  1863. 

Bays  (Joseph),  The  Blood  of  Christ.     Chatteris  (Eng.),  1849. 
Beadle  (J.  H.),  Bill  Hickman,  Brigham's  Destroying  AngeL     New  York, 

1872;  Life  in  Utah.     Philadelphia,  1870;  Undevel.  West.     Philadelphia, 

1873;  Western  Wilds.     Cincinnati,  1879;  in  Harper's  Mag.,  liii.  641;  Pop. 

Sci.  Monthly,  ix.  479;  Scribner's  Monthly,  xiv.  397. 
Beatie  (A.  S.),  The  First  in  Nevada.     MS. 
Beaumont,  Hist.  Mich.     MS.,  407-22,  etc. 
Beaver  City  (Utah)  Chronicle;  Enterprise. 
Beckwith  (E.  G.),  Report  on  Route,  etc.    Washington,  1855;  Washington, 

Belden  (J.),  Statement.     MS. 

Bell  (J.  F.),  Reply  to  John  Theobald.    Liverpool,  n.d. 
Belmont  (Nev.),  Courier. 
*  Bennett  (J.  C),  History  of  the  Saints,  or  Mormonism  Exposed,    Boston,  1842. 
Benton  (Thos  H.),  Speech  in  U.  S.  Senate,  1861. 
Benzoni,  Hist.  Mundo  Nuevo,  107. 
Bernal  Diaz,  Hist.  Verdad.,  235. 
Bertrand  (L.  A.),  Autorit6  Divine,  ou  R6ponse,  etc.     Paris,  1853;  M^moires 

d'un  Mormon.     Paris,  1862. 
Bidwell,  Cal.,  184-8.    MS. 
Bigamy  and  Polygamy,  Review  of  the  Opinion  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 

U.  S.,  Oct.  1878. 
Bigler  (Henry  W.),  Diary  of  a  Mormon.    MS.,  passim. 
Bill  to  Establish  a  Territorial  Government  for  Utah.     Liverpool,  1852. 
Bingham  (Utah),  Pioneer, 

Bird  (Isabella  L.),  Lady's  Life  in  the  Rocky  Mountains.     New  York,  1881. 
Bishop  (Gladden),  Address  to  the  Sons  and  Daughters  of  Zion,  etc.     Kirtland. 

(0.).  185L 
Black  (Judge),  Argument  on  Federal  Jurisdiction  in  the  Territories.     Salt 

Lake  City,  1883. 
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Lake  City,  n.d. 
Blodget  (L.),  Meteorological  Report.    Washington,  1855. 
Boadicea,  The  Mormon  Wife.    New  York,  etc.,  1855. 
Bois6  (Idaho),  News;  Statesman. 
Boiler  (H.  A.),  Among  the  Indians.    Philadelphia,  1868. 


Bonanza  City  (Idaho),  Yankee  Fork  Herald. 

Bonner  (T.  D. ),  Life  and  Advent,  of  James  P.  Beckwourth,  71-3. 

Bon  wick  (J.),  The  Mormons  and  the  Silver  Mines.     London,  1872. 

Book  of  Commandments.     Independence,  Missouri,  1833. 

Book  of  Mormon.  Kirtland,  1837;  Liverpool,  1841,  1852,  1854,  1883;  New 
York,  n.d.  Salt  Lake  City  (First  Utah  ed.),  1871;  Salt  Lake  City, 
1879,  and  many  others. 

Book  of  Mormon  Examined,  etc.  (Anon.)    n.d. 

Book  of  Mormon;  Littell's  Museum  of  For.  Lit.,  xlii. 

Boston  Christ.  Exam.,  5th  ser.  ii.,  1858. 

Boston  Journal. 

Bowes  (John),  in  Christian  Magazine,  nos.  13-18;  Mormonism.  London,  Man- 
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Boyer  (Lanson),  From  Orient  to  Occident.     New  York,  1878. 

Brackett  (A.  G.),  History  of  the  U.  S.  Cavalry.     New  York,  1865. 

Bradford  (W.  J.  A.),  Origin  and  Fate  of  Mormonism,  in  Christ.  Exam.,  liii. 

Brewster  (James  C),  Address  to  the  Church  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Spring- 
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Briggs  (E.  C),  and  Attwood  (R.  M.),  Address  to  the  Saints  in  Utah  and  Cali- 
fornia.    Piano  (111.),  1869. 

Brigham  (C.  H.),  in  No.  Amer.  Eev.,  xcv.  189;  Old  and  New,  i.  628,  ii.  320. 

Brigham  ( Wm  J. ),  The  Church  of  Latter-day  Saints,  in  Old  and  New.  Sept. 
and  Oct.  1870. 

Brigham  Young  Academy — Circulars. 

Brigham  Young  and  his  Women,  in  Gralaxy,  Dec.  1866. 

Brigham  Young's  Will. 

Brighamismj  Its  Promises  and  Failure.     Piano  (HI.) 

British  and  American  (Commercial  Joint-stock  Company,  Deed  of  Settlement. 
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Brit.  Quat.  Rev.,  xxxv.  175. 

Bromfield  (Edward  T.),  Picturesque  Journeys,  etc.    New  York,  1883. 

Brother  Bertrand's  Conversion,  in  All  the  Year  Round,  ix.  68. 

Brotherton  (Edward),  Mormonism,  etc.     Manchester  (Eng.),  n.d. 

Brown  (Albert  G.),  The  Utah  Expedition,  in  Atlantic  Monthly,  March,  April, 
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Brown  (Benjamin),  Testimonies  for  the  Truth,  etc.    Liverpool,  1853. 

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Brown  (Mrs  M.),  Letter.     MS. 

Brown's  Statement.     MS. 

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Bulfinch  (S.  G.),  The  Mormons,  in  Christ.  Exam.,  Ixiv.  421. 

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of  the  Precious  Metals  in  the  U.  S.     Washington,  1881. 

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Burton  (R.  F.),  The  City  of  the  Saints.     London,  1861.     New  York,  1862. 

Burton's  City  of  the  Saints,  Review  of,  Edinb.  Rev.,  cxv.  185;  Littell's  Liv. 
Age.  Ixxi.  630. 



Busch  (M.),  Die  Mormonen.     Leipzig,    1855;    Geschichte  der  Mormoneii, 

Liepzig,  1870. 
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■^  Byera  (W.  N.),  The  Mormons  at  the  Missouri.     MS. 

California:  Its  Past  History,  etc.     London,  1850. 

California  Journals  of  Assembly  and  Senate,  1850-1881. 

Californian.     San  Francisco,  1880  et  seq. 

Call  (Anson),  and  Others,  Fragments  of  Experience.     Salt  Lake  City. 

Call  to  the  Unconverted,  etc.     Liverpool,  n.d. 

Camp  (D.  W.),  The  American  Year-Book,  1869  et  seq.     Hartford. 

Campbell  (A.),  Analysis  of  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Boston,  1832;  Mormonisra 
Weighed  in  the  Balances.'  London,  Edinburgh,  and  Nottingham,  n.d. 
The  Millennial  Harbinger.     Bethany,  Va. 

Campbell  (A.),  and  Hines  (J.  V.),  Delusions,  and  Mormon  Monstrosities. 
Boston,  1842. 

Campbell  (J.  H. ),  My  Circular  Notes.     London,  1876. 

Campbell  (J.  L.),  Idaho;  Six  Months  in  the  New  Gold-diggings.  Chicago, 

Campbell  (Robt),  in  Pac.  R.  Kept,  xi.  35. 

Cannon  (Geo.  Q. ),  Speeches  in  the  U.  S.  House  of  Rep.  for  his  admission  to  a 
seat.  Salt  Lake  City,  1882;  The  Western  Standard.  San  Francisco, 
Cal.,  1856  et  seq;  Sunday  Schools  in  Utah.  MS.;  Juvenile  Instructor, 
Ills.  Salt  Lake  City,  1866  et  seq.;  Review  of  Decision  of  U.  S.  Supreme 
Court  in  the  case  of  Geo.  Reynolds.  Salt  Lake  City,  1879;  Speech  in 
U.  S.  House  of  Rep.  Washington,  1882;  Utah  and  its  People  in  No. 
Amer.  Rev.,  cxxxii.  451;  George  Q.  Pukuniahi  He  Olelo  Hoolaha,  etc. 
San  Francisco,  1855;  My  First  Mission.  Salt  Lake  City,  1879;  The  Life 
of  Nephi.  Salt  Lake  City,  1883;  Writings  from  the  Western  Standard. 
Liverpool,  1864. 

Carson  (Nev.),  Appeal;  State  Register. 

Carvalho  (S,  N.),  Incidents  of  Travel  and  Adventure  in  the  Far  West.  New 
York,  1858. 

Carver  (J.),  Travels  through  the  interior  parts  of  North  America.  London, 

Caswall  (Henry),  The  City  of  the  Mormons,  etc.  London,  1843;  The  Prophet 
of  the  19th  Century,  etc.  London,  1843;  Joseph  Smith  and  the  Mor- 
mons, etc.   London,  1851 ;  Mormonism  and  its  Author,  etc.   London,  1852. 

Catechism  Cards.     Salt  Lake  City. 

Cavo,  Trea  Siglos,  i.  127-9. 

Chalmers,  Jr  (E.  B.),  Mormonism  a  Delusion.    London,  1852. 

Chambers,  History  of  the  Mormons.  Edinburgh  and  London,  n.d.;  History 
and  Ideas  of  the  Mormons,  in  Westm.  Rev.,  Jan.  1853;  Religious  Im- 
postors.    Edinburgh,  n.d. 

Champagnac  (J.  B.  L.),  Le  Jeune  Voyageur  en  Calif omie.     Paris,  n.d. 

Chandless  ( W. ),  A  Visit  to  Salt  Lake.    London,  1857. 

Cherry  Creek  (Nev.),  White  Pine  News. 

Chicago  (111.),  Inter-Ocean;  Journal. 

Christ  or  Barabbas?    Weston — super  mare.    London  and  Bristol,  n.d. 

Cincinnati  (0.),  Commercial  Advertiser;  Gazette;  Inquirer. 

Circular  of  the  First  Presidency.     Salt  Lake  City,  July  11,  1877. 

Circular  from  the  Twelve  Apostles.     Salt  Lake  City,  1880. 

Clagett  (Wm  H.),  Speech  in  House  of  Rep.,  Jan.  28,  29,  1873.  Washing- 
ton, 1873.  . 

Clark  (John  A.),  Gleanings  by  the  Way.    New  York  and  Philadelphia,  1842. 

Clarke  (F.  W.),  The  Mormon  Widow's  Lament,  in  Galaxy,  May  1871. 

Clarke  (Mrs  H.  T.),  The  Emigrant  Trail.     MS. 

Clarke,  The  Mormons  in  a  Fix.     London,  n.d, 

Clarke  (R.),  Mormonism  Unmasked,    n.d. 



Clavigero,  StoriaCal.,  153. 

Clay  (Edmund),  Tracts  on  Mormonism.  London,  Leamington,  and  Liver- 
pool, 1851,  1852. 

Clayton  (W.),  Journal.     MS. 

Clemens  (S.  L.),  (Mark  Twain),  Roughing  It.     Hartford,  etc.,  1874. 

Coast  Review.     San  Francisco,  1871-80.  15  vols. 

Cobb  (J.  J.),  The  Mormon  Problem.     MS. 

Codman  (J.),  in  Intern.  Rev.,  xi.  1881;  The  Round  Trip.  Xew  York,  1879; 
Through  Utah,  in  The  Galaxy,  xx.  1875,  in  Intl.  Rev.,  ii.  227;  The  Mor- 
mon Country.     New  York,  1874. 

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Healdsburg  (Cal.)  Enterprise;  Russian  River  Flag. 
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Hepburn  (A.  B.),  Mormonism  Exposed.     London  and  Swansea,  1855. 
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Hewitt  (W.),  Exposure  of  the  Errors  and  Fallacies  of  the  Self -named  Latter- 
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Hewlett  (Alfred),  One  Wife,  or  Many  Wives.     Manchester  and  London,  n.d. 
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Higbie  (Rev.  A.),  Polygamy  vs  Christianity.     San  Francisco,  1857. 
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•  Howe  (Mrs  J. ),  Migration  and  Settlement  of  the  Latter-day  Saints.     MS. 

Howitt  (Mary),  History  of  the  U.  S.     New  York,  1860. 

Hoyt  (J.  P.),  Arizona  Events.     MS. 

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Hughes  (Elizabeth),  Voice  from  the  West  to  the  Scattered  People  of  the 

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Salt  Lake  City,  1872. 
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_   Hyde  (Mrs  M.  A  P.),  Autobiograhpy.     MS. 


Hyde  (Orson),  Address  to  the  Hebrews.  Rotterdam  (Holland),  1841;  Cry 
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Hyde  (Mrs  Orson),  Workings  of  Mormonism.     MS. 

Hygiene  of  U.  S.  Army,  etc.     Washington,  1875. 

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Idaho  City,  Idaho  World. 

Idolatry.    Piano  (111.) 

L'lUustration.    Journal  Universel,  1858  et  seq. 

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Independence  (Mo.),  Elder's  Journal;  Evening  and  Morning  Star,  1832  et 

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Indictment  for  the  Murder  of  James  Monroe,  etc.     Liverpool,  1851. 

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Internat.  Rev.     New  York,  1870  et  seq. 

Interview  between  Pres.  John  Taylor  and  U.  S.  Int.  Rev.  Col.  0.  J.  Hollis- 
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Investigation  into  the  Murder  of  Dr  J.  K.  Robinson.     Salt  Lake  City,  1866. 

Irving  (Edward),  and  the  Catholic  and  Apostolic  Church.  London  and  Liver- 
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Irving  (Wash.),  Bonneville's  Adven.,  186. 

Is  Mormonism  True  or  Not  ?    (Religious  Tract  Society.)    London,  n.d. 

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J.  (H.  S.),  The  Latter-day  Saints,  and  their  Spiritual  Views,    n.d. 

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Jaques  (John),  Der  Katechismus  fur  Kinder.  Bern  (Switz.),  1872;  Catechism 
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Jenkins  (H.  D.),  The  Mormon  Hymn-book,  in  Our  Monthly,  Dec.  1870. 

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Johnson  (J.  H.),  Voice  from  the  Mountains.     Salt  Lake  City,  1881. 

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Jones  (Dan.),  Yr  Eurgrawn  Ysgrythyrol;  Pwy  yw  Duw  y  Saint;  Yr  Hen 
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ingStoryamLyfrMormon;  Anmhoblogrwydd  Mornioniaeth;  Arweinydd 
i  Seion;  Pa  beth  yw  Mormoniaeth?  Pa  beth  y w  gras  Cadwedigol?  Dadl 
ar  Mormoniaeth?  Anffyddiaeth  Sectyddiaeth;  Aniddiflyniad  rhag  Cam- 
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ion  Cyntaf  a  Gwahoddiadau;  Ai  duw  a  Ddanfonodd  Joseph  Smith; 
Llofruddiad  Joseph  a  Hyrum  Smith;  Tarddi:id  Llfyr  Mormon;  Danimeg 
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of  Mormonism.     Guernsey  (Chan.  Isles),  1848. 
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Kimball  (H.  C.)  and  Woodruff  (W.),  The  Word  of  our  Lord  to  the  Citizens 

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Utah  to  U.  S. ;  Speech  on  March  17,  1864,  on  Territories  and  Settlement 

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Kirchhoff  (Theodor),  Reisebilder  und  skissen  aus  Amerika.     New  York, 

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Llyfr  Mormon  (Wales),     n.d. 


Logan  (Utah),  Journal;  Leader. 

London  Monthly  Rev.,  new.  ser.,  iii.  1842,  vi.  1852. 

Lorenzara,  in  Cortes,  Hist.  Mex.,  325. 

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McGlashan  (C.  F.),  History  of  the  Donner  Party.  Truckee,  1879;  San 
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McLaughlin  (A.  C),  Mormonism  Measured  by  the  Gospel  Rule.  Covington 
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Memorial  of  Citizens  of  Salt  Lake  City,  March  31,  1870,  against  **Cullom" 
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Memorial  of  Legislative  Assembly  of  Utah.  Salt  Lake  City,  1882;  Washing- 
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Memorial  to  Congress.    Piano  (111.),  1870. 
Hist.  Uiak.    « 



Mendocino  (Cal.),  Democrat. 

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Millennial  Star.     Manchester,  1841;  Liverpool,  1842-54;  Liverpool  and  Lon- 
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(Iowa),  1846. 
Mines  of  Utah,  List  of.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882. 
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Der  Halbindianes.    Leipzig,  1861;    Das  Mormonmadchen.     Jena  and 

Leipzig,  1864. 
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^  Moore  (Aug.),  Pioneer  Experience.     MS. 

M  organ  ( J. ),  Doctrines  of  the  Church;  Plan  of  Salvation.     Salt  Lake  City,  n.d. 
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Morgan  (Wm  B.),  Mormonism  and  the  Bible.     London  and  Bristol,  n.d. 
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Mormon  Hymn-book.     Liverpool  and  London,  1851. 
Mormonism:  Additional  Articles  on  in  the  following  magazines:  All  the  Year 

Round,  X.  247;  Amer.  Bib.  Repos.,  2d  ser.,  ix.;  Amer.   Ch.   Rev.,  viii.; 

Amer.   Natur.,  ix.;  Bentley,  Miscel.,  xxxviii.   61;   Brit.   Quart.   Rev., 

xxiii.  62,  XXXV.,  cxxii.  450;  Chamb.   Jour.,  xxxvii.,  liii.    193;  Christ. 

Exam.,  liii.;  Christ.  Obser.,  Ixii.  183;  Christ.  Rememb.,  iv.  278,  xxxiii. 

257,  xlv.  185;  Colbum  Monthly,  cxiv.  239,  cxxi.  253,  cxxxvi.  369;  Cong. 

Mag.,  xxvii.  641;  De  Bow,  Com.  Rev.,  xvi.;  Dem.  Rev.,  xl.  184,  xliii. 

294;  Dub.  Rev.  xxxiii.   77;  Dub.  Univ.  Mag.,  xxi.  288,  Iviii.;  Eclec. 

Mag.,  xxi.  400,  xcvii.  773;  Eclec.  Rev.,  xcvi.  669,  xcviii.  479;  Edinb. 

Rev,,  xcix.;  Evan.  Rev.,  x. ;  Every  Sat.  xi.  291,  541;  Eraser  Mag.,  Ixxxiii., 

Ixxxiv.;  Galaxy,  ii.,  iv.,  xiv.  677,  822;  Gent.  Mag.,  new  ser.,  vii.  xxv.; 

Hogg,  Instruc,  viii.  107,  321;  Hours  at  Home,  i. ;  Lakeside  Monthly,  i.; 

Lippincott,  Mag.,  vi.  41;  Littell,  Liv.  Age,  xxx.  429,  xlii.  99,  147,  xlix. 

002,  1.  429,  Ivi.  494,  Ixxviii.  124,  2d  ser.,  xx.;  Id.,  Mus.  For.  Lit.,  xlii., 

xlv.;  Lond.  Quart.  Rev.,  ii.  95,  xviii.  351;  Meth.  Quart.,  iii.;  Monthly 

Rev.,  clix.  190;  Museum  For.  Lit.,  xlii.  370;  Natl.  Mag.,  iv.,  v.;  Natl. 

Quart.  Rev.,  xxxix. ;   New  Englander,  xii. ;  New  Quart.  Rev. ,  i v. ;  No. 

Brit.  Rev.,  xxxix.  207,  485;  Penn.  Monthly,  ii.;  Potter,  Amer.  Monthly, 

xvii.  298;  Presbt.  Rev.,  ii.;  Princeton  Rev.,  xxiv.;  Putnam  Mag.,  v.  641, 

vi.  144,  602;  Sharpe,  London  Mag.,  xx.  55,  1.  29;  South.  Lit.  Messen., 

X.  526,  xiv.  641,  xvii.  170;  South.  Rev.,  new  ser.,  xx.  438;  Tait,  Edinb. 

Mag.,  xxiv.  763;  Temp.  Bar,  iv.  181;  U.  S.  Cath.  Mag.,  iv.  354;  U.  S. 

Westm.  Ixxxvii.  401;  Westminst.  Rev.,  lix.,  Ixxvi.  360,  Ixxxvii. 
Mormonism.     Cuttack  (Ind.),  1855. 
Moi-monism  Examined,  etc.     Birmingham,  1855. 
Mormonism,  Its  Character,  Origin,  and  Tendency,     n.d. 
Mormonism.     London,  n.d. 

Mormonism  or  the  Bible,  etc.     Cambridge  and  London,  1852. 
Mormonism,  Past  and  Present.     Nor.  Brit.  Review,  Aug.  1863. 


Mormonism  Self -refuted  (by  D.  K.)    London,  n.d, 

Mormonism  Unveiled.     Calcutta,  1852. 

Mormonism  Unveiled,  etc.     London,  1855. 

Mormonism  Unveiled,  Life  and  Confessions  of  John  D.  Lee.     St  Louis,  1877. 

Mormonismen  och  Swedenborgianismen.     Upsala,  1854. 

Mormon  Pamphlets.     A  collection  of  thirteen  brochures  referred  to  by  titles. 
. — A  Mormon  Politics  and  Policy  in  San  Bernardino  Co.,  Cal.     Los  Angeles,  1856. 

Mormons  Bog.     n.d. 

Mormons  (The),  History  of  their  Leading  Men,  in  Phren.  Jour.,  Nov.  1866. 

Mormons  (The),  in  Utah.     Bentley's  Miscel.,  Jan.  1855. 

Mormons  (The).     London,  1851,  1852. 

Mormons:  their  Politics  and  Policy.     Los  Angeles,  1856. 

Mormon's  Wife  (The),  in  Putnam's  Monthly,  June  1855. 

Mormon  Women  in  Mass  Meeting.     Salt  Lake  City,  Nov.  16,  1878. 

Morris  (Annie),  A  Week  among  the  Mormons.     Lipp.  Mag.,  July  1870. 

Morrish  (W.  J.),  Latter-day  Saints  and  Book  of  Mormon.  Ledbury  (Eng..), 

Morse,  Washington  Territory.     MS. 

Mota-Padilla,  Conq.  N.  Gal.,  iii.  14,  158-69. 

Mountain  Meadows  Massacre.     Trial  of  JohnD.  Lee.     Salt  Lake  City,  1875. 

Mountain  of  the  Lord's  House.     Piano  (111. ) 

Muhlenpfordt  (E.),  Versuch  einer  getreuen  Schilder.  Eepub.  Mex.     Hano- 
ver, 1844.   3  vols. 
_^  MulhoUand  (James),  An  Address  to  Americans.     Nauvoo,  1841. 
,^*^Murdock  (John),  Persecutions  of  the  Latter-day  Saints,  etc.;  Sydney  (Aus- 
tralia), 1852;  Zion's  Watchman.    Sydney,  1852. 

Murphy  (J.  R.),  Mineral  Resour.  of  Utah.     San  Francisco,  1872. 

Murray  (Eli  H.),  Message  to  the  Legislative  Assembly,  1884;  Remarks  on  tbe 
Way  out  of  the  Difficulty.     MS. 

Musser  (A.  M.),  Defence  of  our  People.  Philadelphia,  1877;  Fruits  of  Mor- 
monism.    Salt  Lake  City,  1878. 

Napa  County  Reporter. 

Narrative  of  Some  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Mormons.    n.d. 

Narrative  of  the  Massacre  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith.     (Anon.)  n.d. 

Natl.  Almanac.     Phila.,  San  Francisco,  London,  and  Paris,  1863  et  seq. 

Natl.  Democ.  Quart.  Rev.     Washington,  1859  et  seq., 

Nauvoo  (111.),  Ensign  and  Zarahemla  Standard;  L'Etoile  du  Deseret;  Ex- 
positor; Neighbor;  Patriot;  Wasp. 

Nebeker  (John),  Early  Justice.     MS. 

Neill  (E.  D.),  in  Hist.  Mag.,  xvi.  68. 

Nelson's  Picture  Guide  Books.     New  York,  n.d. 

Nevada  (Cal.),  Journal 

Nevada,  Journals  of  Assembly  and  Senate,  1864  et  seq 

Nevers,  Nevada  Pioneers.     MS. 

New  Amer.,  in  All  the  Year  Round,  xvii.  1867. 

New  Amer.  Religions,  in  Lond.  Quart.  Rev.,  cxxii.  1867. 

Newman  (J.  P.),  A  Sermon  with  an  Answer  by  0.  Pratt.  Salt  Lake  City, 

New  Orleans  Picayune. 

Newspapers  of  Utah  and  other  territories  of  the  Pacific  U.  S.,  etc.  Tlie 
most  important  are  cited  under  the  name  of  the  town  where  published, 
and  many  of  them  named  in  this  list. 

New  York  Courier  and  Enquirer;  Herald;  Mail;  Mormon  Intelligence;  Ob- 
server; Prophet;  Sun;  Times;  Wall  St  Journal. 

Nicholay  (C.  G.),  Oregon  Territory.     London,  1846. 

Nicholson  (John),  Comprehensive  Salvation.  Liverpool,  1880;  The  Latter- 
day  Prophet.  Salt  Lake  City,  n.d.;  The  Means  of  Escape.  Liverpool, 
1878;  The  Modem  Prophet;  The  Preceptor.     Salt  Lake  City,  1883. 

Nickerson  (Freeman),  Death  of  the  Prophet.     Boston,  1844. 


Nidever,  Life  and  Adv.     MS. 

Niles'  Register,  Baltimore,  etc.,  1847  et  seq. 

Nineteenth  Century.     London,  1884. 

Nordoflf  (Chas),  California  for  Health,  Pleasure,  etc.     New  York,  1873. 

North  American  Review.     Boston,  1850  et  seq. 

Noticias,  in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  671-2. 

Nouvelles  Annales  des  Voyages.     Paris,  1847  et  seq. 

Oakland  Monthly  Review;  Tribune. 

O'Bit  0  Tauk  between  Two  Berry  Chaps  obeawt  th'  Latter-day  Saints,  etc 

Bury  (Eng.),  1848. 
Observations  in  Utah.     MS. 

Ogden  (Utah),   Freeman;  Herald;  Junction;  Times. 
Olive  Branch.     Kirtland  (0.),  and  Springfield  (111.),  1848-50. 
Olshausen  (Theodor),  Geschichte  der  Mormonen,  etc.     Gottingen,  1856. 
01ympia(Wash.),  Pioneer  and  Democrat;  Puget  Sound  Courier;  Puget  Sound 

Herald;    Washington  Standard. 
Omaha  (Neb.),  New  West,  Republican. 
Onderdonk  (J.  L.),  in  Nat.  Quart.  Rev.,  xxxix.  80. 
Ontario  Mining  Company,  Report,  1881-3. 

Origin  and  History  of  the  Mormonites,  in  Eclectic  Mag.,  Nov.  1850. 
Origin  of  the  Morm.  Imposture,  in  Littell's  Liv.  Age,  xxx.  1851. 
Orr  (Adrian),  Mormonism  Dissected.     Bethania  (Pa.),  1841. 
Overland  Monthly.     San  Francisco,  1868  et  seq. 
Oviedo,  iv.  19. 
Oxford,  Idaho  Enterprise. 

-"^Pacific  Railroad  Reports.     Washington,  1855-60.     13  vols. 

Paddock  (Cornelia),  Fate  of  Madame  La  Tour.    New  York,  1881;  In  the 
Toils,  etc.     Chicago,  1879. 

,    Page  (John  E.),  The  Spauldmg  Story,  etc.,  Exposed.     Piano  (111.),  1866. 

-i  Palmer  (Joel),  Journal  of  Travels  over  the  Rocky  Mountains,  1845-6.     Cin- 
cinnati, 1852. 

-  ■  Palmer  ( W.),  Mormonism  Briefly  Examined.    London,  n.d. 

Palou,  Not.,  ii.  281-2. 
Panama,  Star  and  Herald. 
V     Park  (J.  R.),  Educational  Affairs  in  Utah.     MS. 
'  Parker  (Samuel),  Journey  beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains.    Ithaca  (N.  Y.), 
etc.,  1840,  1842,  1846. 
Parry  (C.  C),  in  Amer.  Natural.,  ix.  14-346. 
Parry  (J.  H.),  The  Mormon  Metropolis.     Salt  Lake  City,  1883. 
Parsons  (T.),  Mormon  Fanaticism  Exposed.     Boston,  1841. 
Patterson  (R.),  History  of  Washington  County,  Pa.     Philadelphia,  1882. 
Patterson  (Robt),  Who  Wrote  the  Book  of  Mormon?    Philadelphia,  1882. 
Pearl  of  Great  Price.     Salt  Lake  City,  1878. 
Peck  (G.),  in  Meth.  Quart.,  iii.  111. 
Penrose  (C.  W.),  Mormon  Doctrine.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882. 

—  Perpetual  Emigrating  Fund.     MS. 

Petaluma  (Cal.),  Argus;  Crescent;  Journal  and  Argus. 
Peters  (De  W.  C. ),  Life  and  Adventures  of  Kit  Carson.    New  York,  1859. 
Phelps  (W.  W.),  Deseret  Almanac,  1851  et  seq. 
Philadelphia  (Pa),  Gospel  Reflector. 
Philip  Harry,  in  Simpson's  Explor.,  490. 

Pierrepont  (Edward),  Fifth  Avenue  to  Alaska.    N.  Y.  and  Lond.  1884. 
Pioche  (Nev.),  Record. 

Pittsburg  (Pa),  Baptist  Witness;  Latter-day  Saints  Messenger  and  Advocate. 
Placer  (Cal),  Herald;  Times. 

Placerville  (CaL),  Tri-weekly  Register,  June  24,  1858. 
Plam  Questions  for  Mormonites.    By  One  Who  Knows  They  are  not  Saints. 
Loudon,  1852. 


Piano  (111.),  True  Latter-day  Saints'  Herald;  Saints'  Advocate. 

Player-Frowd  (J.  G.),  Six  Months  in  California.     London,  1872. 

Political  Pamphlets.  A  collection  of  twenty  brochures  referred  to  by  title 
and  number.     Salt  Lake  City,  1879. 

Polygamy  and  Monogamy  Compared.  The  History  and  Philosophy  of  Mar- 
riage.    Boston,  1875. 

Popular  Science  Monthly.     New  York,  1872  et  seq. 

Portland  (Or.),  Bee;  Deutsch  Zeitung;  Herald;  Lantern;  Oregonian;  Stand- 

Port  Townsend  (Wash.),  Democratic  Press. 

Powell  (J.  W.),  Explor.  of  the  Colorado  Eiver  of  the  West.  Washington, 
1875;  Geol.  of  East.  Uinta  Mountains.  Wash.,  1876;  Geol.  Surv.  of 
Rocky  Mountains.  Wash.,  1877;  E,ept  on  Lands  of  Arid  Region.  Wash. , 

Pratt  (Belinda  Marden),  Defence  of  Polygamy  by  a  Lady  of  Utah.  Salt  Lake 
City,  1854.     Republished  in  Millennial  Star  of  July  29,  1854. 

Pratt  (Orson),  Remarkable  Visions.  Edinburgh,  1840;  Liverpool,  1848;  Ac- 
count of  Several  Remarkable  Visions.  New  York,  1841,  1842;  Was 
Joseph  Smith  Sent  of  God  ?  Liverpool,  1848;  Kingdom  of  God,  in  4  parts. 
Liverpool,  1848-9;  New  Jerusalem,  etc.  Liverpool,  1849;  Divine  Authen- 
ticity of  the  Book  of  Mormon.  6  nos.  Liverpool,  1850-1 ;  Reply  to  "  Re- 
marks on  Mormonism,"  etc.  Liverpool,  1849;  Reply  to  T.  W.  P.  Taylder. 
Liverpool,  1849;  Great  First  Cause,  etc.  Liverpool,  1851;  Twenty-four 
Miracles.  Liverpool,  1857;  Spiritual  Gifts.  Liverpool  and  London,  1857; 
Universal  Apostacy,  etc.  Liverpool,  1857;  The  Seer,  vol.  i.  12  numbers, 
ii.  8  numbers.  Washington,  1853  et  seq. ;  A  Series  of  Pamphlets  ou  Faith, 
Repentance,  Baptism,  Holy  Spirit,  Spiritual  Gifts,  etc.  Liverpool,  1851, 
1857;  Reply  to  Newman's  Sermon.  Salt  Lake  City,  1870;  Bible  and 
Polygamy.  Salt  Lake  City,  1877;  Cubic  and  Biquadratic  Equations. 
London  and  Liverpool,  1866;  Key  to  the  Universe.  London  and  Liver- 
pool, ( );  Salt  Lake  City,  1879;  Works,  A  Series  of  Pamphlets  on  the 

Doctrines  of  the  Gospel.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884. 

Pratt  (Orson)  and  Newman  (J.  P.),  Discussion  on  Polygamy.  Salt  Lake 
City,  Aug.  12-14,  1870. 

Pratt  (Orson),  Smith  (G.  A.),  and  Cannon  (G.  Q.),  Discourses  on  Celestial 
Marriage.     Salt  Lake  City,  Oct.  7,  1809. 

Pratt  (Parley  P.),  Journal  of  the  Elders  and  their  Missions.  Liverpool, 
1837-8;  The  Millennium  and  Other  Poems,  etc.  New  York,  1840;  Late 
Persecution.  New  York,  1840;  Appeal  to  the  Inhabitants  of  New  York 
State.  Nauvoo  (111.),  1841;  Letter  to  Queen  Victoria.  Manchester, 
1841;  Heaven  on  Earth.  Liverpool,  1841;  Voice  of  Warning  and  In- 
struction.    New  York,  1837;  Liverpool  ( );  London,  1854;  Salt  Lake 

City,  1874;  Mormon  Herald.  San  Francisco  (Cal.),  1855  et  seq.;  Voix 
d'Avertissement.  n.d.;  Fountain  of  Knowledge,  n.d.;  Intelligence  and 
Afifection.  n.d.;  Immortality  of  the  Body,  n.d.;  Priodas  a  Moesau  yu 
Utah  (Wales),  n.d.;  Key  to  the  Science  of  Theology.  Liverpool  and 
London,  1855;  Salt  Lake  City,  1874;  Marriage  and  Morals  m  Utah. 
Liverpool,  1856;  Autobiography.  New  York,  1874;  An  Address  to  tlie 
People  of  England,  etc.  Manchester,  1840;  Mormonism  Unveiled,  etc. 
New  York,  1838;  Proclamation,  etc.  Sydney  (N.  S.  W.),  1852;  Repent, 
Ye  People  of  California.  San  Francisco,  1854;  Scriptural  Evidences  in 
Favor  of  Polygamy.  San  Francisco,  1856;  The  Angel  of  the  Prairies. 
Salt  Lake  City,  1880;  Treatise  on  the  Regeneration  and  Eternal  Duration 
of  Matter.    New  York,  1840. 

Prescott  (Ariz.),  Miner. 

Price  (R.  L.),  The  Two  Americas.     Philadelphia,  1877. 

Prichard  (Jas  C),  Researches  into  the  Physical  History  of  Mankind.  Lon- 
don, 1836;  London,  1847.  5  vols. 

Prieto  (G.),  Viaje  a  los  Estados  Unidos.     Mexico,  1877-9.  3  vols. 

Prime  (E.  D.  G.),  Around  the  World.     New  York.  1872. 


Proclamation  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  etc.     N.  Y.  and  Liverpool,  1846. 

Prop'-wyd  y  JubQi.     Merthyr  Tydvil,  South  Wales. 

Provo  (Utah),  Enquirer;  Times. 

Putnam's  Mag;azine.     New  York,  1863  et  seq. 

Quigley  (Hugh),  The  Lrish  Race  in  California,  etc.     San  Francisco,  1878. 

Rae  (W.  F.),  Westward  by  Rail.     London,  1870. 

RafFensperger  (Mrs),  in  Scribner's  Jklonthly,  iii.  672. 

Ramusio,  Viaggi,  iii.  359-63. 

Randolph's  Oration,  313-14. 

Raymond  (Rossiter  W.),  Minmg  Industry  of  the  States  and  Territories  of 

the  Rocky  Mountains.     New  York,  1874;  Silver  and  Gold.    New  York, 

1873;  Statistics  of  Mines  and  Mining.     Washington,  1873. 
Reasons  Why  I  cannot  Become  a  Mormonite.     London,  n.d. 
Red  Bluflf  (Cal.),  Independent;  Sentinel. 
Reese  (J.),  Mormon  Station.     MS. 

Reid  (Mayne),  The  Mormon  Monsters,  in  Onward,  Nov.  1869. 
Rejection  of  the  Church.     Piano  (111.) 

Relacion  de  Castafieda.     Ternaux-Compans,  serie  i.  torn.  ix.  61-5. 
Religious  Pamphlets.     A  collection  of  25  pamphlets.     S.  L.  City,  1879. 
Remarks  on  Mormonism.     Glasgow  (Scot.),  n.d. 
Rem^,  Orientale  et  Americane.     n.d. 
Remonstrance  and  Resolutions  adopted  by  a  mass  meeting  of  the  citizens  of 

Utah  against  the  CuUom  Bill.     Salt  Lake  City,  1870. 
Remy  (Jules),  Voyage  au  pays  des  Mormons.     Paris,  1860.  2  vols. 
Remy  (Jules)  and  Julius  Brenchley,  A  Journey  to  Great  Salt  Lake  City. 

London,  1861.  2  vols. 
Reno  (Nev.),  Gazette;  State  Journal. 
Reorganization  of  the  Legislative  Power  of  Utah  Territory.     Minority  Report 

of  Committee  on  Territories.     Washington,  1884. 
■'Report  of  the  First  General  Festival  of  the  Renowned  Mormon  Battalion. 

Salt  Lake  City,  1855. 
Report  of  the  Grand  Jury,  1878. 
Report  of  Three  Nights'  Public  Discussion  in  Bolton  (Eng.),  etc.     Liverpool, 

Report  of  Utah  Commission.    Washington,  1884. 
Report  on  Governor's  Message.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882. 
Review  of  the  Opinion  of  the  U.  S.  Supreme  Court  in  Reynolds  vs  U.  S. 

Salt  Lake  City,  1878. 
Revised  Laws  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion.     Nauvoo,  1844. 
Revised  Ordinances  of  Provo  City.     Salt  Lake  City,  1877. 
R6voil,  Les  Harems  du  Nouveau  Monde.     Paris,  1856. 
Revue  des  Deux  Mondes.     Paris,  1839  et  seq. 
Revue  Orientale  et  Americaine.     Paris,  1859  et  seq. 
Reynolds  (George),  Are  We  of  Israel?    Salt  Lake  City,  1883;  Myth  of  the 

Manuscript  Found.     Salt  Lake  City,  1883;  The  Book  of  Abraham.    Salt 

Lake  City,  1879;  Plaintiff  in  Error  vs  U.  S.     n.d. 
Rhinehart  Memoranda.     MS. 
Ribas,  Hist.  Triumphos,  26-7. 

Richards  (Franklin  D.),  Bibliography  of  Utah.     MS.;  European  Emigra- 
tion to  Utah.     MS.;  Compendium  of  the  Faith  and  Doctrines  of  the 

Church,  etc.    Liverpool,  1857.    Narrative.    MS.;  Private  Journal.    MS.; 

The  Book  of  Mormon.     MS. ;  The  Pearl  of  Great  Price.     Liverpool,  1851 ; 

Revised.     Salt  Lake  City,  1878;  Tracts. 
Richards  (F.  D.)  and  Little  (James  A.),  Compendium  of  the  Doctrines  of  the 

Gospel.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882,  1884. 
Richards  (Franklin  S.),  Bennett,  Harkness,  and  Kirkpatrick,  Argument  on 

the  Elections  in  Utah.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884. 
Richards  (J.),  What  is  Mormonism?    Madras  (Hind.),  1853. 


Eicharda  (Mrs  F.  D.),  Reminiscences.     MS.;  The  Inner  Facts  of  Social  Lifo 

in  Utah.     MS. 
Richards  ( Willard),  Address  to  Chancellor  and  Regents  of  Deseret  University. 

Great  Salt  Lake  City,  April  17,  1850. 
Richardson  (A.  D.),  Beyond  the  Mississippi.     Hartford,  1867. 
Richardson  (D.),  Preexistence  of  Man,  etc.     n.d.;  Faith  of  the  Latter-day 

Richardson  (David  M.),  Address  to  Congress.     Detroit  (Mich.),  1882. 
Rise  and  Progress  of  the  Mormon  Faith  and  People,  in  South.  Ldt. 

Sept.  1844. 

Roberts  (C.  M.),  Politics  and  Religion.     MS. 
Robinson  (Phil.),  Sinners  and  Saints.     Boston,  1883. 
Rockwell  (0.  P.),  The  Destroying  Angels,  etc.     San  Francisco,  1878. 
Rockwood  (A.  P.),  Report  on  Zion  Coop.  Fish  Association.    S.  L.  City,  1878. 
Rodeubough  (Theo.  F. ),  From  Everglade  to  Canon  with  the  Second  Dragoons. 

New  York,  1875. 
RoUo  (J.  B.),  Mormonism  Exposed.     Edinburgh,  1841. 
Ross  (James)  and  George  Gary,  From  Wisconsin  to  CaL  and  Return.     Madi* 

son,  1869. 
Ruby  City  (Idaho),  Avalanche. 
Ruby  Hill  (Nev. ),  Mining  News. 

Rufiner  (E.  H.),  Report  of  Reconnais.  in  the  Ute  Country.     Wash.,  1876» 
Rules  and  Practice  of  the  District  Court,  etc.     Salt  Lake  City,  1868. 
Rusling  (Jas  F.),  Across  America.     New  York,  1874. 
Ruxton  (Geo.  F.),  Life  in  the  Far  West.    New  York,  1855. 

Sacramento  (Cal.),  Bee;  Record-Union;  Union. 

SafiFord  (A.  K.  P.),  Narrative.     MS. 

Saint  Abe  and  his  Seven  Wives.  A  Tale  of  Salt  Lake  City.  (Poem.)  Lon- 
don, 1872. 

Sala  (George  A.),  America  Revisited.    London,  1882.  2  vols. 

Salem  (Or  J,  Oregon  Argus;  Oregon  Statesman. 

Salmeron,  in  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  3d  ser.,  pt  iv.  7-9. 

Salt  Lake  City  (Utah),  Newspapers:  Anti-Polygamy  Standard;  Bii-kuben 
(Scandinavian);  Christian  Advocate;  City  Review;  College  Lantern;  Con- 
tributor; Deseret  News;  EducationalJoumal;  Footlights;  Grocer;  Her- 
ald; Independent;  Journal;  Juvenile  Instructor;  Leader;  Mail;  Miner; 
Monthly  Record;  Mormon  Expositor;  Mormon  Tribune;  Mountaineer; 
New  Endowment;  News;  Peep  o'  Day;  Press;  Real  Estate  Circular; 
Rocky  Mountain  Christian  Advocate;  Skandinav;  Telegraph;  Tribune; 
Union  Vidette;  Utah  Commercial;  Utah  Magazine;  Utah  Mining  Ga- 
zette; Utah  Mining  Journal;  Utah  Musical  Times;  Utah  Posten  (Danish); 
Utah  Reporter;  Utah  Review;  Valley  Tan;  Western  Magazine  (Utah 
ed.);  Woman's  Exponent. 

Salt  Lake  Fruit.     Boston,  1884. 

Samson  (G.  W. ),  in  Scribner's  Monthly,  iii.  1872. 

San  Bernadino  Guardian. 

San  Buenaventura  Ventura  Free  Press. 

San  Diego  News;  Union. 

San  Francisco  (Cal.),  Newspapers:  Abend  Post;  Alta  California;  Cal.  Chris- 
tian Advocate;  Cal.  Courier;  Cal.  Farmer;  Cal.  Mercantile  Journal;  Cal. 
Star;  Cal.  Teacher;  Call;  Chronicle;  Commercial  Herald  and  Market  Re- 
view; Despatch  and  Vanguard;  Echo  du  Pacifique;  Evening  Bulletin; 
Examiner;  Golden  Era;  Herald;  Mercantile  Gazette;  Mercantile  Journal; 
Mining  Review,  etc. ;  Mining  and  Scientific  Press;  Monitor;  News  Letter; 
Occident;  Pacific  Baptist;  Pacific  Churchman;  Pacific  News;  Pacific 
Observer;  Pacific  Rural  Press;  Picayune;  Pioneer;  Post;  Scientific  Press; 
Stock  Exchange;  Stock  Report;  Times;  Town  Talk;  Visitor;  Western 
Standard,  1856-8;  Wide  West. 

San  Jos6  (CaL),  Argus;  Mercury;  Pioneer;  Times. 


San  Luis  Obispo  Tribune.  T 

Santa  Barbara  Index. 

Santa  Cruz  Sentinel. 

Santa  Rosa  Times. 

Sargent  (A.  A.),  Speech  in  House  of  Rep.,  Feb.  23,  1870.     Washington,  1870. 

Saxon  (Isabella),  Five  Years  within  the  Golden  State.     Philadelphia,  1868. 

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Utah  Commission,  the  Edmunds  Act,  Reports  of  the  Commissioners,  Rules, 
Regulations,  etc.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884. 

Utah,  Constitution  of  the  State  of.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882. 

Utah,  County  Sketches  by  various  authors.     MS. 

Utah,  Election  Laws.     Salt  Lake  City.     n.d. 

Utah,  in  Beadle's  Monthly,  July  1866. 

Utah:  Its  Silver  Mines  and  Other  Resources,     n.d. 

Utah  Journals  of  Council  and  House,  1851  et  seq.,  together  with  the  other 
Public  Documents  printed  by  the  territory,  which  are  cited  in  my  notes 
by  their  titles  and  dates,  the  title  consisting  of  *  Utah, '  followed  by  one 
of  the  following  headings:  Act;  Adjutant  General's  Report;  Agricul- 
tural; Chancellor  of  University  Reports;  Corporations;  Council  and 
House  Bills,  County  Financial  Reports,  Deseret  Agric.  and  Manufac. 
Society;  Stat.  Reports;  Domestic  Relations;  Elections,  Fisheries;  Inaugural 
Addresses  of  Governors,  Messages  and  Documents;  Joint  Resolutions; 
liand  Acts;  Laws;  Memorials;  Militia;  Mines  and  Mining;  Political  Code; 
Revenue  Laws;  School  Law;  Secretary  of  Territory  Reports;  Superin- 
tendent of  District  Schools  Reports;  Territorial  Auditor  Reports;  Ter- 
ritorial Librarian  Reports;  Transportation;  Warden  of  Penitentiary 

Utah  Miscellany.     MS. 

Utah  Notes.     MS. 

Utah  Pamphlets,  Political,  containing  the  following:  Argument  before  Commr 
of  Inti  Revenue,  etc.;  Bates  (George  C),  Argument  in  Baker  habeas  cor- 
pus case;  Cannon  (Geo.  Q.),  Review  of  decision  of  U.  S.  Supreme  Court; 
Clagett  (Wm  H.),  Speech  against  admission  of  Utah  as  a  state;  Consti- 
tution of  State  of  Deseret  and  Memorial;  Cragin  (A.  H.),  Speech  on 
execution  of  laws  in  Utah;  Fitch  (Thos),  Speech  on  Utah  Bill;  Speech 
on  Land  Grants  and  Indian  Policy;  Speech  on  the  Utah  Problem;  Re- 
ply to  Memorial  of  Salt  Lake  Bar;  Hooper  (W.  H.),  Speech  against  the 
**Cullom  Bill;"  Reply  to  Clagett;  Kinney  (Jno.  F.),  Reply  to  Fernando 
Wood;  Laws  concerning  Naturalization,  etc. ;  Memorial  of  Citizens  of 
Salt  Lake  City;  Musser  (A.  M.),  Fruits  of  Mormonism;  Paine  (H.  E.), 
Argument  in  Contested  Election,  etc. ;  Review  of  Opinion  of  U.  S.  Su- 
preme Court  by  an  old  Lawyer;  Reynolds  (Geo,),  vs  U.  S.;  Snow  (Z.), 
(Terrtl  Atty.-Genl.),  Communication  to  Legislative  Assembly;  Commu- 
nication to  Terr.  House  of  Rep.;  Taylor  (John),  Interview  with  0.  J. 
HoUister,  etc. 

Utah  Pamphlets,  Religious,  containing  the  following:  Minutes  of  Special 
Conference  of  August  28,  1852,  at  Salt  Lake  City;  Extract  from  a  MS. 
entitled  The  Peace-maker;  Skelton  (Robt)  and  Meik  ( J.  P.),  A  Defence 
of  Mormonism;  Pratt  (0.),  Smith  (Geo.  A.),  and  Cannon  (Geo.  Q.),  Dis- 
courses on  Celestial  Marriage;  Hyde  (0.),  Sketch  of  Travels  and  Minis- 
try; Colfax  (S.),  The  Mormon  Question;  Taylor  (Jolm),  Reply  to  Colfax; 
Newman  (Rev.  Dr.),  A  Sermon  on  Plural  Marriage;  Pratt  (0.),  Reply 
to  Newman;  Zion's  Cooperative  Mercantile  Institution,  Constitution  and 
By-laws;  Utah  Central  R.  R.  Grants,  Rights  and  Privileges;  Smith 
(Geo.  A.),  Rise,  Progress,  and  Travels  of  the  Church,  etc.;  Young  (B.), 
The  Resurrection;  Circular  of  the  First  Presidency;  Death  and  Funeral 
of  Brigham  Young;  Young,  Sen.  (Joseph),  History  of  the  Organization 
of  the  Seventies;  Gibbs  (G.  F.),  Report  of  Convention  of  Mormon 
Women,  etc.;  The  Great  Proclamation,  etc.;  Good  Tidings,  etc.;  The 
Testimony  of  the  Great  Prophet;  The  Great  Contrast;  Death  of  the 
Prophets  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith;  Smith  (Jos),  Pearl  of  Great  Price; 
Reynolds  (Geo.),  Book  of  Abraham. 

Utah.     Perpetual  Emigration  Fund.     MS. 

Utah  Pioneers,  Anniversary  Meetings;  Proceedings  33d  Anniversary,  Salt 
Lake  City,  1880. 

Utah,  Speeches  on  the  Edmunds  Bill. 

Utah  Tracts,  A  collection  of  eleven  pamphlets  cited  by  titles  and  dates. 
Salt  Lake  City,  1879. 


Vancouver  (Wash.),  Register. 

Van  Deusen  (Increase  and  Maria),  Hidden  Orgies  of  Mormonism.  Notting- 
ham (Eng.),  n.d.;  Spiritual  Delusions.  New  York,  1855;  Startling 
Disclosures  of  the  Great  Mormon  Conspiracy.  New  York,  1849;  Sub- 
lime and  Ridiculous  Blended.     New  York,  1848. 

Van  Dyke  (Walter),  Recollections  of  Utah.     MS. 

Van  Sickles  (H.),  Utah  Desperadoes. 

Van  Tramp  (John  C),  Prairies  and  Rocky  Mountains.    St  Louis,  1860. 

Venegas,  Not.  Cal.,  i.  167-9. 

Vest,  Morgan,  Call,  Brown,  Pendleton,  and  Lamar,  in  U.  S.  Senate.  Salt 
Lake  City,  1882. 

Vetromile  (Eugene),  Tour  in  Both  Hemispheres.     New  York,  etc.,  1880. 

Victor  (Frances  F.),  All  Over  Otegon  and  Washington.  San  Francisco,  1872; 
River  of  the  West.     Hartford,  1870. 

"  Vidette"  (The  Union).     Camp  Douglas  and  Salt  Lake  City,  1864  to  1867. 

Villagra,  Hist.  N.  Mex.,  19  et  seq. 

Virginia  (Mont.),  Madisonian. 

Virginia  and  Helena  (Mont. ),  Post. 

Virginia  City  (Nov.),  Chronicle;  Territorial  Enterprise. 

Visit  of  the  Wyoming  Legislature  to  Utah.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884. 

Visit  to  the  Crazy  Swede.     MS. 

Visit  to  the  Mormons,  in  Westmin.  Rev.,  Oct.  1861. 

Voice  from  the  West,  etc. ;  History  of  the  Morrisites.     San  Francisco,  1879. 

Voice  of  the  Good  Shepard.     Piano  (111.) 

Wads  worth  (W.),  National  Wagon-road  Guide.     San  IVancisco,  1858. 
Waite  (C.   B.),  The  Western  Monthly.     Salt  Lake  City,  1869  et  seq.;  in 

Lakeside,  i.  290. 
Waite  (Mrs  C.  V.),  Adventures  in  the  Far  West,  etc.     Chicago,  1882;  The 

Mormon  Prophet  and  his  Harem.     Chicago,  1857;  Cambridge,  1866. 
Walker  (W.),  Industrial  Progress  and  Prospects  of  Utah.     MS. 
Walla  Walla  (Wash.),  Statesman. 
Wandell  (C.  W),  History  of  the  Persecutions  Endured  by  the  Church,  etc. 

Sidney  (N.  S.  W.),  1852;  Reply  to  ♦'Shall  we  Believe  in  Mormon?" 

Sidney  (N.  S.  W.),  1852. 
Ward  (Austin  N.),  Husband  in  Utah.     New  York,  1857;  Male  Life  among 

the  Mormons.     Philadelphia,  1863. 
Ward  (J.  H.),  Gospel  Philosophy.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884;  The  Hand  of  Provi- 

dence.     Salt  Lake  City,  1883. 
Ward  (Maria),  Female  Life  among  the  Mormons.     New  York,  1855;  The 

Mormon  Wife,  etc.     Hartford,  1873. 
Warner,  Rem.     MS.,  21-9. 

Warren  (G.  K.),  Preliminary  Report,  etc.     Washington,  1875. 
Warsaw  (111.),  Signal. 
Washington  (D.  C),  Natl  Intelligencer;  Seer;  Star. 

Waters  ( ),  Life  among  the  Mormo^.s.    New  York,  1868, 

Watsonville  (Cal.),  Pajaronian;  Pajaro  Times. 

Way  to  End  the  Mormon  War,  in  Littell's  Liv.  Age,  2d  ser.,  xx.  1858. 

Webster  (Thomas),  Extracts  from  the  Doctrine  and  Covenants.     Preston 

(Eng.),  n.d. 
Wedderbum  (D.),  Mormonism  from  a  Mormon  Point  of  View,  in  Fortnightly 

Rev.,  1876;  Pop.  Scien.  Monthly,  x.  156. 
Weightman  (Hugh),  Mormonism  Exposed;  The  Other  Side.     Salt  Lake  City, 

Weiser  (R.),  in  Evang.  Rev.,  x.  80. 
Wells(D.H.),  Journal.     MS. 
Wells  (E.  B.)  and  Williams  (Z.  Y.),  Memorial  to  U.  S.  Congress.    Waahina- 

ton,  1879. 
Wells  (J.  P.),  The  Contributor,  A  Monthly  Magazine,    Salt  Lake  City,  Oct. 

1879  et  eeq. 


Wells  (Saimiel  R.)»  T^e  Mornion  Question,  in  Phren.  Jour.,  Dec  1871;  Oxir 
Visit  to  Salt  Lake  City,  in  Id.,  Dec.  1870. 

Wentworth,  Great  West. 

West  (P.  R.),  The  Brewing  Business.     MS. 

Westbrook  (G.  W. ),  Appendix  to  Hunt's  Mormonism,  St  Louis,  1844j  The 
Mormons  in  Illinois.     St  Louis,  1844. 

West  Coast  Reporter,  iv.  415. 

Westmins.  Rev.,  lix.  196. 

Whatcom  (Wash.),  Bellingham  Bay  Mail. 
.  White  (F.  P. ),  Cattle  Raising  and  Grazing.     MS. 

Whitney  (H.j,  Journal.     MS. 

Whitney  (H.  M.),  Plural  Marriage.     Salt  Lake  City,  1882. 

Whittier  (J.  G.),  in  Howitt,  Journal,  ii.  157;  Littell's  Liv.  Age,  xv.  461. 

Why  We  Practise  Plural  Marriage.     Salt  Lake  City,  1884. 
Wight  (Lyman),  Abridged  Account  of  my  Life.     n.d. 
-Wiilard  (Emma),  Last  Leaves  of  American  History.     New  York,  1853. 

Willes  (W.),  What  is  Mormonism ?  Calcutta,  n.d.;  The  Mountain  Warbler. 
Salt  Lake  City.  1872. 

Williams  (H.  T.),  Pacific  Tourist.     New  York,  1876. 

Williams  (S.),  Mormonism  Exposed.     1842. 

Willmore  (Benj.),  Mormonism  Unmasked.     West  Bromwich  (Eng.),  1855. 

VV^inchester  (Benj.),  A  History  of  the  Priesthood.  Philadelphia,  1843;  Ori- 
gin of  the  Spaulding  Story.  Philadelphia,  1840;  Synopsis  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  etc.     Philadelphia,  1842. 

Winnemucca  (Nev. ),  Silver  State. 

With  the  False  Prophet,  in  Scrib.  Monthly,  iii.  1872. 

Wolfe  (J.  M.),  Gazetteer.     Omaha,  1878. 

Woodruf  (W.)  and  Richards  (F.  D.),  Historial  Events  of  Mormonism.    MS, 

Woodruff  (Phebe  W. ),  Autobiog.  Sketch.     MS. 

Woodruff  (W.),  Leaves  from  my  Journal.  Salt  Lake  City,  1881,  1882;  Over- 
land to  Utah.     MS. ;  Private  Journal.     MS. 

Woods  (0.  L.),  Recollections.     MS. 

Worthington  (G.  J.),  The  Woman  in  Battle,  etc.     Hartford,  1876. 

Wray  (G.  W.),  Mormonism  Exhibited  in  its  Own  Minor.  Middlesbrough 
(Eng.),  1854. 

Yankee  Mahomet  (The),  in  Amer.  Whig  Rev.,  June  1851. 

Year  of  Jubilee,  etc.     Salt  Lake  City,  1880. 

Young  (Ann  Eliza),  Wife  No.  19,  etc.     Hartford,  1876. 

Young  (Brigham),  Resurrection:  A  Discourse.     Salt  Lake  City,  1875;  Death 

of,  etc.     Salt  Lake  City,  1877;  History  and  Private  Journal.     MS. 
Young  (Brigham)  and  Others,  Circular  of  the  First  Presidency,  etc.     Salt 

Lake  City,  July  11, 1877;  Journal  of  Discourses.     Liverpool  and  London, 

1854  et  seq. 
Young  (L.),  Early  Experiences.     MS. 

Young  (Mrs  C.  D.),  A  Woman's  Experiences  with  the  Pioneer  Band.     MS. 
Young,  Sen.  (Jos),  Organization  of  the  Seventies,  etc.     Salt  Lake  City,  1878. 
Y  Perlo  FaMT  Bris.     n.d.  (Wales). 

Yr  Curgrawn  Ysgrythyrol.     Merthyr  Tydvil,  South  Wales. 
Yuma  (Arizona),  Sentinel. 

Zabriskie  (Jas  C),  Public  Land  Laws  of  the  U.  S.     San  Francisco,  1870. 

Zion's  Cooperative  Mercantile  Institution;  Constitution,  By-Laws,  and  Arti- 
cles of  Incorporation.  S.  L.  City,  1870.  MS. ;  Argument  before  U.  S. 
Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue.  S.  L.  City,  1878;  Mercantile  and 
Manufacturing  Establishments.  S.  L.  City,  1884;  Semi-annual  State- 
ment.    S.  L.  City,  1880;  Wholesale  Price  List.     S.  L.  City,  1880. 

Zion's  Watchman  (Australia  and  New  Zealand). 






Pbancisco  Vazquez  de  Coronado  at  Cibola — ^Expedition  of  Pedro  dk 
ToBAR  and  Father  Jtjan  de  Padilla — They  Hear  of  a  Large 
RrvER — GarcI A  Lopez  de  Cardenas  Sent  in  Search  of  It — The  First 
Europeans  to  Approach  Utah — Route  of  Cardenas — Mythical 
Maps — Part  of  the  Northern  Mystery — Journey  of  Dominguez 
AND  Escalantk — The  Course  They  Followed — The  Rivers  They 
Crossed — The  Comanches— Region  of  the  Great  Lakes— Rivers 
Timpanogos,  San  Buenaventura,  and  Others — The  Country  op 
the  Yutas — Route  from  Santa  Fe  to  Monterey — The  Friars  Talk 
OF  the  Lake  Country — Return  op  the  Spaniards  to  Zuni  and 
March  to  Santa  Fe. 

As  Francisco  Vazquez  de  Coronado  was  journeying 
from  Culiacan  to  the  north  and  east  in  1540,  he  rested 
at  Cibola,  that  is  to  say  Zuni,  and  while  waiting  for 
the  main  army  to  come  forward,  expeditions  were  sent 
out  in  various  directions.  One  of  these,  consisting 
of  twenty  men  under  Pedro  de  Tobar,  and  attended 
by  Father  Juan  de  Padilla,  proceeded  north-westward, 
and  after  five  days  reached  Tusayan,  or  the  Moqui 
villages,  which  were  quickly  captured.  Among  other 
matters  of  interest,  information  was  here  given  of  a 
large  river  yet  farther  north,  the  people  who  lived 
upon  its  banks  being  likewise  very  large. 

Returning  to  Cibola,  Tobar  reported  what  had  been 
said  concerning  this  river;  whereupon  Captain  Garcia 
Lopez  de  Cardenas  was  sent  with  twelve  men  to 
explore  it,   Pedro    de   Sotomayor  accompanying  to 

*:;^'^'o?  xm 


chronicle  the  expedition.  Obtaining  at  Tusayan,  where 
he  was  well  received,  guides  and  carriers,  with  an 
ample  supply  of  provisions,  Cardenas  marched  for 
twenty  days,  probably  in  a  north-westerly  direction,^ 

^  I  say  probably,  though  in  my  own  mind  there  is  little  doubt.  The  Span- 
iards were  exploring  northward.  They  had  lately  traversed  the  region  to 
their  south-west,  and  instead  of  wishing  to  retrace  their  steps  they  would  be 
likely  to  keep  up  well  away  from  their  former  track.  It  is  true  that  one  nar- 
rative gives  the  direction  as  west;  but  then  the  same  writer  places  Tusan,  or 
Tusayan,  west  of  Cibola,  which  if  the  latter  be  Zuni,  and  the  former  Moqui, 
is  incorrect.  Then,  if  their  direction  from  the  Moqui  towns  was  the  same 
as  this  writer  declares  it  to  have  been  in  travelling  to  that  place,  the 
Spaniards  at  this  time  certainly  struck  the  Colorado  within  the  limits  of  the 
present  Utah.  Escalante,  Carta  de  28  Oct.  1775,  MS.,  placed  Moqui  west 
of  Zuni,  but  a  little  north  of  west,  with  the  Yutas  their  neighbor  on  the 
north.  It  is  sufficiently  plain  that  Cibola  was  Zuni,  and  Tusayan  Moqui, 
and  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  latter  is  in  a  north-westerly  direction  from  the 
former.  That  they  went  due  west  and  crossed  the  Little  Colorado  without 
any  mention  of  that  stream  is  not  likely;  because,  first,  it  is  not  twenty  days 
distant  from  the  Moquis,  and  the  stream  when  reached  does  not  answer  to 
their  description.  It  was  the  great  river  they  wished  to  find,  and  a  north- 
west course  would  be  the  most  direct.  Further  than  this,  it  is  stated  plainly 
that  the  point  at  which  they  discovered  the  river  was  much  nearer  its  source 
than  where  the  Spaniards  had  previously  seen  it.  Upon  the  direction  then 
taken  hangs  the  question  as  to  the  first  Europeans  to  enter  Utah.  I  deem  the 
matter  of  sufficient  importance  to  give  both  the  originals  and  the  translations 
of  two  of  the  most  complete  and  reliable  narratives  of  the  expedition.  The 
tirst  and  fullest  we  find  in  the  Relation  de  Castaneda  of  Coronado's  expedi- 
tion, Ternaux-Compans,  serie  i.  tom.  ix.  61-5,  which  reads  as  follows: 

'  Comme  don  P6dro  de  Tobar  avait  rempli  sa  mission,  il  revint  sur  ses  pas 
et  rendit  compte  au  g^n^ral  de  ce  qu'il  avait  vu.  Celui-ci  fit  partir  sur-le- 
champ  don  Garci-Lopez  de  Cardenas  et  douze  autres  personnes  pour  a\\er 
visiter  cette  riviere ;  cet  officier  fut  tr6s-bien  re^u  et  parfaitement  traits  par 
les  indiens  de  Tusayan,  qui  lui  donn^rent  des  guides  pour  continuer  sa  route. 
Nos  soldats  partirent  chargds  de  vivres,  les  indiens  les  ayant  avertis  qu'il 
fallait  traverser  un  desert  de  vingt  journees  de  long  avant  d'entrer  dans  un 
pays  habits.  Apr^s  ces  vingt  journees  de  marche  ils  arrivdrent  en  efFet  ^ 
cette  riviere,  dont  les  bords  sont  tellement  6lev63  qu'ils  croyaient  6tre  h  trois 
ou  quatre  lieues  en  Fair.  Le  pays  est  convert  de  pins  bas  et  rabougris;  il  est 
expose  au  nord,  et  le  froid  y  est  si  violent,  que,  quoique  Ton  ffit  en  6te,  ou 
pouvait  k  peine  le  supporter.  Les  Espagnols  march6rent  pendant  trois  jours 
le  long  de  ces  montagnes,  esp^raiit  tou jours  trouver  une  descente  pour  arriver 
k  la  riviere  qui,  d'en  haut,  ne  paraissait  pas  avoir  plus  d'une  brasse  de  large, 
et  qui,  selon  les  Indiens,  avait  plus  d'une  demi-lieue;  mais  il  fut  impossible 
de  s'y  rendre.  Etant  parvenus  deux  ou  trois  jours  apr6s  dans  un  cndroit  oil 
la  descente  leur  parut  plus  facile,  le  capitaine  Melgosa,  Juan  Galeras  et  un 
soldat  qui  6taient  les  plus  lagers  de  la  bande,  r^solurent  de  faire  une  tenta- 
tive, lis  descendirent  jusqu'^  ce  que  ceux  qui  dtaient  rest^s  en  haut  les 
eussent  perdus  de  ven.  lis  revinrent  vers  les  quatre  heures  du  soir,  disant 
qu'ils  avaient  trouve  tant  de  difficultds,  qu'ils  n'avaient  pu  arriver  jusqu'en 
bas ;  car  ce  qui  d'en  haut  semblait  facile,  ne  I'^tait  pas  du  tout  quand  on 
approchait.  lis  ajoutferent  qu'ils  6taient  parvenus  h  environ  un  tiers  de  la 
descente,  et  que  de  1^,  la  riviere  paraissait  dej^  tr6s  grande,  ce  qui  confirmait 
CO  que  les  indiens  avaient  dit.  lis  assur6reut  que  quelques  rochers  que  I'ou 
voyait  d'en  haut,  et  qui  paraissait  h.  peine  de  la  hauteur  d'un  homme  (5taient 
plus  hauts  que  la  tour  de  la  cath^drale  dc  Seville.     Les  Espagnols  cess6rent 


through  a  desert  country  until  he  discovered  the  river, 
but  from  such  high  banks  that  he  could  not  reach  it. 
It  was  the  river  called  the  Tizon,  and  it  flowed  from 
the  north-east  toward  the  south-west.  It  seemed  to 
the  Spaniards  when  they  first  descried  it  that  they 
were  on  mountains  through  w^hich  the  river  had  cut 

de  suivre  les  rochers  qui  bordeiit  la  riviere,  parce  qu'on  y  manquait  d'ean. 
Jusque-lk  ils  avaient  ^t^  obliges  chaque  soir  de  s'avancer  une  lieue  ou  deux 
dans  I'int^rieur  pour  en  trouver.  Quand  ils  eurent  marche  pendant  trois  ou 
quatre  jours,  les  guides  leur  d6clar6rent  qu'il  6tait  impossible  d'aller  plus 
loin,  qu'on  ne  trouverait  pas  d'eau  de  quatre  jours ;  que  quand  les  Indieua 
passaient  cette  route,  ils  emmenaient  avec  eux  des  femmes  charg^es  de  cale- 
basses  remplies  d'eau,  et  qu'ils  en  enterraient  une  partie  pour  les  retrouyei 
au  retour;  que  d'ailleurs  ils  parcouraient  en  un  jour  autant  de  chemin  que 
les  Espagnols  en  deux.  Cette  riviere  6tait  eelle  del  Tizon.  On  arriva  beau- 
coup  plus  pr6s  de  sa  source  que  de  I'endroit  oii  Melchior  Diaz  et  ses  gens 
I'avaient  travers^e,  et  Ton  sut  plus  tard  que  les  Indiens  dont  on  avait  parl^ 
^taient  de  la  menie  nation  que  ceux  que  Diaz  avait  vus.  Les  Espagnob 
revinrent  done  sur  leurs  pas,  et  cette  expedition  n'eut  pas  d'autre  rdsultat. 
.Vendaut  la  marche,  ils  arriv6rent  k  une  cascade  qui  tombait  d'un  rociier, 
Les  guides  dirent  que  les  cristaux  blancs  qui  pendaient  k  I'entour  6taient  du 
seL  On  en  recueillit  une  quantity  que  I'on  emporta,  et  qu'on  distribua  a 
Cibola,  oil  Ton  rendit  compte  par  6crit  au  g6n6ral  de  tout  ce  que  Ton  avaii 
vu.  Garci-Lopez  avait  emmen6  avec  lui  un  certain  P^dro  de  Sotomayor,  qur 
otait  chroniqueur  de  Texp^dition.  Tons  les  villages  de  cette  province  sont 
restds  nos  allies,  mais  on  ne  les  a  pas  visit^s  depuis,  et  Ton  n'a  tent6  aucune 
d6couverte  de  ce  cot^. ' 

As  soon  as  Don  P^dro  de  Tobar  had  fulfilled  his  mission,  he  returned  and 
gave  the  general  an  account  of  what  he  had  seen.  The  latter  immediately 
ordered  Don  Garci-Lopez  de  Cdrdenas,  and  12  other  persons,  to  go  and  visit 
that  river;  this  officer  was  well  received  and  politely  treated  by  the  Indiana 
of  Tusayan,  who  furnished  him  with  guides  to  continue  his  journey.  Our 
soldiers  departed  loaded  with  provisions,  the  Indians  having  notified  them 
that  it  was  necessary  to  travel  20  days  through  a  desert  before  entering  any 
inhabited  country.  After  this  20  days'  march,  they  arrived  at  that  river 
whose  banks  are  of  such  a  height  that  it  seemed  to  them  that  they  were  three 
or  four  leagues  up  in  the  air.  The  country  is  covered  with  low  and  stunted 
pines,  exposed  to  the  north,  and  the  cold  is  so  violent  that,  although  it  w^s 
summer,  one  could  hardly  endure  it.  The  Spaniards  during  three  days 
skirted  those  mountains,  always  in  the  hope  of  finding  a  descent  to  reach  the 
river,  which  from  above  appeared  to  be  no  more  than  a  fathom  in  width,  and 
which,  according  to  the  Lidians,  was  more  than  half  a  league  wide;  but  all 
their  efforts  were  vain.  Two  or  three  days  later,  they  arrived  at  a  place 
where  the  descent  seemed  easier;  Captain  Melgosa  Juan  Galeras  and  a 
soldier  who  were  the  lightest  men  of  the  band,  resolved  to  make  an  attempt. 
They  descended  until  those  who  had  remained  on  the  top  had  lost  sight  of 
them.  They  returned  at  about  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  saying  they  had 
found  so  many  difficulties  that  they  could  not  reach  the  bottom;  for,  what 
seemed  easy  from  above  was  not  at  all  so  when  approaching  the  water.  They 
added  that  they  came  down  about  one  third  of  the  descent,  and  that  even 
from  there  the  river  seemed  very  large.  This  statement  confirmed  what 
the  Indians  had  said.  The  three  men  affirmed  that  some  rocks  seen  from 
above  and  which  appeared  to  be  of  the  height  of  a  man,  were  higher  than 
the  tower  of  the  cathedral  of  Seville.  The  Spaniards  stopped  following  the 
rocks  that  bordered  the  river  on  account  of  the  lack  of  water.  Until  then, 
they  had  been  obliged  to  advance  one  or  two  leagues  in  the  interior  to  iiud 


a  chasm  only  a  few  feet  wide,  but  which  if  they 
might  beheve  the  natives  was  half  a  league  across. 
In  vain  for  several  days,  with  their  faces  toward  the 
south  and  west,  they  sought  to  escape  from  the 
mountains  that  environed  them,  and  descend  to  the 
river,  for  they  were  suffering  from  thirst.     At  length 

some.  When  they  had  inarched  during  three  or  four  days,  the  guides  declared 
to  them  that  it  was  impossible  to  go  further,  that  water  would  not  be  found 
before  four  days;  that  when  the  Indians  travelled  on  this  road,  they  took 
with  them  women  who  carried  calabashes  filled  with  water,  and  they  buried 
a  certain  part,  so  that  they  might  find  it  when  returning;  and  besides  they 
made  in  one  day  as  many  miles  as  the  Spaniards  would  in  two.  This  was  the 
river  del  Tizon.  They  arrived  much  nearer  to  its  source  than  the  place 
where  Melchor  Diaz  and  his  people  had  crossed,  and  it  was  known  later  that 
th,e  Indians  spoken  of  belonged  to  the  same  nation  as  those  seen  by  Diaz. 
The  Spaniards  therefore  came  back,  and  the  expedition  had  no  other  result. 
While  marching,  they  arrived  at  a  cascade  falling  from  a  rock.  The  guides 
affirmed  that  the  white  crystals  hanging  around  were  salt.  A  quantity  of  it 
was  gathered,  carried  away,  and  distributed  at  Cibola,  where  a  written  account 
of  all  that  had  been  seen  was  sent  to  the  general.  Garci-Lopez  had  taken 
with  him  a  certain  Pedro  de  Sotomayor,  who  was  the  chronicler  of  the  expe- 
dition. All  the  villages  of  this  province  have  remained  our  allies,  but  they 
have  not  been  visited  since,  and  no  attempt  at  discovery  has  been  made  in 
that  direction. 

The  other  is  from  a  relation  by  an  unknown  author,  found  in  the  archives 
of  the  Indies,  and  printed  in  Pacheco  and  Cardenas,  Col.  Dm:.,  xiv.  321-3, 
under  title  of  Rdacion  del  suceso  de  la  Jornada  que  Francisco  Vazquez  hizo  en 
el  descuhrimiento  de  Cibola,  and  from  which  I  give  the  extract  covering  the 
same  incident: 

'  Vuelto  D.  Pedro  de  Tobar,  6  dada  relacion  de  aquellos  pueblos,  luego 
despacho  d  D.  Garcia  Lopez  de  Cdrdenas,  maestre  de  campo,  por  el  mesmo 
camino  que  habia  venido  D.  Pedro,  6  que  pasase  de  aquella  provincia  de 
Tuzan,  al  Poniente,  6  para  ida  6  vuelta  de  la  Jornada  ^  descobrimiento,  le 
sefialo  ochenta  dias  de  t^rmino  de  ida  6  vuelta,  el  qual  fu6  echado  adelante 
de  Tuzan  con  guias  de  los  naturales  que  decian  que  habia  adelante,  poblado, 
aunque  lejos,  andadas  cincueuta  leguas  de  Tuzan  al  Poniente,  6  ochenta  de 
Cibola,  hall6  una  barranca  de  un  rio  que  fu6  imposible  por  una  parte  ni  otra 
hallarle  baxada  para  caballo,  ni  aun  para  pi6,  sino  por  una  parte  muy  traba- 
xbsa,  por  donde  tenia  casi  dos  leguas  de  baxada.  Estaba  la  barranca  tan 
acantillada  de  penas,  que  apenas  podian  ver  el  rio,  el  cual,  aunque  es  segun 
dicen,  tanto  6  mucho  mayor  que  el  de  Sevilla,  de  arriba  aparescia  un  arroyo ; 
por  manera  que  aunque  con  harta  diligencia  se  busc6  pasada,  6  por  muchas 
partes  no  se  halla,  en  la  cual  estuvieron  artos  dias  con  mucha  necesidad  de 
agua,^que  no  la  hallaban,  6  la  del  rio  no  se  podian  aprovechar  della  aunque  la 
vian  ;•  6  d  esta  causa  le  fu(5  forzado  d  don  Garcia  Lopez  volverse  d  donde  hal- 
laron ;  este  rio  venia  del  Nordeste  6  volvia  al  -Sur  Sudueste,  por  manera  que 
sin  falta  ninguna  es  aquel  donde  lleg6  Melchor  Diaz. ' 

Don  Pedro  de  Tobar  having  returned,  and  having  made  a  report  concern- 
ing those  towns,  D.  Garcia  Lopez  de  Cdrdenas,  maestre  de  campo,  was 
ordered  to  take  the  same  route  by  which  Don  Pedro  had  come,  and  to  go  on 
from  the  province  of  Tuzan  to  the  westward.  He  was  given  80  days  in  which 
to  make  the  journey,  from  his  departure  until  his  return.  He  went  on 
beyond  Tuzan,  accompanied  by  Indian  guides,  who  told  him  that  farther  cm 
there  was  a  settlement.  Having  gone  50  leagues  to  the  westward  of  Tuzan, 
and  80  from  Cibola,  he  came  to  the  canon  of  a  river  adown  the  side  of  which 
there  was  no  descent  practicable  for  horse,  nor  even  for  those  on  foot,  excejpt 


one  morning  three  of  the  lightest  and  most  active  of 
the  party  crept  over  the  brink  and  descended  until 
they  were  out  of  sight.  They  did  not  return  till 
toward  evening,  when  they  reported  their  failure  to 
reach  the  bottom,  saying  that  the  river,  and  distances 
and  objects,  were  all  much  larger  than  they  seemed 
to  the  beholder  above,  rocks  apparently  no  higher 
than  a  man  being  in  fact  larger  than  the  cathedral  at 

Cum  or 

Probable  Route  of  CAedenas. 

Seville.  Compelled  by  thirst  they  retired  from  the 
inhospitable  stream,  and  finally  returned  to  Tusayan 
and  Cibola. 

by  a  way  full  of  difficulties,  and  nearly  two  leagues  in  length.  The  side  of 
the  canon  was  of  rock  so  steep  that  the  river  was  barely  discernible,  although, 
according  to  report,  it  is  as  great  as  the  river  of  Seville,  or  greater ;  and  from 
above  appeared  a  brook.  During  many  days,  and  in  many  places,  a  way  by 
which  to  pass  the  river  was  sought  in  vain.  During  this  time  there  was 
much  suffering  from  a  lack  of  water,  for  although  that  of  the  river  was  in 
view,  it  was  unattainable.  For  this  reason  Don  Garcia  Lopez  was  forced  to 
return.  This  river  comes  from  the  north-east,  and  makes  a  bend  to  the 
south-south-eastward;  hence,  beyond  a  doubt,  it  must  be  that  reached  by 
Melchor  Diaz. 

Thus  the  reader  will  be  able  to  determine  the  matter  for  himself  as  clearly 
as  may  be.     For  details  on  Coronado's  expedition  see  the  following  author- 


It  was  not  necessary  in  those  days  that  a  country 
should  be  discovered  in  order  to  be  mapped;  even 
now  we  dogmatize  most  about  what  we  know  least. 
It  is  a  lonely  sea  indeed  that  cannot  sport  mermaids 
and  monsters;  it  were  a  pity  to  have  so  broad  an  ex- 
tent of  land  without  a  good  wide  sheet  of  water  in  it; 
so  the  Conihas  Regio  cum  Vicinis  Gentibvs  shows  a 
large  lake,  called  Conibas,  connecting  by  a  very  wide 




Map  from  Magin,  1611. 

river  apparently  with  a  northern  sea.    I  give  herewith 
another  map  showing  a  lake  large  enough  to  swallow 

ities,  though  comparatively  few  of  them  make  mention  of  the  adventures 
of  Captain  Cdrdenas  on  the  Colorado:  Ramusio,  Viaggi,  iii.  359-63;  Hak- 
luyt's  Voy.,  iii.  373-9;  Mota-Padilla,  Conq.  N.  Gal,  iii.  14,  158-69;  Tor- 
quemada,  i.  609-10;  Hirrera,  dec.  vi.  lib.  ix.  cap.  xi.-xii.;  Beaumont,  Hist. 
Mich.,  MS.,  407-22,  482-546,  624-5;  Oviedo,  iv.  19;  Villagrd,  Hist.  JST. 
Mex.,  19  et  seq.;  Gomara,  Hist.  Ind.,  272-4;  Bemal  Diaz,  Hist.  Verdad., 
23o;  Benzonl,  Hist.  Miindo  NuovOy  107;  Rihas,  Hist.  Triumjjhos,  26-7;  Vene- 
gas,  Not.  Cal.,  i.  167-9;  Clavigero,  Storia  Cal.,  153;  Alegre,  Hist.  Comp. 
*^€SU8,i.  233-8;  Salmeron,  in  Doc.  Hist.  Ilex.,  3d  ser.  pt.  iv.  7-9;  Noticias,  in 
ii-  ^UvT^'  ^^^^'  ^'^^  ^Hllos,  i.  127-9;  Lorenzana,  in  Cortes,  Hist.  Mex., 
•n  y^^^®  might  be  followed  by  a  long  list  of  modern  writers,  for  which  ] 
will  refer  the  reader  to  Hist.  North  Mexican  States,  this  series. 


Utah  and  Idaho  combined,  and  discharging  its  waters 
by  two  great  rivers  into  the  Pacific.  This  species  of 
geography  was  doubtless  entirely  satisfactory  to  the 
wise  men  of  this  world  until  they  came  to  know  bet- 
ter about  it.  If  the  reader  will  look  over  the  chap- 
ters on  the  Northern  Mystery  in  my  History  of  the 

Map  by  John  Habbis,  1705. 

Northwest  Coast  he  may  learn  further  of  absurdities, 
in  map-making. 

A  more  extended  and  pronounced  exploration  was 
that  of  two  Franciscan  friars,  one  the  visitador  comi- 


sario  of  New  Mexico,  Francisco  Atanasio  Dominguez, 
and  the  other  ministro  doctrinero  of  Zuiii,  Silvestre 
Velez  de  Escalante,  who  set  out  from  Santa  Fe  July 
29,  1776,  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  a  direct  route 
to  Monterey,  on  the  seaboard  of  Alta  California. 
New  Mexico  had  now  been  known  nearly  two  and  a 
half  centuries;  the  city  of  Santa  Fe  had  been  founded 
over  a  century  and  a  half,  Monterey  had  been  occu- 
pied since  1770,  and  yet  there  had  been  opened  no 
direct  route  westward  with  the  sea,  communication 
between  Mexico  and  Santa  Fe  being  by  land,  the 
road  following  the  Rio  Grande.  In  his  memorial  of 
March  1773,  while  in  Mexico,  Father  Junipero  Serra 
had  urged  that  two  expeditions  be  made,  one  from 
Sonora  to  California,  which  was  carried  out  the  fol- 
lowing year  by  Captain  Anza,  and  one  from  New 
Mexico  to  the  sea,  which  Dominguez  and  Escalante 
now  proposed  to  undertake.  Again  in  1775  Anza 
made  a  similar  journey,  this  time  leaving  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  Colorado  and  Gila  Father  Garces  who 
ascended  the  former  stream  to  the  Mojave  country, 
whence  crossing  to  Mission  San  Gabriel  he  proceeded 
to  the  Tulare  Valley.  There  he  heard  from  the  na- 
tives of  a  great  river  coming  in  from  the  east  or  north- 
east.^ Indeed  it  was  long  the  prevailing  opinion  that 
there  existed  such  a  stream  in  that  vicinity.  From 
the  Tulare  country  Garces  returned  to  San  Gabriel 
and  Mojave,  and  thence  proceeded  to  the  villages  of 
the  Moquis.  From  this  place  he  probably  wrote  to 
Santa  Fe  concerning  the  rumor  of  this  river;  for  all 
through  the  journey  of  Dominguez  and  Escalante 
they  were  in  search  of  it.^ 

2  On  Father  Font's  map,  1777,  are  laid  down  two  rivers  entering  the  region 
of  the  Tulare  lakes  from  the  north-east,  one  the  Rio  de  San  Phelijye,  and  the 
other  called  the  Hio  de  que  se  Viene  Noticia  por  el  P.  Garces.  See  Font's 
Journal,  MS.;  Serra,  Memorial,  March  1773,  MS.;  Garces,  Diario,  246-348; 
Forbes'  Hist.  Gal,  157-62;  Arch.  Gal,  Prov.  Rec,  MS.,  i.  47-8,  vi.  59; 
Palon,  Not,  a.  281-2;  Hist.  Gal;  Hist.  New  Mex.;  Hut.  North  Alex.  States^ 
this  series. 

''Probably  it  was  the  San  Joaqnin,  or  the  Sacramento,  of  which  they 
heard.  Concerning  a  route  from  New  Mexico  to  California  Humboldt  says: 
'£n  consid^rant  les  voyages  hardis  des  premiers  conquerans  espagnols  an 


The  party  consisted  in  all  of  nine  persons.  Besides 
the  two  priests  there  were  Juan  Pedro  Cisneros,  al- 
calde mayor  of  Zuni,  Bernardo  Miera  y  Pacheco,  capi- 
tan  miliciano  of  Santa  Fe,  and  five  soldiers.*  Having 
implored  divine  protection,  on  the  day  before  named 
they  took  the  road  to  Abiquid,  passed  on  to  the  Rio 
Chama,  and  on  the  5th  of  August  reached  a  point 
called  Nieves,  on  the  San  Juan  River,  three  leagues 
below  the  junction  of  the  Navajo.  Thence  they 
passed  down  the  north  bank  of  the  San  Juan,  cross- 
ing the  several  branches,  until  on  the  10th  they  found 
themselves  on  a  branch  of  the  Mancos,  some  distance 
from  the  San  Juan,  and  beyond  the  line  of  the  present 
state  of  Colorado.^  The  12th  they  camped  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Rio  Dolores,  in  latitude  38°  13',^  and 
were  there  joined  by  two  natives  from  Abiquiu,  who 
had  deserted  their  homes  to  follow  the  expedition.'' 

They  now  followed  the  general  course  of  the  Do- 
lores^ until  the  23d,  when  they  left  the  San  Pedro, 
which  flows  into  the  Dolores  near  La  Sal,  and  crossed 

Mexique,  an  Pdroii,  et  sur  la  riviere  des  Amazones,  on  est  6tonn6  de  voir  que 
depuis  deux  sifecles  cette  nieme  nation  n'a  pas  su  trouv^er  un  chemin  de  ten-e 
dans  la  Nouvelle-Espagne,  depuis  Taos  an  port  de  Monterey.'  Essai  Pol.,  i. 

*  *  Don  Joaquin  Lain,  vecino  de  la  misma  yilla,  Lorenzo  Olivares  de  la 
villa  del  Paso,  Lucrecio  Muuiz,  Andres  Mufiiz,  Juan  de  Aguilar  y  Simon 
Lucero. '  Dlario,  in  Doc.  Hist,  Mex. ,  ser.  ii.  torn.  i.  378. 

^  At  the  beginning  of  the  journey  their  route  was  identical  with  what  was 
later  known  as  the  old  Spanish  trail  from  Santa  F6  to  Los  Angeles.  Their 
course  was  at  first  north-west,  but  shortly  after  passing  Abiquiu  it  pointed 
due  north  into  Colorado,  then  west,  and  again  north-west  into  Utah,  being 
about  the  same  as  was  later  called  the  old  Spanish  trail  from  Santa  F6  to 
Great  Salt  Lake.  Captain  J.  N.  Macomb  of  the  topographical  engineers  has 
surveyed  and  mapped  essentially  the  same  trail. 

^  Probably  not  so  far  north  by  some  40'. 

'  *  Esta  tarde  nos  alcanzaron  un  coyote  y  un  genizaro  de  Abiquiu,  nombrados 
el  primero  Felipe  y  el  segundo  Juan  Domingo;  por  vagar  entre  los  gentiles, 
se  huyeron  sin  permiso  de  sus  superiores  del  dicho  pueblo,  pretestando  querer 
acompanamos.  No  necesitdbamos  de  cUos;  mas  por  evitar  las  culpas,  que  6 
por  su  ignorancia  6  por  su  malicia  podian  cometer  andando  mas  tiempo  solos 
entre  los  yutas,  si  intentdbamos  que  regresasen,  los  admitimos  por  companeros.  * 
Z>iario,  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  ser.  ii.  tom.  i.  392. 

^  These  streams  are  doubtless  those  emptying  into  the  Colorado  not  far  from 
its  junction  with  the  Bunkara.  Latitude  39"  13'  is  here  given,  but  that  must 
be  too  high.  Philip  Harry,  in  Simpson's  Explor.,  490,  says  that  up  to  the 
point  first  touched  on  the  Dolores  the  priests'  path  and  Macomb's  survey  are 
identical,  but  that  they  here  diverge. 



over  north-east  to  Rio  San  Francisco,^  and 


the  Rio  San  Javier ^^  on  the  28th,  their  course  being 
for  some  distance  east  of  north. 

Not  far  from  their  path  was  a  rancheria  of  Yutas, 
which  the  Spaniards  visited,  endeavoring  to  obtain 
guides  to  the  land  of  the  Timpanogos,  Timpangotzis, 
or  Lagunas,  where  they  had  been  told  to  look  for 

Escalante's  Route  from  Santa  ¥±  to  Utah  Lake. 

Pueblo  towns.      A  Laguna  guide  was  there,  but  the 
Yutas  did  all  in  their  power  to  dissuade  the  explorers 

'  An  affluent  of  the  San  Javier,  or  Grand  River. 

^•^  Callel  by  the  Yutas  Tomiche;  to-day  Grand  River.  It  may  here  be 
observed  that  the  route  toward  this  region  had  been  visited  by  Spaniards 
before,  notably  by  Juan  Maria  de  Ribera  in  1761,  and  Spanish  names  had 
been  given  to  places,  though  the  present  Utah  was  probably  not  entered  by 
him.  Escalante  states  that  the  San  Javier  is  formed  by  four  small  streams 
coming  in  above  the  poiat  at  which  he  crossed,  and  these,  says  Harry,  Simp- 
wris  Explor.,  490,  correspond  'remarkably  with  the  Uncompagre  River, 
Grand  River,  Smith's  Fork,  and  another  large  fork.  .  .It  seems  evident  that 
after  crossing  the  San  Xavier  he  follows  up  stream  a  different  fork  from  what 
we  call  Grand  River,  but  which  fork  he  calls  the  main  river,  or  San  Xavier.' 
Gunnison  maps  his  explorations,  showing  the  mouth  of  this  last  named 
stream.  In  Simpson's  Explor.,  489,  is  given  a  map  of  the  present  expedition, 
but  it  does  not  conform  in  every  particular  to  Escalante's  text. 


from  proceeding,  pretending  ignorance  of  the  country 
and  danger  from  the  Comanches.  But  the  3d  of  Sep- 
tember saw  them  again  on  their  way.  Pursuing  a 
north-west  course,  the  second  day  they  crossed  and 
camped  on  the  north  bank  of  the  Rio  San  Rafael,  or 
Colorado,^^  in  latitude  41°  4/.  Their  course  thence 
was  north-westerly,  and  on  the  9th  they  crossed  a 
river  called  San  Clemente,^^  flowing  west.  Signs  of 
buffaloes  were  abundant,  and  on  the  11th  they  killed 
one.  Two  days  afterward  they  crossed  the  Rio  de 
San  Buenaventura,^^  the  boundary  between  the  Yutas 
and  the  Comanches,  in  latitude  41°  19',  at  a  place 
which  the  priests  call  Santa  Cruz.  Here  were  six  large 
black  poplars,  ori  one  of  which  they  left  an  inscription. 
After  resting  two  days  they  took  the  course  of  the 
San  Buenaventura  south-west  ten  leagues,  and  from 
a  hill  saw  the  junction  of  the  San  Clemente.  Descend- 
ing a  little  farther  they  found  a  river  flowing  in  from 
the  west,  following  which  they  reached  a  branch  the 
17th,  naming  it  the  San  Cosme.^* 

From  this  point  they  proceeded  westward,  follow- 
ing up  the  Uintah,  across  the  Duchesne,  and  over  the 
mountains,  with  no  small  difficulty,  to  a  river  which 
they  called  Purisima,^^  and  which  they  followed  till 
on  the  23d  they  came  in  sight  of  the  lake  which  the 
natives  called  Timpanogos,  but  which  is  known  now 
as  Utah  Lake. 

Several  reasons  combined  to  bring  the  Spaniards 
so  far  to  the  north  of  what  would  be  a  direct  road 

*^  Grand   River;  but  the  latitude  given  was  about  1°  30'  too  high. 

*2  White  River,  the  point  of  crossing  being  near  the  Utah  line. 

*'  Green  River.  The  latitude  given  is  at  least  50'  too  high.  The  crossing 
was  above  the  junctions  of  White  River  and  the  Uintah  with  Green  River. 
See  Rep.  Fr.  Alonso  de  Posada,  custodio  de  N.  Mex.,  in  Doc,  Hist.  Mtx.,  i. 

^*  This  is  the  north  branch  of  the  Uintah.  Indeed  the  narrative  of  the 
explorers  makes  their  route  in  this  vicinity  unmistakable. 

^^  Now  the  Timpanogos.  'Proseguimos  al  noroeste  media  legua,  pasamos  d 
la  otra  banda  dei  rio,  subimos  una  corta  cuesta  y  divisamos  la  laguna  y  dila- 
tado  valle  de  Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Merced  de  los  Timpanogotzis — asi  lo  nora- 
bramos  desde  aqui.'  Diario,  Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  s6rie  ii.  tom.  i.  454. 


from  Santa  Fe  to  Monterey.  First,  Escalante  enter- 
tained a  theory  that  a  better  route  to  the  Pacific 
could  be  found  northward  than  toward  the  south. 
Then  tliere  was  always  a  fascination  attending  this 
region,  with  its  great  and  perpetual  Northern  Mys- 
tery; perhaps  the  Arctic  Ocean  came  down  hereabout, 
or  at  least  an  arm  of  the  Anian  Strait  might  be 
found;  nor  were  forgotten  the  rivers  spoken  of  by 
different  persons  on  difierent  occasions  as  flowing 
hence  into  the  Pacific.  And  last  of  all  it  may  be 
that  the  rumor  of  Pueblo  villages  in  this  quarter  car- 
ried the  explorers  further  north  than  otherwise  they 
would  have  gone. 

Plowever  this  may  have  been,  they  were  now  of 
opinion  that  they  had  penetrated  far  enough  in  a 
northerly  direction,  and  from  this  point  must  take  a 
southerly  course.  There  were  here  no  town-builders 
like  the  Moquis  and  Zunis,  as  the  priests  had  been 
led  to  suppose,  but  there  were  wild  Indians,  and  the 
first  they  had  seen  in  this  vicinity.  At  first  these 
savages  manifested  fear,  but  when  assured  that  the 
strangers  had  not  come  to  harm  them,  and  were  in  no 
w^ay  leagued  with  the  dreaded  Comanches,  they  wel- 
comed them  kindly  and  gave  them  food.  They  were 
simple-minded  and  inoffensive,  these  native  Yutas, 
very  ready  to  guide  the  travellers  whithersoever  they 
would  go;  but  they  begged  them  to  return  and  estab- 
lish a  mission  in  their  midst;  in  token  of  which,  and 
of  their  desire  to  adopt  the  Christian  faith,  they  gave 
the  priests  a  kind  of  hieroglyphic  painting  on  deer- 

^^  The  Spaniards  asked  from  them  some  token  to  show  that  they  wished 
them  to  return,  and  the  day  after  they  brought  them  one ;  '  pero  al  traer  la 
sefia  vio  un  companero,  que  no  sabia  el  6rden  dado,  d  las  figuras  de  ella,  y 
mostriindole  la  cruz  del  rosario,  les  di6  d  entender,  que  la  piutasen  sobre  una 
dc  las  figuras,  y  entonces  la  volvieron  d  llevar,  y  sobre  cada  una  pintaron 
una  cruz  pequefia;  lo  demas  quedo  como  antes  y  nos  la  dieron  diciendo  que 
la  figura  que  por  uno  y  otro  lado  tenia  mas  almagre,  6  como  ellos  decian, 
sangrc,  rcpresentaba  al  capitan  mayor,  porque  en  las  batallas  con  los  cuman- 
chcs  habia  recibido  mas  heridas :  las  otras  dos  que  no  estaban  tan  ensangren- 
tadas,  d  los  otros  dos  capitanes  inferiores  al  primero,  y  la  que  no  tenia  sangre 
ninguua,  d  uno  que  no  era  capitan  de  guerra,  pero  era  de  autoridad  entre 



Then  the  Spaniards  talk  of  the  country,  and  of  the 
people  about  them.  They  are  in  the  valley  and  by 
the  lake  of  Nuestra  Senora  de  la  Merced  de  los  Tim- 

TiMPANOGOs  Valley. 

ellos.  Eatas  cuatro  figuras  de  hombres  estaban  rudamente  pintadas  con  tierra 
y  almagre  en  un  corto  pedazo  de  gamuza.'  JJiario,  Doc.  Hist.  Jilex.,  s6rie  ii. 
torn.  i.  4C2-3. 


panogos,"  and  north  of  the  river  San  Buenaventura  are 
the  mountains  which  they  have  just  crossed,  extend- 
ing north-east  and  south-west  some  seventy  leagues, 
and  liaving  a  width  of  forty  leagues.  From  the  sur- 
roundinof  heiofhts  flow  four  rivers  of  medium  size, 
discliarging  their  w^aters  into  the  lake,  where  thrive 
fish  and  wild  fowl.  The  valley  which  surrounds  this 
lake  extends  from  south-east  to  north-west  sixteen 
Spanish  leagues ;  it  is  quite  level,  and  has  a  width  of 
ten  or  twelve  leagues.  Except  the  marshes  on  the 
lake  borders  the  land  is  good  for  agriculture.  Of  the 
four  rivers  which  water  the  vallev  the  southernmost, 
which  they  call  Aguas  Calientes,  passes  through  rich 
meadows  capable  of  supporting  two  large  towns. 
The  second,  three  leagues  from  the  first,  flowing 
northerly,  and  which  they  call  the  San  Nicolds,  fer- 
tilizes enough  good  land  to  support  one  large  town 
or  two  smaller  ones.  Before  reachinof  the  lake  it 
divides  into  two  branches,  on  the  banks  of  which 
grow  tall  poplars  and  alders.  "  The  third  river,  w^hich 
is  three  and  a  half  leagues  to  the  north-east,  and  which 
they  call  the  San  Antonio  de  Padua,  carries  more 
water  than  the  others,  and  from  its  rich  banks,  which 
would  easily  support  three  large  towns,  spring  groves 
of  larger  trees.  Santa  Ana,  they  call  the  fourth 
river,  which  is  north-west  of  the  San  Antonio,  and 
not  inferior  to  the  others  ^^ — so  they  are  told,  for  they 
do  not  visit  it.  Besides  these  rivers,  there  are  good 
springs  of  water  both  on  plain  and  mountain-side; 
pasture  lands  are  abundant,  and  in  parts  the  fertile 
soil  yields  such  quantities  of  flax  and  hemp  that  it 
seems  they  must  have  been  planted  there  by  man. 
On  the  San  Buenaventura  the  Spaniards  had  been 

^'  Or,  as  it  was  also  called,  Tinipagtzis,  Timpanoautzis,  6  Come  Pescado. 
Doc.  Hist.  Mex.,  s^rie  ii.  torn.  i.  404. 

^'^  There  is  no  difficulty  in  recognizing  these  land-marks,  the  Uintah 
Mountains,  the  San  Buenaventura,  or  Green  River;  and  in  the  four  streams 
of  the  valley,  their  Aguas  Calientes  is  Currant  Creek;  the  second,  their  San 
Aicolas,  though  more  than  three  leagues  from  the  first,  and  not  correspond- 
ing in  every  other  particular,  is  the  Spanish  River;  the  San  Antonio  is  the 
Frovo;  and  the  Santa  Ana,  the  River  Jordan. 


troubied  by  the  cold;  but  here  the  climate  is  so 
delightful,  the  air  so  balmy,  that  it  is  a  pleasure  to 
breathe  it,  by  day  and  by  night.  In  the  vicinity  are 
other  valleys  equally  delightful.  Besides  the  pro- 
ducts of  the  lake  the  Yutas  hunt  hares,  and  gather 
seeds  from  which  they  make  atole.  They  might  cap- 
ture some  buffaloes  in  the  north-north-west  but  for 
the  troublesome  Comanches.^^  They  dwell  in  huts 
of  osier,  of  which,  likewise,  many  of  their  utensils  are 
made;  some  of  them  wear  clothes,  the  best  of  which 
are  of  the  skins  of  rabbits  and  antelopes.  There  are 
in  this  region  many  people,  of  whom  he  who  would 
know  more  may  consult  the  Native  Races. 

The  Spaniards  are  further  told  by  the  Yutas  of  a 
large  and  wonderful  body  of  water  toward  the  north- 
west, and  this  is  what  Father  Escalante  reports  of  it. 
**The  other  lake,  with  which  this  communicates,"  he 
says,  "occupies,  as  they  told  us,  many  leagues,  and 
its  waters  are  injurious  and  extremely  salt;  because 
the  Timpanois^  assure  us  that  he  who  wets  any  part 
of  his  body  with  this  water,  immediately  feels  an  itch- 
ing in  the  wet  part.  We  were  told  that  in  the  circuit 
of  this  lake  there  live  a  numerous  and  quiet  nation, 
called  Puaguampe,  which  means  in  our  language  Sor- 
cerers; they  speak  the  Comanche  language,  feed  on 
herbs,  and  drink  from  various  fountains  or  springs  of 
good  water  which  are  about  the  lake;  and  they  have 
their  little  houses  of  grass  and  earth,  which  latter 
forms  the  roof.  They  are  not,  so  they  intimated, 
enemies  of  those  living  on  this  lake,  but  since  a  certain 
time  when  the  people  there  approached  and  killed  a 
man,  they  do  not  consider  them  as  neutral  as  before. 

^•This  is  directly  opposite  the  direction  in  which  we  would  expect  to 
find  tlie  Comanches  of  to-day;  but  the  Utes  applied  the  term  comanche  to  all 
hostile  Indians.  BuflFaloes  were  common  in  aboriginal  times  in  Cache  and 
Powder  River  \'alley3  as  well  as  in  eastern  Oregon  and  Bois^  v^alley. 

*"  Yet  another  fonn  for  the  name  Timpanogos,  as  indeed  before  the  end  of 
the  following  page  W3  have  'Timpanosis,'  'Timpanogotzis,'  and  'Timpanogo.' 
Sec  not«  1 7  this  chapter.  Oa  Froisett's  map,  published  at  Salt  Lake  City  in 
187o,  is  the  '  Provo,  or  Timponayas  '  river. 


On  this  occasion  they  entered  by  the  last  pass  of  the 
Sierra  Blanca  de  los  Timpanogos,  which  is  the  same  in 
which  they  are,  by  a  route  north  one  fourth  north-west, 
and  by  that  same  way  they  say  the  Comanches  make 
their  raids,  which  do  not  seem  to  be  very  frequent.  "^^ 

Continuing  their  journey  the  26th  of  September 
with  two  guides,  the  Spaniards  bend  their  course 
south- west  wardly  in  the'direction  of  Monterey,  through 
the  Sevier  lake  and  river  region,  which  stream  they 
call  Santa  Isabel.  The  8th  of  October  they  are  in 
latitude  38°  3'  with  Beaver  River  behind  them. 
Passing  on  into  what  is  now  Escalante  Valley  they 
question  the  natives  regarding  a  route  to  the  sea,  and 
as  to  their  knowledge  of  Spaniards  in  that  direction. 
The  savages  know  nothing  of  either.  Meanwhile 
winter  is  approaching,  provisions  are  becoming  low,  the 
w^ay  to  the  sea  must  be  long  and  difficult;  therefore 
the  friars  resolve  to  abandon  the  attempt;  they  will 
continue  south,  turning  perhaps  to  the  east  until  they 
come  to  the  Colorado,  when  they  will  return  to  Santa 
Fe  by  way  of  the  Moqui  and  Zuni  villages. 

Some  of  the  party  object  to  this  abandonment  of 

21  As  this  is  the  first  account  we  have  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  and  its  people 
I  will  give  the  original  entire :  '  La  otra  laguna  con  quien  esta  se  comunica, 
ocupa,  segun  nos  inlormaron,  muchas  leguas  y  sus  aguas  son  nocivas  6  estre- 
madamente  saladas ;  porque  nos  aseguran  los  timpanois  que  el  que  se  mojaba 
alguna  parte  del  cuerpo  con  ellas,  al  punto  sentianiucha  conienzon  en  la  parte 
mojada.  En  su  circuito  nos  dijeron  habita  una  nacion  numerosa  y  quieta, 
que  se  nonibra  Puaguampe,  que  en  nuestro  vulgar  dice  hechiceros ;  la  cual 
usa  el  idionia  cumanche ;  se  alimenta  de  las  yervas,  bebe  de  varias  fuentes  ii 
ojos  de  buena  agua,  que  estdn  en  el  circuito  de  la  laguna,  y  tienen  sus  casitas 
de  zacate  y  tierra,  que  era  el  techo  de  ellas.  No  son  enemigos  de  los  lagunas, 
segun  insinuaron,  pero  desde  cierta  ocasion  que  se  acercaron  y  les  mataron  un 
honibre,  no  los  tienen  por  tan  neutrales  como  antes.  En  esta  ocasion  entraron 
por  la  puerta  final  de  la  Sierra  Blanca  de  los  Timpanosis,  que  es  la  misma  en 
que  estdn,  por  el  norte  cuarta  al  noroeste,  y  por  aqui  mismo  dicen  hacer  sus 
entradas  los  cumanches,  las  que  no  parecieron  ser  muy  frecuentes.'  Diario, 
Doc.  Hist.  Mex. ,  s6rie  ii.  torn.  i.  468. 

Mr  Harry  is  evidently  not  very  thoroughly  versed  in  the  Spanish  lan- 
guage, or  his  manuscript  copy  of  Escalante's  journey  is  defective.  For  exam- 
ple he  translates  echizeros— -which,  being  old  Spanish  he  could  not  find  in  his 
modem  dictionary — '  throwers  or  slingers  '  when  the  word  *  witches,'  or  rather 
'sorcerers,'  is  clearly  implied.  Again  he  queries  f-acate,  not  knowing  its 
meaning — a  common  enough  Mexican  v/ord,  formerly  written  zacate,  and  sig- 
nifying hay  or  grass.  For  further  inaccuracies  see  his  summary  in  Simpson's 
Explor.,  494.  Warren,  Pacific  JRailroad  Report,  xi.  35,  examined  the  same 
copy  of  Escalante's  narrative,  then  in  the  Peter  Force  library,  which  was 
used  by  Harry. 


purpose.  They  have  come  far;  they  can  surely  find  a 
way:  why  turn  back?  To  determine  the  matter  prayers 
are  made  and  lots  cast,  the  decision  being  against  Mon- 
terey. As  they  turn  eastward,  the  llth,  in  latitude 
36°  52',  they  are  obliged  to  make  bread  of  seeds  pur- 
chased from  the  natives,  for  their  supplies  are  wholly 
exhausted.  Reaching  the  Colorado  the  26th,  twelve 
days  are  passed  in  searching  for  a  ford,  which  they 
find  at  last  in  latitude  37°,  the  line  dividing  Utah 
from  Arizona.  Their  course  is  now  south-east,  and 
the  16th  of  November  they  reach  Oraybi,  as  they  call 
the  residence  of  the  Moquis.  There  they  are  kindly 
received;  but  when  for  food  and  shelter  they  offer 
presents  and  religious  instruction  the  natives  refuse. 
Next  day  the  Spaniards  visit  Xongopabi,  and  the  day 
after  Gualpi,  at  which  latter  place  they  call  a  meeting 
and  propose  to  the  natives  temporal  and  spiritual  sub- 
mission. The  Moquis  will  be  friendly  they  say,  but 
the  further  proposals  they  promptly  decline.  There- 
upon the  friars  continue  their  way,  reaching  Zuni  No- 
vember 24th  and  Santa  Fe  the  2d  of  January  1777.^^ 

^2  The  journey  into  Utah  of  Dominguez  and  Escalante,  as  given  in  Poc. 
Hist.  Mex.,  s6rie  ii.  torn.  i.  375-558,  under  title  of  Diario  y  derrotero  de  los  R.  R. 
PP.  Fr.  Francisco  Atanasio  Dominguez  y  Fr.  Silvestre  Velezde  Escalante,  para 
descubrir  el  camino  desde  el  Presidio  de  Santa  F4  del  Nuevo  Mexico,  al  de  Mon- 
terey, en  la  California  Septentrional,  is  full  and  clear  as  to  route  and  informa- 
tion regarding  the  country  and  its  inhabitants.  As  must  be  expected  in  all 
such  narratives  it  is  full  of  trivial  detail  which  is  tiresome,  but  which  we  can 
readily  excuse  for  the  worth  of  the  remainder.  The  priests  were  close  and 
intelligent  observ^ers,  and  have  much  to  say  regarding  configuration,  soil, 
climate,  plants,  minerals,  animals,  and  people.  A  summary  is  given  in  Simp- 
son's Explor.,  app.  R  by  Philip  Harry,  from  a  manuscript  copy  of  the  origi- 
nal in  the  archives  in  the  city  of  Mexico  which  answers  the  purpose  therein 
required,  but  is  not  sufficiently  reliable  or  exact  for  historical  purposes.  The 
map  accompanying  the  summary  is  better,  being  for  the  most  part  correct. 
Of  the  two  padres  and  what  they  saw  Humboldt  says,  Essai  Pol.:  'Ce  ter- 
rain est  la  continuation  de  la  Cordill^re  des  Grues,  qui  se  prolonge  vers  la 
Sierra  Verde  et  vers  le  lac  de  Timpanogos,  c6l6bre  dans  I'histoire  mexicaine. 
Le  Rio  S.  Rafael  et  le  Rio  S.  Xavier  sont  les  sources  principales  du  fleuve 
Zaguananas,  qui,  avec  le  Rio  de  Nabajoa,  forme  le  Rio  Colorado:  ce  demir  a 
son  embouchure  dans  le  golfe  de  Califomie.  Ces  regions  abondantes  en  sel 
gemme  out  6t6  examinees,  en  1777,  par  deux  voyageurs  remplis  de  zdle  et 
d'intr^pidit^,  moines  de  I'order  de  S.  Francois,  le  pfere  Escalante  et  le  pere 
Antonio  Velez.'  From  the  last  clause  it  is  clear  that  Humboldt  was  confused 
as  to  names,  Velez  and  Escalante  belonging  to  the  same  person.  Simpson, 
Explor.,  13,  enters  upon  a  long  dissertation  over  a  simple  and  very  transpar- 
ent mistake.  See  also  Hist.  North  Mex.  States;  Hist.  New  Mex.;  and  Hisi. 
Cal.,  this  series. 

Hist.  Utah.    2 




INVASION  BY  Fur  Hxtnters — Baron  la  Hontan  and  his  Fables — The  Pop- 
ular Geographic  Idea — Discovery  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake — James 
Bridger  Deciding  a  Bet — He  Determines  the  Course  of  Bear  River 
AND  Comes  upon  the  Great  Lake — Henry,  Ashley,  Green,  and 
Beckwourth  on  the  Ground — Fort  Built  at  Utah  Lake — Peter 
Skeen  Ogden— Journey  of  Jedediah  S.  Smith — A  Strange  Coun- 
try— Pegleg  Smith — Wolfskill,  Yount,  and  Burton  Traverse  the 
Country— Walker's  Visit  to  California— Some  Old  Maps — The 
Bartleson  Company — Statements  of  Bid  well  and  Belden  Com- 
pared—Whitman AND  LovEJOY — Fremont — Pacific  Coast  Immigra- 
tions OF  1845  and  1846 — Origin  of  the  Name  Utah. 

Half  a  century  passes,  and  we  find  United  States 
fur  hunters  standing  on  the  border  of  the  Great  Salt 
Lake,  tasting  its  brackish  waters,  and  wondering  if 

it  is  an  arm  of  the  sea.^ 


^  There  are  those  who  soberly  refer  to  the  Baron  la  Hontan  and  his  prodi- 
gious falsehoods  of  1689  for  the  tirst  information  of  Great  Salt  Lake.  Because 
among  the  many  fabulous  wonders  reported  he  somewhere  on  the  western 
side  of  the  continent  placed  a  body  of  bad-tasting  water,  Stansbury,  Exped,, 
151,  does  not  hesitate  to  affirm  'that  the  existence  of  a  large  lake  of  salt  water 
somewhere  amid  the  wilds  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  seems  to  have  been 
known  vaguely  as  long  as  150  years  since.'  Perhaps  it  was  salt,  and  not  silver 
that  the  Winnebagoes  reported  to  Carver,  Travels,  33-6,  as  coming  down  in 
caravans  from  '  the  mountains  lying  near  the  heads  of  the  Colorado  River.  * 
Warren,  in  Pacific  Railroad  Report,  xi.  34,  repeats  and  refutes  the  La  Hon- 
tan myth.  He  says,  *the  story  of  La  Hontan  excited  much  speculation,  and 
received  various  additions  in  his  day;  and  the  lake  finally  became  represented 
on  the  published  English  maps. '  Long  before  this  date,  however,  reliable  in- 
formation had  been  received  by  the  Spaniards,  and  the  same  may  have  come 
to  English  trappers;  so  that  by  1826  reports  of  the  existence  of  such  a  sheet 
may  have  reached  civilization.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  neither  La  Hontan 
nor  Carver  ever  received  information  from  the  natives,  or  elsewhere,  sufficient 
to  justify  map-makers  in  placing  a  large  lake  in  that  vicinity.  In  Gordon's 
Historical  and  Geographical  Memoir  of  the  North  American  Continent,  pub- 
lished in  Dublin  in  1820,  it  is  written:  'Concerning  the  lakes  and  rivers  of 
this  as  yet  imperfectly  explored  region  we  have  little  to  say.     Of  the  former 




First  among  these,  confining  ourselves  to  authentic 
records,  was  James  Bridger,  to  whom  belongs  the 
honor  of  discovery.  It  happened  in  this  wise.  During 
the  winter  of  1824-5  a  party  of  trappers,  who  had 
ascended  the  Missouri  with  Henry  and  Ashley,  found 

we  have  no  certain  account.  Two  have  been  noticed  in  the  western  parts,  a 
salt  lake  about  the  thirty-ninth  degree  of  latitude,  the  western  limits  of 
which  are  unknown,  and  the  lake  of  Timpanogos,  about  the  forty -first  degree, 
of  great  but  unascertained  extent. ' 

Map  of  Utah,  1826. 

In  a  report  submitted  to  congress  May  15,  1826,  by  Mr  Baylies  it  is  stated 
that  *  many  geographies  have  placed  the  Lake  Timpanogos  in  latitude  40,  but 
they  have  obviously  confounded  it  with  the  Lake  Theguayo,  which  extends 
from  39°  40'  to  41°,  and  from  which  it  appears  separated  by  a  neck  or  penin- 
sula; the  two  lakes  approaching  in  one  direction  as  near  as  20  miles.'  19th 
Con'f.y  1st  Sess.,  House  Bept.  No.  213.  Such  statements  as  this  amount  to 
nothing— the  honorable  gentleman,  with  all  due  respect,  not  knowing  whafe 
he  was  writing  about— except  as  going  to  show  the  vague  and  imperfect  im- 
pression of  the  popular  mind  concerning  this  region  at  that  time. 

I  will  give  for  what  it  is  worth  a  claim,  set  up  in  this  same  congres- 


themselves  on  Bear  River,  in  Cache,  or  Willow  Val- 
ley. A  discussion  arose  as  to  the  probable  course 
of  Bear  River,  which  flowed  on  both  sides  of  them. 
A  wager  was  made,  and  Bridger  sent  to  ascertain  the 
truth."^  Following  the  river  through  the  mountains 
the  first  view  of  the  great  lake  fell  upon  him,  and 
when  he  went  to  the  margin  and  tasted  the  water  he 
found  that  it  was  salt.  Then  he  returned  and  re- 
ported to  his  companions.  All  were  interested  to 
know  if  there  emptied  into  this  sheet  other  streams 
on  which  they  might  find  beavers,  and  if  there  was 
an  outlet;  hence  in  the  spring  of  1826  four  men  ex- 
plored the  lake  in  skin  boats.^ 

During  this  memorable  year  of  1825,  when  Peter 

sional  report,  by  one  Samuel  Adams  Ruddock,  that  in  the  year  1821  he 
journeyed  from  Council  Bluff  to  Santa  F^,  and  thence  with  a  trading  party 
proceeded  by  way  of  Great  Salt  Lake  to  Oregon.  The  report  says :  '  On  the 
9th  of  June  this  party  crossed  the  Rio  del  Norte,  and  pursuing  a  north-west 
direction  on  the  north  bank  of  the  river  Chamas,  and  over  the  mountains, 
reached  Lake  Trinidad;  and  then  pursuing  the  same  direction  across  the 
upper  branches  of  the  Rio  Colorado  of  California,  reached  Lake  Timpanagos, 
which  is  intersected  by  the  42d  parallel  of  latitude,  the  boundary  between 
the  United  States  of  America  and  the  United  States  of  Mexico.  This  lake 
is  the  principal  source  of  the  river  Timpanagos,  and  the  Multnomah  of  Lewis 
and  Clarke.  They  then  followed  the  course  of  this  river  to  its  junction  with 
the  Columbia,  and  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  on  the  first  day  of 
August,  completing  the  journey  from  the  Council  Bluffs  in  seventy-nine 

^This,  upon  the  testimony  of  Robert  Campbell,  Pac.  R.  RepL,  xi.  35,  who 
was  there[at  the  time  'and  found  the  party  just  returned  from  the  exploration 
of  the  lake,  and  recollect  their  report  that  it  was  without  any  outlet. '  Bridger's 
story  of  his  discovery  was  corrroborated  by  Samuel  Tullock  in  Campbell's 
counting-room  in  St  Louis  at  a  later  date.  Campbell  pronounces  them  both 
'men  of  the  strictest  integrity  and  truthfulness.'  Likewise  Ogden's  trappers 
met  Bridger's  party  in  the  summer  of  1825  and  were  told  of  the  discovery. 
See  Hist.  Nevada,  this  series.  Irving,  Bonneville's  Adv.,  186,  says  it  was 
probably  Sublette  who  sent  out  the  four  men  in  the  skin  canoe  in  1826.  Bonne- 
ville professes  to  doubt  this  exploration  because  the  men  reported  that  they 
suffered  severely  from  thirst,  when  in  fact  several  fine  streams  flow  into  the 
lake;  but  Bonneville  desired  to  attach  to  his  name  the  honor  of  an  early  sur- 
vey, and  detract  from  those  entitled  to  it.  The  trappers  in  their  canoes  did 
not  pretend  to  make  a  thorough  survey,  and  as  for  scarcity  of  fresh  water  in 
places  Stansbury  says,  Exped.,  103,  that  during  his  explorations  he  frequently 
was  obliged  to  send  fifty  miles  for  water.  Other  claimants  appear  prior  to 
Bridger's  discovery.  W.  M.  Anderson  writing  to  the  National  Intelligencer 
under  date  of  Feb.  26,  1860,  says  that  Provost  trapped  in  this  vicinity  in 
1820,  and  that  Ashley  was  there  before  Bridger.  Then  it  was  said  by  Seth 
Grant  that  his  partner,  Vazquez,  discovered  the  great  inland  sea,  calling  it  an 
arm  of  the  ocean  because  the  water  was  salt.  That  no  white  man  ever  saw 
the  Great  Salt  Lake  before  Bridger  cannot  be  proven;  but  his  being  the  only 
well  authenticated  account,  history  must  rest  there  until  it  finds  a  better  one. 


Skeen  Ogden  with  his  party  of  Hudson's  Bay  Com- 
pany trappers  was  on  Humboldt  Kiver,  and  James  P. 
Beckwourth  was  pursuing  his  daring  adventures,  and 
the  region  round  the  great  lakes  of  Utah  first  became 
familiar  to  American  trappers,  William  H.  Ashley, 
of  the  Bocky  Mountain  Fur  Company,  at  the  head  of 
one  hundred  and  twenty  men  and  a  train  of  well 
packed  horses,  came  out  from  St  Louis,  through  the 
South  Pass  and  down  by  Great  Salt  Lake  to  Lake 
Utah.  There  he  built  a  fort,  and  two  years  later 
brought  from  St  Louis  a  six-pounder  which  thereafter 
graced  its  court.  Ashley  was  a  brave  man,  shrewd 
and  honest;  he  was  prosperous  and  commanded  the 
respect  of  his  men.  Nor  may  we  impute  to  him  lack 
of  intelligence,  or  of  common  geographical  knowledge, 
when  we  find  him  seriously  considering  the  project  of 
descending  the  Colorado  in  boats,  by  means  of  which 
he  would  eventually  reach  St  Louis.  Mr  Green,  who 
gave  his  name  to  Green  Biver,  had  been  with  Ashley 
the  previous  year;  and  now  for  three  years  after  the 
establishing  of  Fort  Ashley  at  Utah  Lake,  Green  with 
his  trappers  occupied  the  country  to  the  west  and  north.  ^ 

'  See  Hist.  Northwest  Coast,  ii.  447-8,  this  series.  T.  D.  Bonner  in  his 
Life  and  Adventures  of  James  P.  Beckwourth,  71-3,  gives  what  purports  to  be 
an  account  of  Ashley's  descent  of  Green  River  to  Great  Salt  Lake  on  a  certain 
occasion  in  Ashley's  own  language.  There  may  be  some  truth  in  it  all,  though 
Beckwourth  is  far  astray  in  his  dates,  as  he  places  the  occurrence  in  1822. 
Beckwourth  goes  on  to  say  that  one  day  in  June  a  beautiful  Indian  gii-1 
offered  him  a  pair  of  moccasins  if  he  would  shoot  for  her  an  antelope  and  bring 
her  the  brains,  that  with  them  she  might  dress  a  deer-skin.  Beckwourth 
started  out,  but  failing  to  secure  an  antelope,  and  seeing  as  he  supposed  an 
Indian  coming,  he  thought  he  would  shoot  the  Indian  and  take  his  brains  to 
the  girl,  who  would  not  know  the  difference.  Just  as  he  was  about  to  fire  he 
discovered  the  supposed  Indian  to  be  Ashley,  who  thereupon  told  him  of  his 
adventures  down  Green  River  and  through  the  canon  to  Great  Salt  Lake.  I 
have  no  doubt  it  is  three  fourths  fiction,  and  what  there  is  of  fact  must  be 
placed  forward  four  years.  *We  had  a  very  dangeroug  passage  down  the 
river,'  said  Ashley  to  Beckwourth,  'and  suffered  more  than  I  ever  wish  to  see 
men  suffer  again.  You  are  aware  that  we  took  but  little  provision  with  us, 
not  expecting  that  the  canon  extended  so  far.  In  passing  over  the  rapids, 
where  we  lost  two  boats  and  three  guns,  we  made  use  of  ropes  in  letting  down 
our  boats  over  the  most  dangerous  places.  Our  provisions  soon  gave  out. 
We  found  plenty  of  beaver  in  the  canon  for  some  miles,  and,  expecting  to  find 
them  in  as  great  plenty  all  the  way,  we  saved  none  of  their  carcasses,  which 
constituted  our  food.  As  we  proceeded,  however,  they  became  more  and 
more  scarce,  until  there  were  none  to  be  seen,  and  we  were  entirely  out  of 
provisions.     To  trace  the  river  was  impossible,  and  to  ascend  the  perpendicu- 


From  Great  Salt  Lake  in  August,  1826,  Jedediah 
S.  Smith  sets  out  on  a  trapping  and  exploring  tour 
with  fifteen  men.  Proceeding  southward  he  trav- 
erses Utah  Lake,  called  for  a  time  Ashley  Lake,^  and 
after  ascending  Ashley  Kiver,  which,  as  he  remarks, 
flows  into  the  lake  through  the  country  of  the  Sam- 
patches,  he  bends  his  course  to  the  west  of  south,  passes 
over  some  mountains  running  south-east  and  north- 
west, and  crosses  a  river  which  he  calls  Adams,^  in. 

lar  cliiFs,  which  hemmed  us  in  on  either  side,  was  equally  impossible.  Qui 
only  alternative  was  to  go  ahead.  After  passing  six  days  without  food,  the 
men  were  weak  and  disheartened.  I  listened  to  all  their  murmurings  and 
heart-rending  complaints.  They  often  spoke  of  home  and  friends,  declaring 
they  would  never  see  them  more.  Some  spoke  of  wives  and  children  whom 
they  dearly  loved,  and  who  must  shortly  become  widows  and  orphans.  They 
had  toiled,  they  said,  through  every  difficulty;  had  risked  their  lives  among 
wild  beasts  and  hostile  Indians  in  the  wilderness,  all  of  which  they  were  will- 
ing to  undergo;  but  who  could  bear  up  against  actual  starvation?  I  en- 
couraged them  all  in  my  power,  telling  them  that  I  bore  an  equal  part  in  their 
sufferings;  that  I  too  was  toiling  for  those  I  loved,  and  whom  I  yet  hoped  to 
see  again;  that  we  should  all  endeavor  to  keep  up  our  courage,  and  not  add 
to  our  misfortunes  by  giving  way  to  despondency.  Another  night  was  passed 
amid  the  barren  rocks.  The  next  morning  the  fearful  proposition  was  made 
by  some  of  the  party  for  the  company  to  cast  lots,  to  see  which  should  be 
sacrificed  to  afford  food  for  the  others,  without  which  they  must  inevitably 
perish.  My  feelings  at  such  a  proposition  cannot  be  described.  I  begged 
of  them  to  wait  one  day  more,  and  make  all  the  way  they  could  meanwhile. 
By  doing  so,  I  said,  we  must  come  to  a  break  in  the  cafiion,  where  we  could 
escape.  They  consented,  and  moving  down  the  river  as  fast  as  the  current 
would  carry  us,  to  our  inexpressible  joy  we  found  a  break,  and  a  camp  of 
trappers  therein.  All  now  rejoiced  that  they  had  not  carried  their  fearful 
proposition  into  effect.  We  had  fallen  into  good  hands,  and  slowly  recruited 
ourselves  with  the  party,  which  was  under  the  charge  of  one  Provo,  a  man 
with  whom  I  was  well  acquainted.  By  his  advice  we  left  the  river  and  pro- 
ceeded in  a  north-westerly  direction.  Provo  was  well  provided  with  pro- 
visions and  horses,  and  he  supplied  us  with  both.  We  remained  with  his 
party  until  we  arrived  at  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  Here  I  fell  in  with  a  large 
company  of  trappers,  composed  of  Canadians  and  Iroquois  Indians,  under  the 
conimand  of  Peter  Ogden,  in  the  service  of  the  Northwest  Fur  Company. 
With  this  party  I  made  a  very  good  bargain,  as  you  will  see  when  they  arrive 
at  our  camp,  having  purchased  all  their  peltry  on  very  reasonable  terms.' 

*  Jedediah  Smith  in  1826  calls  the  lake  Utah,  and  the  stream  flowing  into 
it  from  the  south  Ashley  River.  *  Je  traversal  le  petit  lac  UtS,,  et  je  remon- 
tai  le  cours  de  I'Ashley  qu'il  recoit.'  Extrait  d'une  lettre,  in  Nouvelles  An.  de.s 
Voy.,  xxxvii.  208.  For  an  account  of  this  journey  see  Hist.  Cat.,  this  series, 
where  are  fully  discussed  the  several  conflicting  authorities.  Warner's  Rem., 
MS.,  21-9,  .dates  the  journey  1824,  and  carries  the  company  from  Green 
River,  south  of  Salt  Lake,  and  over  the  mountains  near  Walker  Pass. 
Accounts  in  Cronise's  Nat.  Wealth  Cal;  Hutchings'  Mag.,  v.  351-2;  S.  F. 
Times,  3\xne  14,  1867;  Randolph's  Oration,  ZU-U;  Tuthilh  JUst.  Cal,  124-5; 
Frignet,  La  Calif omie,  58-60;  Douglas'  Private  Papers,  MS.,  2d  ser.  1.; 
Victor's  River  of  the  West,  34;  Bines'  Voy.,  110,  are  mentioned. 

"The  Sevier;  or  possibly  he  crossed  from  the  Sevier  to  the  Virgen  and 
supposed  them  to  be  one  stream. 


honor  of  the  president.  After  ten  days'  march,  still  in 
a  south-westerly  direction,  through  the  country  of  the 
Pah  Utes,  he  recrosses  the  same  stream,  and  after 
two  days  comes  to  the  junction  of  the  Adams  with 
what  he  calls  the  Seedskeeder,  or  Siskadee,  river,^  a 
stream  full  of  shallows  and  rapids  and  flowing  through 
a  sterile  country.  Then  he  reaches  a  fertile  wooded 
valley  which  belongs  to  the  Amajabes,  or  Mojaves, 
where  the  party  rests  fifteen  days,  meeting  with  the 
kindest  treatment  from  the  natives,  who  provide  food 
and  horses.  Thence  they  are  guided  by  two  neo- 
phytes westward  through  a  desert  country,  and  reach 
the  mission  of  San  Gabriel  in  December,  their  ap- 
pearance causing  no  small  commotion  in  California. 
After  many  strange  adventures,  fully  narrated  in  my 
History  of  California,  Smith  works  his  way  north- 
ward up  the  San  Joaquin  Valley,  and  in  May  1827 
crosses  the  Sierra  Nevada  and  returns  eastward  to 
Great  Salt  Lake.  With  Jedediah  Smith,  during 
some  part  of  his  stay  in  Utah,  was  Thomas  L.  Smith, 
whom  we  must  immortalize  in  history  as  Pegleg 
Smith.  He  did  not  possess  a  very  estimable  charac- 
ter, as,  I  am  sorry  to  say,  few  of  his  class  did  in  those 
days.  The  leaders  of  American  fur  companies,  how- 
ever, were  exceptions,  and  in  points  of  intelligence, 
integrity,  and  daring  were  in  no  wise  behind  their 
British  brethren.^ 

From  south-east  to  north-west  a  portion  of  Utah 
was  traversed  in  the  autumn  of  1830  by  a  trapping 
party  under  William  Wolfskill.  The  company  was 
fitted  out  in  New  Mexico,  and  the  great  valley  of 
California  was  their  objective  point.  Wolfskill  had 
been  a  partner  of  Ewing  Young,  who  was  then  in 
California.     Leaving  Taos  in  September  they  struck 

•  The  Adams  now  is  clearly  the  Rio  Virgen,  and  the  Seedskeeder,  or  Sis- 
kadee, the  Colorado.  See  Hist.  Northwest  Coast,  ii.  583,  this  series. 

^P.  W.  Crawford,  Nar.,  M.>.,  27,  says  he  saw  Pegleg  Smith  in  1847 
on  Ham  Fork,  in  a  beautiful  valley  of  the  Bear  Eiver  Mountains,  where  ho 
then  lived  with  his  native  wife  and  a  few  savage  retainers. 



north- westerly,  crossing  the  Colorado,  Grande,  Green, 
and  Sevier  rivers,  and  then  turned  south  to  the  Rio 
Virgen,  all  the  time  trapping  oq  the  way.  Then  pass- 
ing down  by  the  Mojaves  they  reached  Los  Angeles 
in  February  1831.  George  G  Yount  and  Louis  Bur- 
ton were  of  the  party. ^ 

Green  River  Country. 

During  the  winter  of  1832-3  B.  L.  E.  Bonneville 
made  his  camp  on  Salmon  River,  and  in  July  following 
was  at  the  Green  River  rendezvous.®  Among  the 
several  trapping  parties  sent  by  him  in  various  direc- 

8  There  was  little  of  importance  to  Utah  history  in  this  expedition,  for  full 
particulars  of  which  see  Hist.  Cal,  this  series. 

^  For  an  account  of  Bonneville  and  his  several  excursions  see  Hist.  Northwest 
Coast,  u.  chap,  xxv.;  Hist.  Ccd.,  and  Hist.  Nevada,  this  series. 


tions  was  one  under  Joseph  Walker,  who  with  some 
thirty-six  men,  among  them  Joe  Meek,  went  to  trap  on 
the  streams  falling  into  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 

Bonneville  affirms  that  Walker's  intention  was  to 
pass  round  the  Great  Salt  Lake  and  explore  its  bor- 
ders ;  but  George  Nidever  who  was  of  Walker's  com- 
pany, and  at  the  rendezvous  while  preparations  were 
made,  says  nothing  of  such  purpose,  and  it  was  prob- 
ably not  thought  of  by  Bonneville  until  afterward. 
Nidever  had  suffered  severely  from  the  cold  during 
the  previous  winter,  and  had  come  to  the  Green  River 
rendezvous  that  season  for  the  express  purpose  of 
joining  some  party  for  California  or  of  forming  such 
a  party  himself,  having  been  informed  that  the  climate 
there  was  milder  than  in  the  mountains  where  he  had 

If  the  intention  was,  as  Bonneville  asserts,  that 
this  party  should  pass  round  the  great  lake,  in  their 
endeavor  they  presently  found  themselves  in  the 
midst  of  desolation,  between  wide  sandy  wastes  and 
broad  brackish  waters;  and  to  quench  their  thirst 
they  hastened  westward  where  bright  snowy  moun- 
tains promised  cooling  streams.  The  Ogden  River ^^ 
region  being  to  them  so  new,  and  the  thought  of  Cali- 
fornia so  fascinating,  they  permitted  themselves  to 
stray  from  original  intentions,  and  cross  the  Sierra 
Nevada  to  Monterey.  All  that  is  known  of  their 
doings  before  reaching  the  Snowy  Range  is  given  in 
my  History  of  Nevada,  and  their  exploits  after  reach- 
ing California  are  fully  narrated  in  that  part  of  this 
series  devoted  to  the  history  of  the  latter  country. 


1°  Such  being  the  case  he  would  hardly  have  joined  Walker's  expedition 
had  it  been  understood  that  the  exploration  of  Salt  Lake  was  intended.  See 
Nidever^s  Life  and  Adv.,  MS.,  58. 

^^  Previously  called  the  Mary  River,  and  now  the  Humboldt.  See  Hist, 
Nevada;  Hist.  Northwest  Coast;  and  Hist.  Cal.,  this  series. 

^^See  Nidever' s  Life  and  Adv.,  MS.;  Warner's  Mem.,  in  Pac.  R.  Beport, 
xi.  pt.  i.  31-4.  In  giving  his  dictation  to  Irving,  Bonneville  professed  great 
interest  in  the  exploration  of  Great  Salt  Lake  though  he  had  done  nothing  to 
speak  of  in  that  direction.  Irving,  however,  humored  the  captain,  whose 
vanity  prompted  him  to  give  his  own  name  to  the  lake,  although  he  had  not 
a  shadow  of  title  to  that  distinction. 


In  Winterbotham's  history  published  in  New  York 
in  1795  is  given  a  map  of  North  America  showing  an 
enormous  nameless  inland  sea  above  latitude  42°  with 
small  streams  running  into  it,  and  south  of  said  par- 
allel and  east  of  the  meridian  of  the  inland  sea  is  a 
smaller  body  of  water  with  quite  a  large  stream  flow- 
ing in  from  the  west,  besides  three  smaller  ones  from 
the  south  and  north.     As  both  of  these  bodies  of 

Bonneville's  Map,  1837. 

water  were  laid  down  from  the  imaginations  of  white 
men,  or  from  vague  and  traditionary  reports  of  the 
natives,  it  may  be  that  only  the  one  Great  Salt  Lake 
was  originally  referred  to,  or  it  may  be  that  the  origi- 
nal description  was  applied  to  two  lakes  or  inland  seas. 
The  native  village  on  one  of  the  southern  tributaries, 
Taguayo,  refers  to  the  habitations  of  the  Timpanogos, 
and  may  have  been  derived  from  the  Spaniards ;  but 
more  probably  the  information  was  obtained  through 



natives  who  themselves  had  received  it  from  other 

•  dt  TtiUeoM  Jnltt 


Sturgeon  L^       HedlJ 

i:Bear  L. 

Utah  and  Nevada,  1795. 

In  the  map  of  WilHam  Rector,  a  surveyor  in  the 
service  of  the  general  government,  Utah  has  open 
and  easy  communication  with  the  sea  by  way  of  the 

Rector's  Map,  1818. 


valley  of  the  Willamette  River,  whose  tributaries 
drain  the  whole  of  Nevada  and  Utah. 

Mr  Finley  in  his  map  of  North  America  claimed 
to  have  included  all  the  late  geographical  discoveries, 
which  claim  we  may  readily  allow,  and  also  accredit 
him  with  much  not  yet  and  never  to  be  discovered. 
The  mountains  are  artistically  placed,  the  streams 
made  to  run  with  remarkable  regularity  and  direct- 
ness, and  they  are  placed  in  positions  affording  the  best 

Finley's  Map,  1826. 

facilities  for  commerce.  The  lakes  and  rivers  Timpa- 
nogos,  Salado,  and  Buenaventura,  by  their  position, 
not  to  say  existence,  show  the  hopeless  confusion  of 
the  author's  mind. 

A  brief  glance  at  the  later  visits  of  white  men  to 
Utah  is  all  that  is  necessary  in  this  place.  The  early 
emigrants  to  Oregon  did  not  touch  this  territory,  and 
those  to  California  via  Fort  Bridger  for  the  most  part 
merely  passed  through  leaving  no  mark.  The  emi- 
grants to  Oregon  and  California  in  1841  came  together 
by  the  usual  route  up  the  Platte,  along  the  Sweet- 
water, and  through  the  South  Pass  to  Bear  River 
Valley.     When  near  Soda  Springs  those  for  Oregon 


went  north  to  Fort  Hall,  while  those  for  California 
followed  Bear  River  southward  until  within  ten  miles 
of  Great  Salt  Lake,  when  they  turned  westward  to 
find  Ogden  River.  Of  the  latter  party  were  J.  Bar- 
tleson,  C.  M.  Weber,  Talbot  H.  Green,  John  Bid- 
well,  Josiah  Belden,  and  twenty-seven  others.  Their 
adventures  while  in  Utah  were  not  startling.  Little 
was  known  of  the  Salt  Lake  region,^^  particularly 
of  the  country  to  the  west  of  it. 

Mr  Belden  in  his  Historical  Statement,  which  I 
number  among  my  most  valuable  manuscripts,  says: 
*'  We  struck  Bear  River  some  distance  below  where 
the  town  of  Evanston  now  is,  where  the  coal  mines 
are,  and  the  railroad  passes,  and  followed  the  river 
down.  It  makes  a  long  bend  to  the  north  there,  and 
comes  down  to  Salt  Lake.  We  arrived  at  Soda 
Springs,  on  Bear  River,  and  there  we  separated  from 
the  company  of  missionaries,  who  were  going  off 
towards  Snake  River  or  Columbia.  There  we  lost 
the  services  of  the  guide  Fitzpatrick.  Several  of  our 
party  who  had  started  to  go  with  us  to  California 
also  left  us  there,  having  decided  to  go  with  the  mis- 
sionaries. Fitzpatrick  advised  us  to  give  up  our 
expedition  and  go  with  them  to  Fort  Hall,  one  of  the 
Hudson's  Bay  stations,  as  there  was  no  road  for  us  to 
follow,  nothing  was  known  of  the  country,  and  we  had 
nothing  to  guide  us,  and  so  he  advised  us  to  give  up 
the  California  project.  He  thought  it  was  doubtful 
if  we  ever  got  there,  we  might  get  caught  in  the 
snow  of  the  mountains  and  perish  there,  and  he  con- 
sidered it  very  hazardous  to  attempt  it.  Some  four 
or  five  of  our  party  withdrew  and  went  with  the  mis- 

13  'Previous  to  setting  out,'  says  Bidwell,  California,  1841-8,  MS.,  24-5, 
*  I  consulted  maps  so  as  to  learn  as  much  as  possible  about  the  country ...  As 
for  Salt  Lake,  there  was  a  large  lake  marked  in  that  region,  but  it  was  several 
hundred  miles  long  from  north  to  south,  with  two  large  rivers  running  from 
either  end,  diverging  as  they  ran  west,  and  entering  the  Pacific  Ocean. '  It  was 
Finley's  map  of  North  America,  1826,  herein  reproduced,  which  he  alludes 
to.  '  My  friends  in  Missouri  advised  me  to  bring  tools,  and  in  case  we  could 
not  get  through  with  our  wagons  to  build  canoes  and  go  down  one  of  these 
rivers. '  The  region  to  the  west  of  Salt  Lake  was  indeed  a  terra  incognita  to 
these  explorers. 


sionaries.  About  thirty-one  of  us  adhered  to  our 
original  intention  and  dedined  to  give  up  our  expedi- 

While  the  party  were  slowly  descending  Bear  River 
four  of  them  rode  over  to  Fort  Hall  to  obtain  if  pos- 
sible a  "pilot  to  conduct  us  to  the  gap  in  the  Cali- 
fornia Mountains,  or  at  least  to  the  head  of  Mary's 
River,"  and  to  make  inquiries  of  Mr  Grant,  then  in 
charge.  No  guide  could  be  found,  and  Grant  was  not 
able  greatly  to  enlighten  them.  The  fur-trader  could 
have  told  them  much  concerning  the  route  to  Oregon, 
but  this  way  to  California  as  an  emigrant  road  had 
hardly  yet  been  thought  of. 

*'As  we  approached  Salt  Lake,"  writes  Bidwell,^* 
''we  were  misled  quite  often  by  the  mirage.  The 
country  too  was  obscured  by  smoke.  The  water  in 
Bear  River  became  too  salt  for  use.  The  sage  brush 
on  the  small  hillocks  of  the  almost  level  plain  became 
so  magnified  as  to  look  like  trees.  Hoping  to  find 
water,  and  supposing  these  imaginary  trees  to  be 
growing  on  some  stream,  and  knowing  nothing  about 
the  distance  to  Salt  Lake,  we  kept  pushing  ahead 
mile  after  mile.  Our  animals  almost  perished  for 
want  of  water  while  we  were  travelling  over  this  salt 
plain,  which  grew  softer  and  softer  till  our  wagons 
cut  into  the  ground  five  or  six  inches,  and  it  became 
impossible  to  haul  them.  We  still  thought  we  saw 
timber  but  a  short  distance  ahead,  when  the  fact 
really  was  there  was  no  timber,  and  we  were  driving 
straight  for  the  Great  Salt  Lake." 

The  truth  is  they  had  wandered  from  their  course; 
they  had  passed  Cache  Valley  where  they  intended  to 
rest  and  hunt;  they  were  frequently  obliged  to  leave 

^'  Calif omia,  1841-8,  MS.,  33-4.  The  author,  then  little  more  than  boy, 
being  but  21,  has  a  long  story  to  tell  about  straying  from  camp  one  day  in 
company  with  a  comrade,  James  John,  bent  on  a  visit  to  the  adjacent  heights 
for  a  handful  of  snow ;  and  how  they  slept  in  the  mountains  in  a  bear's  nest, 
and  reached  next  day  their  company,  some  of  whom  had  spent  the  night  in 
search.  They  had  been  given  up  as  slain  by  the  Blackfeet;  and  there  were 
those  so  ungracious  as  to  say  that  it  would  have  served  them  right  had  it 
been  so. 


the  river,  turned  aside  by  the  hills.  It  was  past 
mid-summer,  and  the  sun's  rays  beat  heavily  on  the 
white  salted  plain.  The  signal  fires  of  the  Sho- 
shones  illuminated  the  hills  at  night.  "  In  our  des- 
peration we  turned  north  of  east  a  little  and  struck 
Bear  River  again  a  few  miles  from  its  mouth.  The 
water  here  was  too  salt  to  quench  thirst;  our  ani- 
mals would  scarcely  taste  it,  yet  we  had  no  other." 
The  green  fresh-looking  grass  was  stiffened  with  salt. 
Mr  Belden  says:  ''After  separating  from  the  mis- 
sionaries we  followed  Bear  Biver  down  nearly  to 
where  it  enters  Salt  Lake,  about  where  Corinne  is 
now.  We  had  some  knowledge  of  the  lake  from  some 
of  the  trappers  who  had  been  there.  We  turned  off 
more  to  the  west  and  went  round  the  northerly  end 
of  Salt  Lake.  There  we  found  a  great  difficulty  in 
getting  water  for  several  days,  all  the  water  near  the 
lake  being  very  brackish.  We  had  to  make  it  into 
strong  coffee  to  drink  it." 

On  the  20th  of  August  the  company  rested  while 
two  of  their  number  went  out  to  explore.  They 
found  themselves  encamped  ten  miles  from  the  mouth 
of  the  river.  Thence  next  day,  Sunday,  they  took  a 
north-west  course,  crossing  their  track  of  the  Thursday 
previous;  on  the  23d  they  were  in  full  view  of  Salt 
Lake.  Men  and  animals  were  almost  dying  of  thirst, 
and  "  in  our  trouble,"  says  Bidwell,  "  we  turned  di- 
rectly north  toward  some  high  mountains,  and  in  the 
afternoon  of  the  next  day  found  springs  of  good  water 
and  plenty  of  grass."  This  w^as  the  27th,  and  here  the 
company  remained  while  two  of  their  number  again 
advanced  and  discovered  a  route  to  Ogden  Biver. 
What  befell  them  further  on  their  way  across  to  the 
mountains  the  reader  will  find  in  my  History  oj 

^^The  expedition  entire  is  given  in  Hist.  CaL,  this  series.  See  also  Bel- 
den's  Hist.  Statement,  MS.;  Hopper's  Narrative,  MS.;  Taylor's  Dis.  and 
Founders,  i.  No.  7;  Sutter  Co.  Hist.,  17;  S.  F.  Bulletin,  July  i!7,  1868;  S.  F. 
Alta,  Aug.  5,  1856,  and  Sept.  1868;  Santa  Cruz  Sentinel,  Aug.  29,  \m^;  Los  An- 
geles News,  Sept.  1,  1868;  San  Diego  Union,  Jan.  16,  1869;  San  Jos6  Pioneer, 


In  1842  Marcus  Whitman  and  A.  L.  Lovejoy,  on 
their  way  from  Oregon  to  the  United  States,  passed 
through  Utah  from  Fort  Hall,  by  way  of  Uintah, 
Taos,  and  Santa  Fe.  For  further  information  con- 
cerning them,  and  the  object  of  their  journey,  I  would 
refer  the  reader  to  my  History  of  Oregon, 

In  1843  John  C.  Fremont  followed  the  emigrant 
trail  through  the  south  pass,  and  on  the  6th  of  Sep- 
tember stood  upon  an  elevated  peninsula  on  the  east 
side  of  Great  Salt  Lake,  a  little  north  of  Weber 
River,  beside  which  stream  his  party  had  encamped 
the  previous  night.  Fremont  likens  himself  to  Bal- 
boa discovering  the  Pacific;  but  no  one  else  would 
think  of  doing  so.  He  was  in  no  sense  a  discoverer; 
and  though  he  says  he  was  the  first  to  embark  on 
that  inland  sea,  he  is  again  in  error,  trappers  in  skin 
boats  having  performed  that  feat  while  the  pathfinder 
was  still  studying  his  arithmetic,  as  I  have  before 
mentioned.  It  is  certainly  a  pleasing  sight  to  any 
one,  coming  upon  it  from  either  side,  from  the  cover 
of  rolling  mountains  or  the  sands  of  desert  plains,  and 
under  almost  any  circumstance  the  heart  of  the 
beholder  is  stirred  within  him.  A  number  of  large 
islands  raised  their  rocky  front  out  of  dense  sullen 
waters  whose  limit  the  eye  could  not  reach,  w^hile 
myriads  of  wild  fowl  beat  the  air,  making  a  noise 
"  like  distant  thunder." 

Black  clouds  gathered  in  the  west,  and  soon  were 
pouring  their  floods  upon  the  explorers.  Camping 
some  distance  above  the  mouth  on  Weber  River,  they 
made  a  corral  for  the  animals,  and  threw  up  a  small 
fort  for  their  own  protection.  Provisions  being  scarce, 
seven  of  the  party  under  Frangois  Lajeunesse  were 
sent  to  Fort  Hall,  which  place  they  reached  with 

Feb.  1877;  Shiich'a  Scrap  Bool-,  182-4;  Pefaluma  Crescent,  Sept.  10,  1872 
Santa  Clara  News,  Feb.  6,  1869;  Hayes*  Scrap  Boohs,  Cat.  Notes,  iii.  171 
Napa  Renorter,  March  23,  Sept.  21,-1872;  S.  F.  Bulletin,  July  19,  1860 
Shuck\i  Hep.  Men,  920-1. 



difficulty,  after  separation  from  each  other  and  several 
days'  wanderings. 

Leaving  three  men  in  camp,  with  four  others,  in- 
cluding Kit  Carson  who  was  present,  Fremont  on  the 
8th  embarked  in  a  rubber  boat  and  dropped  down  to 
the  mouth  of  the  stream,  which  the  party  found  shal- 
low and  unnavigable.  Next  morning  they  were  out 
on  the  lake,  fearful  every  moment  lest  their  air-blown 
boat  should  collapse  and  let  them  into  the  saline  but 
beautiful  transparent  liquid.  At  noon  they  reached  one 
of  the  low  near  islands  and  landed.  They  found  there, 
washed  up  by  the  waves,  a  dark  brown  bank,  ten 
or  twenty  feet  in  breadth,  composed  of  the  skins  of 
worms,  about  the  size  of  oats,  while  the  rocky  cliffs 
were,  whitened  by  incrustations  of  salt.  Ascending 
to  the  highest  point  attainable  they  took  a  surround 
ing  view,  and  called  the  place  Disappointment  Island, 
because  they  had  failed  to  find  the  fertile  lands  and 
game  hoped  for.  Then  they  descended  to  the  edge 
of  the  water,  constructed  lodges  of  drift-wood,  built 
fires,  and  spent  the  night  there,  returning  next  d^y 
in  a  rough  sea  to  their  mainland  camp.  Thence  they 
proceeded  north  to  Bear  River,  and  Fort  Hall,  and 
on  to  Oregon. ^'^  On  his  return  by  way  of  Klamath 
and  Pyramid  lakes,  Fremont  crossed  the  Sierra  to 
Sutter  Fort,  proceeded  up  the  San  Joaquin  into 
Southern  California,  and  taking  the  old  Spanish  trail 
to  the  Rio  Virgen  followed  the  Wahsatch  Mountains 
to  Utah  Lake. 

There  was  a  party  under  Fremont  in  Utah  also  in 
1845.  Leaving  Bent  Fort  in  August  they  ascended 
the  Arkansas,  passed  on  to  Green  River,  followed 
its  left  bank  to  the  Duchesne  branch,  and  thence 
crossed  to  the  head-waters  of  the  Timpanogos,  down 
which    stream   they  went   to   Utah   Lake.     Thence 

^^  Now  Castle  Island,  or  as  some  call  it  Fr(5mont  Island. 

^^  For  an  account  of  Fremont's  Oregon  adventures  see  Hist.  Oregon;  and 
for  his  doings  in  California  see  Hist.  Cal.,  this  series.     We  also  meet  with 
him  again  in  our  History  of  Nevada. 
Hist.  Utah.    3 


they  passed  on  to  Great  Salt  Lake,  made  camp  near 
where  Great  Salt  Lake  City  is  situated,  crossed  to 
Antelope  Island,  and  examined  the  southern  portion 
of  the  lake.  After  this  they  passed  by  way  of  Pilot 
Peak  into  Nevada.  ^^ 

Of  the  six  companies  comprising  the  California  im- 
migration of  1845,  numbering  in  all  about  one  hun- 
dred and  fifty,  five  touched  either  Utah  or  Nevada, 
the  other  being  from  Oregon.  But  even  these  it  is 
not  necessary  to  follow  in  this  connection,  Utah  along 
the  emigrant  road  being  by  this  time  well  known  to 
travellers  and  others.  With  some  it  was  a  question 
while  on  the  way  wdiether  they  should  go  to  Or- 
egon or  California.  Tustin,  who  came  from  Illinois  in 
1845,  with  his  wife  and  child  and  an  ox  team,  says 
in  his  manuscript  Recollections:  '^  My  intention  all 
the  way  across  the  plains  was  to  go  on  to  Oregon; 
but  w4ien  I  reached  the  summit  of  the  Pocky  Moun- 
tains where  the  trail  divides,  I  threw  my  lash  across 
the  near  ox  and  struck  off  on  the  road  to  Califor- 

For  the  Oregon  and  California  emigrations  of  1846, 
except  when  they  exercised  some  influence  on  Utah, 
or  Utah  affairs,  I  would  refer  the  reader  to  the  vol- 
umes of  this  series  treating  on  those  states.  An 
account  of  the  exploration  for  a  route  from  southern 
Oregon,  over  the  Cascade  Mountains,  and  by  way  of 
Klamath  and  Goose  lakes  to  the  Humboldt  River, 
and  thence  on  to  the  region  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake 
by  Scott  and  the  Applegates  in  1846,  is  given  in 
both  the  History  of  Oregon,  and  the  History  of  Ne- 
vada, to  which  volumes  of  this  series  the  reader  is 
referred.  ^^ 

"  Fremont's  Expl.  Ex.,  151-60.     Warner  in  Pac.  E.  Rep.,  xi.  49-50. 

^^The  word  Utah  originated  with  the  people  inhabiting  that  region. 
Early  in  the  17th  century,  when  New  Mexico  was  first  much  talked  of  by  the 
Spaniards,  the  principal  nations  of  frequent  mention  as  inhabiting  the  several 
sides  of  the  locality  about  that  time  occupied  were  the  Navajos,  the  Yutas, 
the  Apaches,  and  the  Comanches.  Of  the  Utah  nation,  which  belongs  to  the 
Shoshone  family,  there  were  many  tribes.  See  Native  Races,  i.  422,  463-8, 


this  series.  There  were  the  Pah  Utes,  or  Pyutes,  the  Pi  Edes,  the  Gosh 
Utes,  or  Goshutes,  the  Uinta  Utes,  the  Yam  Pah  Utes,  and  many  others. 
Pah  signifies  water;  pah  guampe,  salt  water,  or  salt  lake;  Pah  Utes,  Indians 
that  live  about  the  water.  The  early  orthography  of  the  word  Utah  is  varied. 
Escalante,  prior  to  his  journey  to  Utah  Lake,  Carta  de  28  Oct.  1775,  MS., 
finds  the  '  Yutas '  inhabiting  the  region  north  of  the  Moquis.  This  was  a 
common  spelling  by  the  early  Spaniards,  and  might  be  called  the  proper  one. 
Later  we  have  '  Youta,'  *  Eutaw,'  '  Utaw,'  and  '  Utah.' 




A  Glance  Eastwaud — The  Middle  States  Sixty  Years  Ago — ^Birth  and 
Parentage  of  Joseph  Smith — Spiritual  Manifestations — Joseph 
Tells  his  Vision— And  is  Eeviled — Moroni  Appears — Persecutions 
— Copying  the  Plates— Martin  Harris— Oliver  Cowdery — Transla- 
tion—The Book  ot  Mormon — Aaronic  Priesthood  Conferred— Con- 
versions—  The  Whitmer  Family  —  The  Witnesses  —  Spaulding 
Theory — Printing  of  the  Book — Melchisedec  Priesthood  Con- 
ferred— Duties  of  Elders  and  Others — Church  of  Latter-day 
Saints  Organized — First  Miracle — First  Conference — Oliver  Cow- 
dery Ordered  to  the  West. 

Let  us  turn  now  to  the  east,  where  have  been  evolv- 
ing these  several  years  a  new  phase  of  society  and  a 
new  religion,  destined  presently  to  enter  in  and  take 
possession  of  this  far-away  primeval  wilderness.  For 
it  is  not  alone  by  the  power  of  things  material  that 
the  land  of  the  Yutas  is  to  be  subdued;  that  mysteri- 
ous agency,  working  under  pressure  of  high  enthusi- 
asm in  the  souls  of  men,  defying  exposure,  cold,  and 
hunger,  defying  ignominy,  death,  and  the  destruction 
of  all  corporeal  things  in  the  hope  of  heaven's  favors 
and  a  happy  immortality,  a  puissance  whose  very 
breath  of  life  is  persecution,  and  whose  highest  glory 
is  martyrdom — it  is  through  this  subtile  and  incom- 
prehensible spiritual  instrumentality,  rather  than  from 
a  desire  for  riches  or  any  tangible  advantage  that  the 
new  Israel  is  to  arise,  the  new  exodus  to  be  conducted, 
the  new  Canaan  to  be  attained. 

Sixty  years  ago  western  New  York  was  essentially 
a  new  country,  Ohio  and  Illinois  were  for  the  most 



part  a  wilderness,  and  Missouri  was  the  United  States 
limit,  the  lands  beyond  being  held  by  the  aborigines. 
There  were  some  settlements  between  Lake  Erie  and 
the  Mississippi  River,  but  they  were  recent  and  rude, 
and"  the  region  was  less  civijized  than  savage.  The 
people,  though  practically  shrewd  and  of  bright  intel- 
lect, were  ignorant;  though  having  within  them  the 
elements  of  wealth,  they  were  poor.  There  was  among 
them  much  true  religion,  whatever  that  may  be,  yet 
they  were  all  superstitious — baptists,  methodists,  and 
presbyterians;  there  was  little  to  choose  between 
them.  Each  sect  was  an  abomination  to  the  others; 
the  others  were  of  the  devil,  doomed  to  eternal  tor- 
ments, and  deservedly  so.  The  bible  was  accepted 
literally  by  all,  every  word  of  it,  prophecies,  miracles, 
and  revelations;  the  same  God  and  the  same  Christ 
satisfied  all;  an  infidel  was  a  thing  woful  and  unclean. 
All  the  people  reasoned.  How  they  racked  their 
brains  in  secret,  and  poured  forth  loud  logic  in  public, 
not  over  problems  involving  intellectual  liberty,  human 
rights  and  reason,  and  other  like  insignificant  matters 
appertaining  to  this  world,  but  concerning  the  world 
to  come,  and  more  particularly  such  momentous  ques- 
tions as  election,  justification,  baptism,  and  infant 
damnation.  Then  of  signs  and  seasons,  God's  ways 
and  Satan's  ways;  likewise  concerning  promises  and 
prayer,  and  all  the  rest,  there  was  a  credulity  most  re- 
freshing. In  the  old  time  there  were  prophets  and 
apostles,  there  were  visions  and  miracles;  why  should 
it  not  be  so  during  these  latter  da3^s?  It  was  time 
for  Christ  to  come  again,  time  for  the  millennial 
season,  and  should  the  power  of  the  almighty  be 
limited?  There  was  the  arch-fanatic  Miller,  and  his 
followers,  predicting  the  end  and  planning  accordingly. 
''The  idea  that  revelation  from  God  was  unattainable 
in  this  age,  or  that  the  ancient  gifts  of  the  gospel  had 
ceased  forever,  never  entered  my  head,"  writes  a  young 
quaker;  and  a  methodist  of  that  epoch  says :  ''We  be- 
lieved in  the  gathering  of  Israel,  and  in  the  restoration 


of  the  ten  tribes ;  we  believed  that  Jesus  would  come 
to  reign  personally  on  the  earth;  we  believed  that 
there  ought  to  be  apostles,  prophets,  evangelists,  pas- 
tors, and  teachers,  as  in  former  days,  and  that  the 
gifts  of  healing  and  the  power  of  God  ought  to  be  as- 
sociated with  the  church."  These  ideas,  of  course, 
were  not  held  by  all;  in  many  respects  the  strictly 
orthodox  evangelical  churches  taught  the  contrary; 
but  there  was  enough  of  this  literal  interpretation  and 
license  of  thought  among  the  people  to  enable  them 
to  accept  in  all  honesty  and  sincerity  any  doctrine  in 
harmony  with  these  views. 

Such  were  the  people  and  the  place,  such  the  at- 
mosphere and  conditions  under  which  was  to  spring  up 
the  germ  of  a  new  theocracy,  destined  in  its  develop- 
ment to  accomplish  the  first  settlement  of  Utah — a 
people  and  an  atmosphere  already  sufficiently  charged, 
one  would  think,  with  doctrines  and  dogmas,  with  vul- 
gar folly  and  stupid  fanaticism,  with  unchristian  hate 
and  disputation  over  the  commands  of  God  and  the 
charity  of  Christ.  All  this  must  be  taken  into  ac- 
count in  estimating  character,  and  in  passing  judg- 
ment on  credulity;  men  of  one  time  and  place  cannot 
with  justice  be  measured  by  the  standard  of  other 
times  and  places. 

Before  entering  upon  the  history  of  Mormonism,  I 
would  here  remark,  as  I  have  before  said  in  the  pref- 
ace to  this  volume,  that  it  is  my  purpose  to  treat  the 
subject  historically,  not  as  a  social,  political,  or  relig- 
ious partisan,  but  historically  to  deal  with  the  sect 
organized  under  the  name  of  the  Church  of  Jesus 
Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  as  I  would  deal  with 
any  other  body  of  people,  thus  carrying  over  Utah 
the  same  quality  of  work  which  I  have  applied  to  my 
entire  field,  whether  in  Alaska,  California,  or  Central 
America.  Whatever  they  may  be,  howsoever  right- 
eous or  wicked,  they  are  eirititled  at  the  hand  of  those 
desirous  of  knowing  the  truth  to  a  dispassionate  and 


respectful  hearing,  which  they  have  never  had.  As 
a  matter  of  course,  where  there  is  such  warmth  of 
feeling,  such  bitterness  and  animosity  as  is  here  dis- 
played on  both  sides,  we  must  expect  to  encounter  in 
our  evidence  much  exaggeration,  and  many  untruth- 
ful statements.  Most  that  has  been  written  on  either 
side  is  partisan — bitterly  so;  many  of  the  books  that 
have  been  published  are  full  of  vile  and  licentious 
abuse — disgustingly  so.  Some  of  the  more  palpable 
lies,  some  of  the  grosser  scurrility  and  more  blas- 
phemous vulgarity,  I  shall  omit  altogether. 

Again,  the  history  of  the  Mormons,  which  is  the 
early  history  of  Utah,  is  entitled  in  its  treatment  to 
this  consideration,  as  differing  from  that  of  other  sec- 
tions of  my  work,  and  to  this  only — that  whereas  in 
speaking  of  other  and  older  sects,  as  of  the  catholics 
in  Mexico  and  California,  and  of  the  methodists  and 
presbyterians  in  Oregon,  whose  tenets  having  long 
been  established,  are  well  known,  and  have  no  imme- 
diate bearing  aside  from  the  general  influence  of  re- 
ligion upon  the  subjugation  of  the  country,  any  anal- 
ysis of  doctrines  would  be  out  of  place,  such  analysis 
in  the  present  instance  is  of  primary  importance.  Or- 
dinarily, I  say,  as  I  have  said  before,  that  with  the 
reHgious  beliefs  of  the  settlers  on  new  lands,  or  of  the 
builders  of  empire  in  any  of  its  several  phases,  social 
and  political,  the  historian  has  nothing  to  do,  except 
in  so  far  as  belief  influences  actions  and  events.  As 
to  attempting  to  determine  the  truth  or  falsity  of  any 
creed,  it  is  wholly  outside  of  his  province. 

Since  the  settlement  of  Utah  grew  immediately  out 
of  the  persecution  of  the  Mormons,  and  since  their 
persecutions  grew  out  of  the  doctrines  which  they  pro- 
mulofated,  it  seems  to  me  essential  that  the  orio^in  and 
nature  of  their  religion  should  be  given.  And  as  they 
are  supposed  to  know  better  than  others  what  they 
believe  and  how  they  came  so  to  believe,  I  shall  let 
them  tell  their  own  story  of  the  rise  and  progress  of 
their  religion,  carrying  along  with  it  the  commenta- 


ries  of  their  opponents;  that  is,  giving  in  the  text 
the  narrative  proper,  and  in  the  notes  further  informa- 
tion, elucidation,  and  counter-statements,  according  to 
my  custom.  All  this  by  no  means  implies,  here  or 
elsewhere  in  my  work,  that  when  a  Mormon  elder,  a 
catholic  priest,  or  a  baptist  preacher  says  he  had  a 
vision,  felt  within  him  some  supernatural  influence,  or 
said  a  prayer  which  produced  a  certain  result,  it  is 
proper  or  relevant  for  me  to  stop  and  dispute  with 
him  whether  he  really  did  see,  feel,  or  experience  as 

As  to  the  material  facts  connected  with  the  story 
of  Mormonism,  there  is  but  little  difference  between 
the  Mormons  and  their  opposers;  but  in  the  reception 
and  interpretation  of  acts  and  incidents,  particularly  * 
in  the  acceptation  of  miraculous  assertions  and  spirit- 
ual manifestations,  they  are  as  widely  apart  as  the  two 
poles,  as  my  text  and  notes  clearly  demonstrate.  And 
finally,  I  would  have  it  clearly  understood  that  it  is 
my  purpose,  here  as  elsewhere  in  all  my  historical 
efforts,  to  impart  information  rather  than  attempt  to 
solve  problems. 

In  Sharon,  Windsor  county,  Vermont,  on  the  23d 
of  December,  1805,  was  born  Joseph  Smith  junior, 
presently  to  be  called  translator,  revelator,  seer, 
prophet,  and  founder  of  a  latter-day  dispensation. 
When  the  boy  was  ten  years  old,  his  father,  who  was 
a  farmer,  moved  with  his  family  to  Palmyra,  Wayne 
county.  New  York,  and  four  years  afterward  took  up 
his  abode  some  six  miles  south,  at  Manchester,  On- 
tario county.  Six  sons  and  three  daughters  com- 
prised the  family  of  Joseph  and  Lucy  Smith,  namely, 
Alvin,  Hyrum,  Joseph  junior,  Samuel  Harrison,  Will- 
iam, Don  Carlos,  Sophronia,  Catharine,  and  Lucy.^ 

^  Much  has  been  said  by  the  enemies  of  Mormonism  against  the  Smith 
family.  'All  who  became  intimate  with  them  during  this  period  [1820  to 
1830]  unite  in  representing  the  general  character  of  old  Joseph  and  wife, 
the  parents  of  the  pretended  prophet,  as  lazy,  indolent,  ignorant,  and  super- 


There  was  much  excitement  over  the  subject  of  re- 
ligion in  this  section  at  the  time,  with  no  small  dis- 
cussion of  doctrines,  methodist,  baptist,  and  the  rest; 
and  about  a  year  later,  the  mother  and  four  of  the 
children  joined  the  presbyterians. 

But  young  Joseph  was  not  satisfied  with  any  of  the 
current  theologies,  and  he  was  greatly  troubled  what 
to  do.  Reading  his  bitle  one  day,  he  came  upon  the 
passage,  **If  any  of  you  lack  wisdom,  let  him  ask  of 
God."  He  retired  to  the  woods  and  threw  himself 
upon  his  knees.     It  was  his  first  attempt  at  prayer. 

While  thus  engaged  a  vision  fell  upon  him.  Sud- 
denly he  was  seized  by  some  supernatural  power  of 
evil  import,  which  bound  him  body  and  soul.  He 
could  not  think;  he  could  not  speak;  thick  darkness 
gathered  round.  Presently  there  appeared  above  his 
head  a  pillar  of  light,  which  slowly  descended  and 
enveloped  him.  Immediately  he  was  delivered  from 
the  enemy;  and  in  the  sky  he  saw  two  bright  person- 
ages, one  of  whom  said,  pointing  to  the  other,  "  This 
is  my  beloved  son;  hear  him."  Then  he  asked  what 
he  should  do;  to  which  sect  he  should  unite  himself. 

stitious,  having  a  firm  belief  in  ghosts  and  witches;  the  telling  of  fortunes; 
pretending  to  believe  that  the  earth  was  filled  with  hidden  treasures,  buried 
there  by  Kid  or  the  Spaniards.  Being  miserably  poor,  and  not  mucli  dis- 
posed to  obtain  an  honest  livelihood  by  labor,  the  energies  of  their  minds 
seemed  to  be  mostly  directed  toward  finding  where  these  treasures  were  con- 
cealed, and  the  best  moda  of  acquiring  their  possession.'  Howe's  Mormonism 
Unveiled,  11.  In  the  towns  of  Palmyra  and  Manchester,  in  1833,  documents 
defamatory  to  the  family  were  circulated  for  signature,  one  receiving  1 1  and 
another  51  names.  Given  with  signatures  in  Iloive^s  Monnoni'^m  Unveiled, 
20 1-2,  and  in  Kidder^ s  Mormonism,  20-1.  See  also  Olshaiiscn,  Gesch.  d. 
Morm.,  9-14,  103-10,  200-1;  Gazette  of  Utah,  1874,  17;  Tucker's  Origin  and 
Prog.  Mor.,  11-20.  In  one  of  these  documents,  signed  and  sworn  Peter 
IngersoU,  he  said  that  the  Smith  family  employed  most  of  their  time  in  gold- 
digging.  At  one  time  Joseph  Smith  senior  told  IngersoU  to  hold  a  mineral 
rod  in  his  hand,  a  piece  of  witch-hazel,  and  selected  a  place  to  stand  where 
he  was  to  whisper  directions  to  the  rod;  Smith  stood  apart,  throwing  himself 
into  various  shapes,  but  was  unable  to  produce  the  desired  effect.  Again  he 
took  a  stone  that  IngersoU  had  picked  up  and  exclaimed  that  it  was  invalu- 
able; looking  at  it  earnestly,  he  said  it  revealed  to  him  chests  of  gold  and 
silver  at  the  back  of  his  house;  and  putting  it  into  his  hat,  threw  himself 
into  various  attitudes,  and  soon  appeared  exhausted;  then  in  a  faint  voice, 
said,  'If  you  only  knew  what  I  had  seen  you  would  believe.'  Some  time  be- 
fore Joseph's  discovery  of  the  gold  plates,  the  elder  Smith  told  IngersoU 
that  a  book  had  been  found  in  Canada  in  a  hollow  tree  which  treated  of  the 
discovery  of  this  continent 


And  he  was  told  to  join  none  of  them,  that  all  were 
corrupt,  all  were  abomination  in  the  eyes  of  the  Lord. 
When  he  came  to  himself  he  was  still  gazing  earnestly 
up  into  heaven.  This  was  in  the  spring  of  1820,  and 
Joseph  was  yet  scarcely  fifteen. 

When  the  young  prophet  began  to  proclaim  his 
vision,  the  wise  men  and  preachers  of  the  several  sects 
laughed  at  him;  called  .him  a  silly  boy,  and  told  him 
that  if  his  mind  had  really  been  disturbed,  it  was  the 
devil's  doing.  ^'  Signs  and  revelations,"  said  they, 
*'are  of  by-gone  times;  it  ill  befits  one  so  young  to 
lie  before  God  and  in  the  presence  of  his  people." 
"Nevertheless,"  replied  Joseph,  "I  have  had  a  vision." 
Then  they  reviled  him,  and  the  boy  became  disheart- 
ened and  was  entangled  again  in  the  vanities  of  the 
world,  under  the  heavy  hand  of  their  oppression. 

But  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  could  not  thus  be 
quenched.  The  young  man  repented,  and  sought  and 
found  forgiveness.  Retiring  to  his  bed,  midst  prayer 
and  supplication,  on  the  night  of  September  21,  1823, 
presently  the  room  grew  light,  and  a  figure  robed  in 
exceeding  whiteness  stood  by  the  bedside,  the  feet 
not  touching  the  floor.  And  a  voice  was  heard,  say- 
ing, "  I  am  Moroni,  and  am  come  to  you,  Joseph,  as  a 
messenger  from  God."  Then  the  angel  told  the  youth 
that  the  Lord  had  for  him  a  great  work  to  do,  that  his 
name  should  be  known  to  all  people,  and  of  him  should 
be  spoken  both  good  and  evil.  He  told  him  of  a  book 
written  on  plates  of  gold,  and  containing  an  account 
of  the  early  inhabitants  of  this  continent,  and  the 
gospel  as  delivered  to  them  by  Christ.  He  said  that 
deposited  with  those  plates  were  two  stones  in  silver 
bows,  which,  fastened  to  a  breastplate,  constituted  the 
Urim  and  Thummim ;  and  that  now  as  in  ancient  times 
the  possession  and  use  of  the  stones  constituted  a  seer, 
and  that  through  them  the  book  might  be  translated. 
After  offering  many  scriptural  quotations  from  both 
the  old  and  the  new  testament,  and  charging  the  young 
man  that  when  the  book  and  the  breastplate  were  de- 


livered  to  him  he  should  show  them  to  no  one,  under 
pain  of  death  and  destruction — the  place  where  the 
plates  were  deposited  meanwhile  being  clearly  re- 
vealed to  his  mental  vision — the  light  in  the  room 
grew  dim,  as  Moroni  ascended  along  a  pathway  of 
glory  into  heaven,  and  finally  darkness  was  there  as 
before.  The  visit  was  made  three  times,  the  last 
ending  with  the  dawn,  when  Joseph  arose  greatly  ex- 
hausted and  went  into  the  field  to  work. 

His  father,  observing  his  condition,  sent  him  home; 
but  on  the  way  Joseph  fell  in  a  state  of  unconscious- 
ness to  the  ground.  Soon,  however,  the  voice  of 
Moroni  was  heard,  commanding  him  to  return  to  his 
father,  and  tell  him  all  that  he  had  seen  and  heard. 
The  young  man  obeyed.  The  father  answered  that 
it  was  of  God;  the  son  should  do  as  the  messenger 
had  said.  Then  Joseph,  knowing  from  the  vision 
where  the  plates  were  hidden,  went  to  the  west 
side  of  a  hill,  called  the  hill  Cumorah,  near  the  town 
of  Manchester,  and  beneath  a  large  stone,  part  of 
whose  top  appeared  above  the  ground,  in  a  stone 
box,^  he    found    the    plates,^  the    urim    and    thum- 

'^  Oliver  Cowdery  stated  that  he  visited  the  spot,  and  that  *at  the  bottom 
of  this  [hole]  lay  a  stone  of  suitable  size,  the  upper  surface  being  smooth. 
At  each  edge  was  placed  a  large  quantity  of  cement,  and  into  this  cement  at 
the  four  edges  of  this  stone  were  placed  erect  four  others,  their  lower  edges 
resting  in  the  cement  at  the  outer  edges  of  the  first  stone.  The  four  last 
named  when  placed  erect  formed  a  box,  the  corners,  or  where  the  edges  of 
the  four  came  in  contact,  were  also  cemented  so  firmly  that  the  moisture 
from  without  was  prevented  from  entering.  It  is  to  be  observed  also  that 
the  inner  surfaces  of  the  four  erect  or  side  stones  were  smooth.  The  box 
was  sufficiently  large  to  admit  a  breastplate.  From  the  bottom  of  the  box 
or  from  the  breastplate  arose  three  small  pillars,  composed  of  the  same  de- 
scription of  cement  as  that  used  on  the  edges;  and  upon  these  three  pillars 
were  placed  the  records.  The  box  containing  the  records  was  covered  with 
another  stone,  the  lower  surface  being  flat  and  the  upper  crowning.'  Mackay's 
The  Mormons,  20. 

3  Orson  Pratt  thus  describes  the  plates.  Visions,  14:  'These  records  were 
engraved  on  plates,  which  had  the  appearance  of  gold.  Each  plate  was  not 
far  from  seven  by  eight  inches  in  width  and  length,  being  not  quite  as  thick 
as  common  tin.  They  were  filled  on  both  sides  with  engravings  in  Egyptian 
characters,  and  bound  together  in  a  volume,  as  the  leaves  of  a  book,  and  fast- 
ened at  one  edge  with  three  rings  running  through  the  whole.  This  volume 
was  about  six  inches  in  thickness,  and  a  part  of  it  was  sealed.  The  char- 
acters or  letters  upon  the  unsealed  part  were  small  and  beautifully  engraved. 
The  whole  book  exhibited  many  marks  of  antiquity  in  its  construction,  as  well 


mim,*  and  the  breastplate.^  But  when  he  was  about  to 
take  them  out  Moroni  stood  beside  him  and  said,  *'Not 
yet;  meet  me  here  at  this  time  each  year  for  four  years, 
and  I  will  tell  you  what  to  do."     Joseph  obeyed. 

The  elder  Smith  was  poor,  and  the  boys  were  some- 
times obliged  to  hire  themselves  out  as  laborers.  It 
was  on  the  22d  of  September,  1823,  that  the  plates 
were  found.  The  following  year  Alvin  died,  and  in 
October  1825  Joseph  went  to  work  for  Josiah  Stoal, 
in  Chenango  county.  This  man  had  what  he  sup- 
posed to  be  a  silver  mine  at  Harmony,  Pennsylvania, 
said  to  have  been  once  worked  by  Spaniards.  Thither 
Joseph  went  with  the  other  men  to  dig  for  silver,^ 

as  much  skill  in  the  art  of  engraving.'  In  the  introduction  to  the  Booh  of  Mor- 
mon (New  York  ed.),  viii.,  is  given  essentially  the  same  description.  See 
also  Bo)iwick^s  Mormons  and  Silver  Mines,  61;  Bertrand,  Mem.  d'lm  Mor.,  25; 
Olshaiisen,  Gench.  d.  Morm,,  12-29;  Stenhouse,  Les  Mormons,  i.-vii. ;  Ferris^ 
Utah  and  The  Mormons,  58;  Mackay^s  The  Mormons,  15-22;  Smucker^s  Hist. 
Mormon.-<,  18-28.  For  fac-simile  of  writing  on  golden  plates,  see  Beadle's 
Life  in  Utah,  25.  For  illustrations  of  the  hill,  finding  the  plates,  etc.,  see 
Mackoy's  The  Mormons,  15;  Smucker^s  Hist.  Mormons,  24;  Tucker's  Origin 
and  Prog.  Mor.,  frontispiece.  When  sceptics  ask.  Why  are  not  the  plates 
forthcoming?  believers  ask  in  turn.  Why  are  not  forthcoming  the  stone  tables 
of  Moses?     And  yet  the  ten  commandments  are  to-day  accepted. 

*  'With  the  book  were  found  the  urim  and  thummim,  two  transparent 
crystals  set  in  the  rims  of  a  bow.  These  pebbles  were  the  seer's  instru- 
ment whereby  the  mystery  of  hidden  things  was  to  be  revealed ! '  Intro- 
duction to  Book  of  Mormon  (New  York  ed.),  viii,  'The  best  attainable  defi- 
nition of  the  ancient  urim  and  thummim  is  quite  vague  and  indistinct.  An 
accepted  biblical  lexicographer  gives  the  meaning  as  "light  and  perfection," 
or  the  "shining  and  the  perfect."  The  following  is  quoted  from  Butte rworth's 
Concordance:  "There  are  various  conjectures  about  the  urim  and  thummim, 
whether  they  were  the  stones  in  the  high-priest's  breastplate,  or  something 
distinct  from  them;  which  it  is  not  worth  our  while  to  inquire  into,  since 
God  has  left  it  a  secret.  It  is  evident  that  the  urim  and  thummim  were 
appointed  to  inquire  of  God  by,  on  momentous  occasions,  and  continued  in 
use,  as  some  think,  only  till  the  building  of  Solomon's  temple,  and  all  con- 
clude that  this  was  never  restored  after  its  destruction.'"  Tucker's  Origin  and 
Prog.  Mor.,  32. 

°  'A  breastplate  such  as  was  used  by  the  ancients  to  defend  the  chest 
from  the  arrows  and  weapons  of  their  enemy.'  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  20. 

^  '  Hence  arose  the  very  prevalent  story  of  my  having  been  a  money  digger.' 
Hist.  Joseph  Smith,  in  Times  and  Seasons,  May  2,  1842.  It  seems  from  this, 
or  some  other  cause,  that  the  followers  of  Smith  have  never  regarded  mining 
with  favor,  although  some  of  them  at  times  have  engaged  in  that  occupation. 
Upon  the  discovery  of  gold  in  California,  the  Mormons  were  among  tlie  first 
in  the  field,  at  Coloma,  at  Mormon  Bar,  and  elsewhere.  Left  there  a  little 
longer,  they  would  soon  have  gathered  barrels  of  the  precious  dust ;  but 
promptly  upon  the  call  they  dropped  their  tools,  abandoned  their  brilliant 
prospects,  and  crossing  the  Sierra,  began  to  build  homes  among  their  people 
in  the  untenanted  desert. 


boarding  at  the  house  of  Isaac  Hale.  After  a  month's 
fruitless  effort  Stoal  was  induced  by  Joseph  to  aban- 
don the  undertaking;  but  meanwhile  the  youth  had 
fallen  in  love  with  Hale's  pretty  daughter,  Emma, 
and  wished  to  marry  her.  Hale  objected,  owing  to 
his  continued  assertions  that  he  had  seen  visions,  and 
the  resulting  persecutions;  so  Joseph  took  Emma  to 
the  house  of  Squire  Tarbill,  at  South  Bainbridge, 
where  they  were  married  the  18th  of  January,  1827, 
and  thence  returned  to  his  father's  farm,  where  he 
worked  during  the  following  season.'' 

Every  year  went  Joseph  to  the  hill  Cumorah  to 
hold  communion  with  the  heavenly  messenger,  and  on 
the  2 2d  of  September,  1827,  Moroni  delivered  to  him 
the  plates,^  and  the  urim  and  thummim  with  which 
to  translate  them,  charging  him  on  pain  of  dire  dis- 

'  Among  the  many  charges  of  wrong-doing  ascribed  to  Smith  from  first  to 
last,  was  that  of  having  stolen  Hale's  daughter.  In  answer  it  is  said  that 
the  young  woman  was  of  age,  and  had  the  right  to  marry  whom  and  as  she 

^  '  When  the  appointed  hour  came,  the  prophet,  assuming  his  practised 
air  of  mystery,  took  in  hand  his  money-digging  spade  and  a  large  napkin, 
and  went  off  in  silence  and  alone  in  the  solitude  of  the  forest,  and  after  an 
absence  of  some  three  hours,  returned,  apparently  with  his  sacred  charge  con- 
cealed within  the  folds  of  the  napkin.  Reminding  the  (Smith)  family  of  the 
original  "command"  as  revealed  to  him,  strict  injunction  of  non-intervention 
and  non-inspection  was  given  to  them,  under  the  same  terrible  penalty  as  be- 
fore denounced  for  its  violation.  Conflicting  stories  were  afterwards  told  in 
regard  to  the  manner  of  keeping  the  book  in  concealment  and  safety,  which 
are  not  worth  repeating,  further  than  to  mention  that  the  first  place  of  secre- 
tion was  said  to  be  under  a  heavy  hearthstone  in  the  Smith  family  mansion. 
Smith  told  a  frightful  story  of  the  display  of  celestial  pyrotechnics  on  the  ex- 
posure to  his  view  of  the  sacred  book — the  angel  who  had  led  him  to  the  dis- 
covery again  appearing  as  his  guide  and  protector,  and  confronting  ten  thou- 
sand devils  gathered  there,  with  their  menacing  sulphurous  flame  and  smoke, 
to  deter  him  from  his  purpose !  This  story  was  repeated  and  magnified  by 
the  believers,  and  no  doubt  aided  the  experiment  upon  superstitious  minds 
which  eventuated  so  successfully.'  Tucker's  Or'ig.  and  Prog.  3Ior.,  30-31. 
•A  great  variety  of  contradictory  stories  were  related  by  the  Smith  family 
before  they  had  any  fixed  plan  of  operation,  respecting  the  finding  of  the 
plates  from  which  their  book  was  translated.  One  is,  that  after  the  plates 
were  taken  from  their  hiding-place  by  Jo,  he  again  laid  them  down,  looked 
into  the  hole,  where  he  saw  a  toad,  which  immediately  transformed  itself  into 
a  spirit  and  gave  him  a  tremendous  blow.  Another  is,  that  after  he  had  got 
the  plates,  a  spirit  assaulted  him  with  the  intention  of  getting  them  from  his 
possession,  and  actually  jerked  them  out  of  his  hands.  Jo,  nothing  daunted, 
seized  them  again,  and  started  to  run,  when  his  Satanic  majesty,  or  the  spirit, 
applied  his  foot  to  the  prophet's  seat  of  honor  which  raised  three  or  four  feet 
from  the  ground.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  275-6.  The  excavation 
was  at  the  time  said  to  be  100  feet  in  extent,  though  that  is  probably  an  ex- 


aster  to  guard  them  well  until  he  should  call  for 
them.  Persecutions  increased  when  it  was  known 
that  Joseph  had  in  his  possession  the  plates  of  gold, 
and  every  art  that  Satan  could  devise  or  put  in  force 
through  the  agency  of  wicked  men  was  employed  to 

aggeration.  It  had  a  substantial  door  of  two-inch  plank,  and  a  secure  lock. 
Lapse  of  time  and  other  causes  have  almost  effaced  its  existence.  Tucker's 
Oi'if/in  and  Prog.  Mor.,  48.  '-In  1843,  near  Kinderhook,  Illinois,  in  exca- 
vating a  large  mound,  six  brass  plates  were  discovered  of  a  bell-shape  four 
inches  in  length  and  covered  with  ancient  characters.  They  were  fastened 
together  with  two  iron  wires  almost  entirely  corroded,  and  were  found 
along  with  charcoal,  ashes,  and  human  bones,  more  than  twelve  feet  below 
the  surface  of  a  mound  of  the  sugar-loaf  form,  common  in  the  Mississippi 
Valley.  Large  trees  growing  upon  these  artificial  mounds  attest  their  great 
antiquity ...  No  key  has  yet  been  discovered  for  the  interpretation  of  the 
engravings  upon  these  brass  plates,  or  of  the  strange  gylphs  upon  the 
ruins  of  Otolum  in  Mexico. '  Daniel  VVedderburn,  in  Popular  Science  Monthly, 
Dec.  1876;  see  also  Times  and  Seasons,  iv.  186-7,  and  engraved  cuts  in  Tay- 
lor's Discussio7is,  and  in  Machay's  7he  Mormons,  26-7.  On  the  authority  of 
Kidder,  Mormonism,  23-6,  Willard  Chase,  a  carpenter,  said:  'In  the  fore 
part  of  September  (I  believe)  1827,  the  prophet  requested  me  to  make  him  a 
chest,  informing  me  that  he  designed  to  move  back  to  Pennsylvania,  and  ex- 
j)ecting  soon  to  get  his  gold  book,  he  wanted  a  chest  to  lock  it  up,  giving  me 
to  understand,  at  the  same  time,  that  if  I  would  make  the  chest  he  would 
give  me  a  share  in  the  book.  I  told  him  my  business  was  such  that  I  could 
not  make  it;  but  if  he  would  bring  the  book  to  me,  I  would  lock  it  up  for 
him.  He  said  that  would  not  do,  as  he  was  commanded  to  keep  it  two  years 
without  letting  it  come  to  the  eye  of  any  one  but  himself.  This  command- 
ment, however,  he  did  not  keep,  for  in  less  than  two  years  twelve  men  said 
they  had  seen  it.  I  told  him  to  get  it  and  convince  me  of  its  existence,  and 
I  would  make  him  a  chest;  but  he  said  that  would  not  do;  as  he  must  have  a 
chest  to  lock  the  book  in  as  soon  as  he  took  it  out  of  the  ground.  I  saw  him 
a  fews  days  after,  when  he  told  me  I  must  make  the  chest.  I  told  him  plainly 
that  I  could  not,  upon  which  he  told  me  that  I  could  have  no  share  in  the  book. 
A  few  weeks  after  this  conversation  he  came  to  my  house  and  related  the 
following  story:  That  on  the  22d  of  September  he  arose  early  in  the  morning 
and  took  a  one-horse  wagon  of  some  one  that  had  stayed  over  night  at  their 
house,  without  leave  or  license;  and,  together  with  his  wife,  repaired  to  the 
hill  which  contained  the  book.  He  left  his  wife  in  the  wagon^  by  the  road, 
and  went  alone  to  the  hill,  a  distance  of  thirty  or  forty  rods  from  the  road; 
he  said  he  then  took  the  book  out  of  the  ground  and  hid  it  in  a  tree-top  and 
returned  home.  He  then  went  to  the  town  of  Macedon  to  work.  After 
about  ten  days,  it  having  been  suggested  that  some  one  had  got  his  book,  his 
wife  went  after  him;  he  hired  a  horse,  and  went  home  in  the  afternoon,  stayed 
long  enough  to  drink  one  cup  of  tea,  and  then  went  for  his  book,  found  it 
safe,  took  off  his  frock,  wrapt  it  round  it,  put  it  under  his  arm,  and  ran  all 
the  way  home,  a  distance  of  about  two  miles.  He  said  he  should  think  it 
would  weigh  sixty  pounds,  and  was  sure  it  would  weigh  forty.  On  his  return 
home  he  said  he  was  attacked  by  two  men  in  the  woods,  and  knocked  them 
both  down  and  made  his  escape,  arrived  safe,  and  secured  his  treasure.  He 
then  observed  that  if  it  had  not  been  for  that  stone  (which  he  acknowledged 
belonged  to  me)  he  w^ould  not  have  obtained  the  book.  A  few  days  after- 
ward he  told  one  of  my  neighbors  that  he  had  not  got  any  such  book,  and 
never  had;  but  that  he  told  the  story  to.  deceive  the  damned  fool  (meaning 
me),  to  get  him  to  make  a  chest.'  Others  give  other  accounts,  but  it  seems 
to  me  not  worth  while  to  follow  them  further. 


wrest  them  from  him.  But  almighty  power  and  wis- 
dom prevailed,  and  the  sacred  relics  were  safely  kept 
till  the  day  the  messenger  called  for  them,  when  they 
were  delivered  into  his  hands,  Joseph  meanwhile  hav- 
ing accomplished  by  them  all  that  was  required  of 

And  now  so  fierce  becomes  the  fiery  malevolence  of 
the  enemy  that  Joseph  is  obliged  to  fly.^  He  is  very 
poor,  having  absolutely  nothing,  until  a  farmer  named 
Martin  Harris  has  pity  on  him  and  gives  him  fifty 
dollars,^^  with  which  he  is  enabled  to  go  with  his  wife 
to  her  old  home  in  Pennsylvania.^^  Immediately  after 
his  arrival  there  in  December,  he  begins  copying  the 

' '  Soon  the  news  of  his  discoveries  spread  abroad  throughout  all  those 
parts. .  .The  house  was  frequently  beset  by  mobs  and  evil-designing  persons. 
Several  times  he  was  shot  at,  and  very  narrowly  escaped.  Every  device  was 
used  to  get  the  plates  away  from  him.  And  being  continually  in  danger  of 
his  life  from  a  gang  of  abandoned  wretches,  he  at  length  concluded  to  leave 
the  place,  and  go  to  Pennsylvania;  and  accordingly  packed  up  his  goods, 
putting  the  plates  into  a  barrel  of  beans,  and  proceeded  upon  his  journey. 
He  had  not  gone  far  before  he  was  overtaken  by  an  officer  with  a  search-war- 
rant, who  flattered  himself  with  the  idea  that  he  should  surely  obtain  the 
plates;  after  searching  very  diligently,  he  was  sadly  disappointed  at  not  find- 
ing them.  Mr  Smith  then  drove  on,  but  before  he  got  to  his  journey's  end 
he  was  again  overtaken  by  an  officer  on  the  same  business,  and  after  ransack- 
ing the  wagon  very  carefully,  he  went  his  way  as  much  chagrined  as  the  first 
at  not  being  able  to  discover  the  object  of  his  research.  Without  any  fur- 
ther molestation,  he  pursued  his  journey  until  he  came  to  the  northern  part 
of  Pennsylvania,  near  the  Susquehanna  River,  in  which  part  his  father-in- 
law  resided,'  PraWs  Visions,  15. 

^^  *  In  the  neighborhood  (of  Smith's  old  home)  there  lived  a  farmer  possessed 
of  some  money  and  more  credulity.  Every  wind  of  doctrine  aflected  him. 
He  had  been  in  turn  a  quaker,  a  Wesleyan,  a  baptist,  a  presbyterian.  His 
heterogeneous  and  unsettled  views  admirably  qualified  him  for  discipleship 
where  novelty  was  paramount,  and  concrete  things  M^ere  invested  with  the 
enchantment  of  mystery.  He  was  enraptured  with  the  young  prophet,  and 
ofiered  him  fifty  dollars  to  aid  in  the  publication  of  his  new  bible.'  Taylder^s 
Mormons,  xxviii.-ix. 

^^  'Soon  after  Smith's  arrival  at  Harmony,  Isaac  Hale  (Smith's  father-in- 
law)  heard  he  had  brought  a  wonderful  box  of  plates  with  him.  Hale  "was 
shown  a  box  in  which  it  is  said  they  were  contained,  which  had  to  all  ap- 
pearances been  used  as  a  glass  box  of  the  common  window-glass.  - 1  was 
allowed  to  feel  the  weight  of  the  box,  and  they  gave  me  to  understand  that 
the  book  of  plates  was  then  in  the  box — into  which,  however,  I  was  not  al- 
lowed to  look.  I  inquired  of  Joseph  Smith,  Jr.,  who  was  to  be  the  first  who 
•would  be  allowed  to  see  the  book  of  plates.  He  said  it  was  a  young  child. 
After  this  I  became  dissatisfied,  and  informed  him  that  if  there  was  any- 
thing in  my  house  of  that  description,  which  I  could  not  be  allowed  to  see, 
he  must  take  it  away;  if  he  did  not,  I  was  determined  to  see  it.  After  that 
the  plates  were  said  to  be  hid  in  the  woods. " '  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled, 


characters  on  the  plates,  Martin  Harris  coming  to  his 
assistance,  and  by  means  of  the  urim  and  thummim 
manages  to  translate  some  of  them,  which  work  is 
continued  till  February  1828.  Harris'  wife  is  ex- 
ceedingly curious  about  the  matter,  and  finally  obtains 
possession  through  her  husband  of  a  portion  of  the 
manuscript/^     About  this  time  Harris  takes  a  copy 

^2  Martin  Harris  'says  he  wrote  a  considerable  part  of  the  book  as  Smith 
dictated;  and  at  one  time  the  presence  of  the  Lord  was  so  great  that  a  screen 
wr.s  hung  up  between  him  and  the  prophet;  at  other  times  the  proplaet  would 
sit  in  a  different  room,  or  up  stairs,  while  the  Lord  was  communicating  to  him 
the  contents  of  the  plates.  He  docs  not  pretend  that  he  ever  saw  the  won- 
derful plates  but  once,  although  he  and  Smith  were  engaged  for  months  in 
deciphering  their  contents.'  Mormonism  Unveiled,  14.  'Harris  rendered 
Smith  valuable  assistance  by  transcribing  for  him,  since  he  could  not  wi'ite 
himself.  Poor  Martin  was  unfortunately  gifted  with  a  troublesome  wife.  Her 
inquisitive  and  domineering  nature  made  him  dread  unpleasant  results  from 
his  present  engagement.  His  manuscript  had  reached  116  pages,  and  he 
therefore  begged  permission  to  read  it  to  her  ' '  with  the  hope  that  it  might 
have  a  salutary  effect  upon  her  feelings. "  His  request  was  at  length  granted; 
but  through  carelessness  or  perfidy,  while  in  his  house,  the  precious  docu- 
ment was  irrecoverably  lost.  Joseph  suffered  greatly  in  consequence  of  this 
hinderance,  but  more  from  the  anger  of  heaven  which  was  manifested  against 
him.  As  soon  as  possible,  he  resumed  his  task,  having  secured  the  services 
of  another  scribe,  Oliver  Cowdery,  a  school-master  in  the  neighborhood. 
Martin  Harris,  earnest  as  he  was,  had  never  yet  been  favored  with  a  sight  of 
the  golden  plates.  He  had  not  attained  to  sufficient  purity  of  mind;  but  a 
copy  of  a  small  portion  of  their  contents  was  placed  in  his  hands,  and  this  he 
was  told  he  might  show  to  any  scholar  in  the  world,  if  he  wished  to  be  sat- 
isfied. Accordingly  he  started  for  New  York,  sought  Professor  Anthon 
(Charles  Anthon,  LL.  D. ,  then  adjunct  professor  of  ancient  languages  in  Colum- 
bia College),  and  requested  his  opinion.'  Taylder's  Mormons,  xxxviii.-ix. 
'She  (Harris's  wife)  contrived  in  her  husband's  sleep  to  steal  from  him  the 
particular  source  of  her  disturbance,  and  burned  the  manuscript  to  ashes. 
Por  years  she  kept  this  incendiarism  a  profound  secret  to  herself,  even  until 
after  the  book  was  published.  Smith  and  Harris  held  her  accountable  for  the 
theft,  but  supposed  she  had  handed  the  manuscript  to  some  "  evil-designing 
persons,"  to  be  used  somehow  in  injuring  their  cause.  A  feud  was  thus  pro- 
duced between  husband  and  wife  which  was  never  reconciled.  Great  con- 
sternation now  pervaded  the  Mormon  circles.  The  reappearance  of  the  myste- 
rious stranger  (who  had  before  visited  the  Smiths)  was  again  the  subject  of 
inquiry  and  conjecture  by  observers,  from  whom  was  withheld  all  explanation 
of  his  identity  or  purpose.  It  was  not  at  first  an  easy  task  to  convince  the 
prophet  of  the  entire  innocency  of  his  trusted  friend  Harris  in  the  matter  of 
this  calamitous  event,  though  mutual  confidence  and  friendship  were  ultimately 
restored.'  Tucker's  Grig,  and  Prog.  Mor.,  46.  Of  this  lost  manuscript  Smith 
afterward  wrote:  '  Some  time  after  Mr  Harris  had  begun  to  write  for  me  he 
began  to  tease  me  to  give  him  liberty  to  carry  the  writings  home  and  show 
them,  and  desired  of  me  that  I  would  inquire  of  the  Lord  through  the  urim 
and  thummim  if  he  might  not  do  so. '  To  two  inquiries  the  reply  was  no,  but 
a  third  application  resulted  in  permission  being  granted  under  certain  re- 
strictions, which  were,  that  Harris  might  show  the  papers  to  his  brother, 
his  wife,  her  sister,  his  father  and.  mother,  and  to  no  one  else.  Accordingly 
Smith  required  Harris  to  bind  himself  in  a  covenant  to  him  in  the  most 
Bolemn  manner  that  he  would  not  do  otherwise  than  had  been  directed.    *  He 


of  some  of  the  characters  to  New  York  city,  where 
he  submits  them  to  the  examination  of  Professor 
Anthon  and  Dr  Mitchell,  who  pronounce  them  to 
be  Egyptian,  Syriac,  Chaldaic,  and  Arabic. ^^     Then 

did  so,'  says  Smith.  *He  bound  himself  as  I  required  of  him,  took  the 
writings,  and  went  his  way.  Notwithstanding ...  he  did  show  them  to  others, 
and  by  stratagem  they  got  them  away  from  him.'  Smithy  in  Times  and  Sea- 
sons, iii.  785-6. 

^3  In  a  letter  to  E.  D.  Howe,  printed  in  his  book,  and  in  the  introduction 
to  the  New  York  edition  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  Prof.  Anthon,  among  other 
statements,  denies  that  he  ever  gave  a  certificsate.     The  letter  reads  as  follows: 

♦  New  York,  February  17,  1834. 

*  Dear  Sir:  I  received  your  letter  of  the  9th,  and  lose  no  time  in  making 
a  reply.  The  whole  story  about  my  pronouncing  the  Mormon  inscription  to 
be  reformed  Egyptian  hierogylphics  is  perfectly  false.  Some  years  ago,  a 
plain,  apparently  simple-hearted  farmer  called  on  me  with  a  note  from  Dr 
Mitchell,  of  our  city,  now  dead,  requesting  me  to  decipher,  if  possible,  the 
paper  which  the  farmer  would  hand  me.  Upon  examining  the  paper  in  ques- 
tion, I  soon  came  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  all  a  trick — perhaps  a  hoax. 
When  I  asked  the  person  who  brought  it  how  he  obtained  the  writing,  he  gave 
me  the  following  account:  A  gold  book  consisting  of  a  number  of  plates,  fast- 
ened together  by  wires  of  the  same  material,  had  been  dug  up  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  state  of  New  York,  and  along  with  it  an  enormous  pair  of  specta- 
cles. These  spectacles  were  so  large  that  if  any  person  attempted  to  look 
through  them,  his  two  eyes  would  look  through  one  glass  only,  the  spectacles 
in  question  being  altogether  too  large  for  the  human  face.  "  Whoever,"  he 
said,  ' '  examined  the  plates  through  the  glasses  was  enabled  not  only  to  read 
them,  but  fully  to  understand  their  meaning."  All  this  knowledge,  however, 
was  confined  to  a  young  man,  who  had  the  trunk  containing  the  book  and  specta- 
cles in  his  sole  possession.  This  young  man  was  placed  behind  a  curtain  in  a 
garret  in  a  farm-house,  and  being  thus  concealed  from  view,  he  put  on  the 
spectacles  occasionally,  or  rather  looked  through  one  of  the  glasses,  deciphered 
the  characters  in  the  book,  and  having  committed  some  of  them  to  paper, 
handed  copies  from  behind  the  curtain  to  those  who  stood  outside.  Not  a 
word  was  said  about  their  being  deciphered  by  the  gift  of  God.  Everything 
in  this  way  was  effected  by  the  large  pair  of  spectaclca.  The  farmer  added 
that  he  had  been  requested  to  contribute  a  sum  of  money  toward  the  publica- 
tion of  the  golden  book,  the  contents  of  which  would,  as  he  was  told,  produce 
an  entire  change  in  the  world,  and  save  it  from  ruin.  So  urgent  had  been 
these  solicitations,  that  he  intended  selling  his  farm  and  giving  the  amount  to 
those  who  wished  to  publish  the  plates.  As  a  last  precautionary  step,  he  had 
resolved  to  come  to  New  York,  and  obtain  the  opinion  of  the  learned  about 
the  meaning  of  the  paper  which  he  brought  with  him,  and  which  had  been 
given  him  as  part  of  the  contents  of  the  book,  although  no  translation  had  at 
that  time  been  made  by  the  young  man  with  spectacles.  On  hearing  this  odd 
story,  I  changed  my  opinion  about  the  paper,  and  instead  of  viewing  it  any 
longer  as  a  hoax,  I  began  to  regard  it  as  part  of  a  scheme  to  cheat  the  farmer 
of  his  money,  and  I  communicated  my  suspicions  to  him,  warning  him  to  be- 
ware of  rogues.  He  requested  an  opinion  from  me  in  writing,  which,  of 
course,  I  declined  to  give,  and  he  then  took  his  leave,  taking  his  paper  with 
him.  This  paper  in  question  was,  in  fact,  a  singular  scroll.  It  consisted  of 
all  kinds  of  singular  characters  disposed  in  columns,  and  had  evidently  been 
prepared  by  some  person  who  had  before  him  at  the  time  a  book  containing 
various  alphabets,  Greek  and  Hebrew  letters,  crosses  and  flourishes;  Roman 
letters  inverted  or  placed  sideways  were  arranged  and  placed  in  perpendicular 
columns,  and  the  whole  ended  in  a  rude  delineation  of  a  circle,  divided  into 
Hist.  Utah,    i 


Joseph  buys  of  his  wife's  father  a  small  farm  and  goes 
to  work  on  it.  In  February  1829  he  receives  a  visit 
from  his  own  father,  at  which  time  a  revelation  comes 
to  Joseph  Smith  senior,  through  the  son,  calling  him 
to  faith  and  good  works.  The  month  following  Mar- 
tin Harris  asks  for  and  receives  a  revelation,  by  the 
mouth  of  the  latter,  regarding  the  plates,  wherein  the 
said  Harris  is  told  that  Joseph  has  in  his  possession 
the  plates  which  he  claims  to  have,  that  they  were 
delivered  to  him  by  the  Lord  God,  who  likewise  gave 
him  power  to  translate  them,  and  that  he,  Harris, 
should  bear  witness  of  the  same.  Three  months 
later,  Harris  having  meanwhile  acted  as  his  scribe, 
Joseph  is  commanded  to  rest  for  a  season  in  his  work 
of  translating  until  directed  to  take  it  up  again. 

various  compartments,  arched  with  various  strange  marks,  and  evidently 
copied  after  the  Mexican  calendar  given  by  Humboldt,  but  copied  in  such  a 
way  as  not  to  betray  the  source  whence  it  was  derived.  I  am  thus  particular  as 
to  the  contents  of  the  paper,  inasmuch  as  I  have  frequently  conversed  with 
friends  on  the  subject  since  the  Mormon  excitement  began,  and  well  remem- 
ber that  the  paper  contained  anything  else  but  Egyptian  hieroglyphics.  Some 
time  after,  the  farmer  paid  me  a  second  visit.  He  brought  with  him  the  gold 
book  in  print,  and  offered  it  to  me  for  sale.  I  declined  purchasing.  He  then 
asked  permission  to  leave  the  book  with  me  for  examination.  I  declined  re- 
ceiving it,  although  his  manner  was  strangely  urgent.  I  adverted  once  more 
to  the  roguery  which,  in  my  opinion,  had  been  practised  upon  him,  and  asked 
him  what  had  become  of  the  gold  plates.  He  informed  me  they  were  in  a 
trunk  with  the  spectacles.  I  advised  him  to  go  to  a  magistrate  and  have  the 
trunk  examined.  He  said  the  curse  of  God  would  come  upon  him  if  he  did. 
On  my  pressing  him,  however,  to  go  to  a  magistrate,  he  told  me  he  would 
open  the  trunk  if  I  would  take  the  curse  of  God  upon  myself.  I  replied  I 
would  do  so  with  the  greatest  willingness,  and  would  incur  every  risk  of  that 
nature,  provided  I  could  only  extricate  him  from  the  grasp  of  the  rogues.  He 
then  left  me.  I  have  given  you  a  full  statement  of  all  that  I  know  respecting 
the  origin  of  Mormonism,  and  must  beg  of  you,  as  a  personal  favor,  to  publish 
this  letter  immediately,  should  you  find  my  name  mentioned  again  by  these 
wretched  fanatics.  Yours  respectfully,  'Charles  Anthon.' 

It  is  but  fair  to  state  that  Smith  never  claimed  that  the  characters  were 
the  ordinary  Greek  or  Hebrew,  but  were  what  he  called  Reformed  Egyptian. 
Harris  says:  '  He  gave  me  a  certificate  which  I  took  and  put  into  my  pocket, 
and  was  just  leaving  the  house  when  Mr  Anthon  called  me  back,  and  asked 
me  how  the  young  man  found  out  that  there  were  gold  plates  in  the  place 
where  he  found  them.  I  answered  that  an  angel  of  God  had  revealed  it  unto 
him.  He  then  said  unto  me,  Let  me  see  that  certificate.  I  accordingly  took 
ib  out  of  my  pocket  and  gave  it  to  him,  when  he  took  it  and  tore  it  to  pieces, 
saying  that  there  was  no  such  thing  now  as  ministering  of  angels,  and  that  if 
I  would  bring  the  plates  to  him  he  would  translate  them.  I  informed  him 
that  part  of  the  plates  were  sealed,  and  that  I  was  forbidden  to  bring  them; 
he  replied,  "  I  cannot  read  a  sealed  book."  I  left  him  and  went  to  Dr  Mit- 
chell, who  sanctioned  what  Professor  Anthon  had  said  respecting  bcth  the 
characters  and  the  translation.'  Pearl  of  Great  Price,  xiii.  54. 


The  tenor  of  the  book  of  Mormon^*  is  in  this  wise: 
Following  the  confusion  of  tongues  at  the  tower  of 
Babel,  the  peoples  of  the  earth  were  scattered  abroad, 
one  colony  being  led  by  the  Lord  across  the  ocean  to 
America.  Fifteen  hundred  years  after,  or  six  hundred 
years  before  Christ,  they  were  destroyed  for  their 
wickedness.  Of  the  original  number  was  Jared, 
among  whose  descendants  was  the  prophet  Ether, 
who  was  their  historian.  Ether  lived  to  witness  the 
extinction  of  his  nation,  and  under  divine  direction  he 
deposited  his  history  in  a  locality  where  it  was  found 
by  a  second  colony,  Israelites  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph, 
who  came  from  Jerusalem  about  the  time  of  the  de- 
struction of  the  first  colony,  namely,  six  hundred 
years  before  Christ.  Thus  was  America  repeopled; 
the  second  colony  occupied  the  site  of  the  first,  mul- 
tiplied and  became  rich,  and  in  time  divided  into  two 
nations,  the  Nephites  and  the  Lamanites,  so  called 
from  their  respective  founders,  Nephi  and  Laman. 
The  former  advanced  in  civilization,  but  the  Laman- 
ites lapsed  into  barbarism,  and  were  the  immediate 
progenitors  of  the  American  aboriginals. 

The  Nephites  were  the  beloved  of  the  Lord.  To 
them  were  given  visions  and  angels'  visits;  to  them 
the  Christ  appeared  with  gifts  of  gospel  and  prophecy. 
It  was,  indeed,  the  golden  age  of  a  favored  people; 
but  in  a  time  of  temptation,  some  three  or  four  cen- 
turies after  Christ,  they  fell,  and  were  destroyed  by 

'*  *  The  word  "  Mormon,"  the  name  given  to  his  book,  is  the  English  termi- 
nation of  the  Greek  word  mormoo,  which  we  find  defined  in  an  old,  obsolete 
dictionary  to  mean  bugbear,  hobgoblin,  raw  bead,  and  bloody  bones.'  Howe's 
MormonisTTi  Unveiled,  21.  'The  word  "Mormon  "  is  neither  Greek  nor  de- 
rived from  the  Greek,  but  from  the  "reformed  Egyptian.'"  BelVs  Reply  to 
Theobald,  2.  In  Times  and  Seasons,  Mr  Smith  writes  as  follows  with  regard 
to  the  meaning  of  the  word  *  Mormon : '  '  We  say  from  the  Saxon,  good;  the 
Dane,  god;  the  Goth,  goda;  the  German,  gut;  the  Dutch,  goed;  the  Latin, 
honus;  the  G«eek,  kalos;  the  Hebrew,  toh;  and  the  Egyptian,  mon.  Hence, 
with  the  addition  of  more^  or  the  contraction  mor,  we  have  the  word  "Mor- 
mon," which  means,  literally  mor«  good.'  'Joseph  Smith,  annoyed  at  the 
Erofane  wit  which  could  derive  the  word  "Mormon  "  from  the  Greek  mormo,  a 
ugbear,  wrote  an  epistle  on  the  subject,  concluding  with  an  elaborate  display 
of  his  philological  talent,  such  as  he  was  accustomed  to  make  on  every  pos- 
sible occasion.'  Taylder's  Mormon's  Own  Book,  xxxiv.,  xxxv. 


the  wicked  Lamanites.  The  greatest  prophet  of  tho 
Nephites,  in  the  period  of  their  declension,  was  Mor- 
mon, their  historian,  who  after  having  completed  his 
abridgment  of  the  records  of  his  nation,  committed  it 
to  his  son  Moroni,  and  he,  that  they  might  not  fall 
into  the  hands  of  the  Lamanites,  deposited  them  in 
the  hill  of  Cumorah,  where  they  were  found  by  Joseph 

On  the  5th  of  April,  1829,  there  comes  to  Joseph 
Smith  a  school-teacher,  Oliver  Cowdery  by  name, 
to  whom  the  Lord  had  revealed  himself  at  the  house 
of  the  elder  Smith,  where  the  teacher  had  been 
boarding.  Inquiring  of  the  Lord,  Joseph  is  told  that 
to  Oliver  shall  be  given  the  same  power  to  translate 
the  book  of  Mormon,^^  by  which  term  the  writing  on 

*5  The  Booh  of  Mormon;  an  account  written  by  The  Hand  of  Mormon,  upon 
plates  taken  from  the  plates  of  Nephi.  Wherefore  it  is  an  abridgment  of  the 
record  of  the  people  of  Nephi,  and  also  of  the  Lamanites,  who  are  a  remnant  of 
the  home  of  Israel;  and  also  to  Jew  and  Gentile;  written  by  way  of  command- 
ment, and  also  by  the  spirit  of  prophecy  and  of  revelation.  Written  and  sealed 
up,  and  hid  up  unto  the  Lord,  that  they  might  not  be  destroyed;  to  come  forth 
by  the  gift  and  power  of  God  unto  the  interpretation  thereof;  sealed  by  the  hand 
of  Moroni,  and  hid  up  unto  the  Lord,  to  come  forth  in  due  time  by  the  way  of 
Gentile;  the  interpretation  thereof  by  the  gift  of  God.  An  abridgment  taken 
from  the  Book  of  Ether  also;  which  is  a  record  of  the  people  ofJared;  who  were 
scattered  at  the  time  the  Lord  confounded  the  language  of  the  people  when  they 
were  building  a  tower  to  get  to  heaven;  which  is  to  shew  unto  the  remnant  of  the 
House  of  Israel  what  great  things  the  Lord  hath  done  for  their  fathers;  and 
that  they  may  knoxo  the  covenants  of  the  Lord,  that  they  are  not  cast  off  forever; 
and  also  to  tJie  convincing  of  the  Jew  and  Gentile  that  Jesus  is  the  Christ,  the 
Eternal  God,  manifesting  himself  unto  all  nations.  And  now  if  there  are 
faults,  they  are  the  Tnistakes  of  men;  wherefore  condemn  not  the  things  of  Gad, 
that  ye  may  be  found  spotless  at  the  judgment-seat  of  GhHst.  By  Joseph  Smith, 
Jun.,  Author  and  Proprietor.  (Printed  by  E.  B.  Grandin,  for  the  author, 
Palmyra,  New  York,  1830.)  Several  editions  followed.  This  first  edition 
has  588  pages,  and  is  prefaced  among  other  things  by  an  account  of  117 
pages,  which  Mrs  Harris  burned.  This  preface  is  omitted  in  subsequent 
editions.  The  testimony  of  three  witnesses,  and  also  of  eight  witnesses 
which  in  subsequent  editions  is  placed  at  the  beginning,  is  here  at  the  end. 
The  testimony  of  witnesses  affirms  that  the  signers  saw  the  plates  and  the 
engravings  thereon,  having  been  shown  them  by  an  angel  from  heaven;  they 
knew  of  the  translation,  that  it  had  been  done  by  the  gift  and  power  of  God, 
and  was  therefore  true.  The  book  was  reprinted  at  Nauvoo,  at  New  York, 
at  Salt  Lake  City,  and  in  Europe.  An  edition  printed  by  Jas  O.  Wright  & 
Co.,  evidently  by  way  of  speculation,  contains  eight  pages  of  introduction, 
and  an  advertisement  asserting  that  it  is  a  reprint  from  the  third  American 
edition,  and  that  the  work  was  originally  published  at  Nauvoo,  which  latter 
statement  is  incorrect.  The  publishers  further  claim  that  at  the  time  of  this 
printing,  1848,  the  book  was  out  of  print,  notwithstanding  the  several  pre- 


ceding  editions.  The  edition  at  present  in  common  use  was  printed  at  Salt 
Lake  City,  at  the  Deseret  News  office,  and  entered  according  to  act  of  con- 
gress in  1879,  by  Joseph  F.  Smith.  It  is  divided  into  chapters  and  verses, 
with  references  by  Orson  Pratt,  senior.     The  arrangement  is  as  follows: 

The  first  book  of  Nephi,  his  reign  and  ministry,  22  chapters;  the  second 
book  of  Nephi,  33  chapters;  the  book  of  Jacob,  the  brother  of  Nephi,  7  chap- 
ters; the  book  of  Enos,  1  chapter;  the  book  of  Jarom,  1  chapter;  the  book 
of  Omni,  1  chapter;  the  words  of  Mormon,  1  chapter;  the  book  of  Mosiah, 
29  chapters;  the  book  of  Alma,  the  son  of  Alma,  63  chapters;  the  book  of 
Helaman,  16  chapters;  the  book  of  Nephi,  the  son  of  Nephi,  who  was  the 
son  of  Helaman,  30  chapters;  the  book  of  Nephi,  who  is  the  son  of  Nephi, 
one  of  the  disciples  of  Jesus  Christ,  1  chapter;  book  of  Mormon,  9  chapters; 
book  of  Ether,  15  chapters;  the  book  of  Moroni,  10  chapters.  In  all  239 

I  give  herewith  the  contents  of  the  several  books.  The  style,  like  that  of 
the  revelations,  is  biblical. 

'First  Book  of  Nephi.  Language  of  the  record;  Nephi's  abridgment; 
Lehi's  dream;  Lehi  departs  into  the  wilderness;  Nephi  slay eth  Laban;  Sariah 
complains  of  Lehi's  vision;  contents  of  the  brass  plates;  Ishmael  goes  with 
Nephi;  Nephi's  brethren  rebel,  and  bind  him;  Lehi's  dream  of  the  tree,  rod, 
etc.;  Messiah  and  John  prophesied  of;  olive  branches  broken  ofif;  Nephi's 
vision  of  Mary;  of  the  crucifixion  of  Christ;  of  darkness  and  earthquake; 
great  abominable  church;  discovery  of  the  promised  land;  bit)le  spoken  of; 
book  of  Mormon  and  holy  ghost  promised;  other  books  come  forth;  bible  and 
book  of  Mormon  one;  promises  to  the  gentiles;  two  churches;  the  work  of 
the  Father  to  commence;  a  man  in  white  robes  (John);  Nephites  come  to 
knowledge;  rod  of  iron;  the  sons  of  Lehi  take  wives;  director  found  (ball); 
Nephi  breaks  his  bow;  directors  work  by  faith;  Ishmael  died;  Lehi  and  Nephi 
threatened;  Nephi  commanded  to  build  a  ship;  Nephi  about  to  be  worshipped 
by  his  brethren;  ship  finished  and  entered;  dancing  in  the  ship;  Nephi  bound; 
ship  driven  back;  arrived  on  the  promised  land;  plates  of  ore  made;  Zenos, 
Neum,  and  Zenock;  Isaiah's  writing;  holy  one  of  Israel. 

'Second  Book  of  Nephi.  Lehi  to  his  sons;  opposition  in  all  things;  Adam 
fell  that  man  might  be;  Joseph  saw  our  day;  a  choice  seer;  writings  grow  to- 
gether; prophet  promised  to  the  Lamanites;  Joseph's  prophecy  on  brass 
plates;  Lehi  buried;  Nephi's  life  sought;  Nephi  separated  from  Laman;  tem- 
ple built;  skin  of  blackness;  priests,  etc.,  consecrated;  make  other  plates; 
Isaiah's  words  by  Jacob;  angels  to  a  devil;  spirits  and  bodies  reunited;  bap- 
tism; no  kings  upon  this  land;  Isaiah  prophesieth;  rod  of  the  stem  of  Jesse; 
seed  of  Joseph  perisheth  not;  law  of  Moses  kept;  Christ  shall  shew  himself; 
signs  of  Christ,  birth  and  death;  whisper  from  the  dust;  book  sealed  up; 
priestcraft  forbidden;  sealed  book  to  be  brought  forth;  three  witnesses  behold 
the  book;  the  words  (read,  this,  I  pray  thee);  seal  up  the  book  again;  their 
priests  shall  contend;  teach  with  their  learning,  and  deny  the  holy  ghost;  rob 
the  poor;  a  bible,  a  bible;  men  judged  of  the  books;  white  and  a  delightsome 
people;  work  commences  among  all  people;  lamb  of  God  baptized;  baptism  by 
water  and  holy  ghost. 

'Book  of  Jacob.  Nephi  anointeth  a  king;  Nephi  dies;  Nephites  and 
Lamanites;  a  righteous  branch  from  Joseph;  Lamanites  shall  scourge  you; 
more  than  one  wife  forbidden;  trees,  waves,  and  mountains  obey  us;  Jews 
look  beyond  the  mark;  tame  olive  tree;  nethermost  part  of  the  vineyard; 
fruit  laid  up  against  the  season;  another  branch;  wild  fruit  had  overcome; 
lord  of  the  vineyard  weeps;  branches  overcome  the  roots;  wild  branches 
plucked  oflF;  Sherem,  the  anti-Christ;  a  sign,  Sherem  smitten;  Enos  takes  the 
plates  from  his  father. 

'The  Book  of  Enos.  Enos,  thy  sins  are  forgiven;  records  threatened  by 
Lamanites;  Lamanites  eat  raw  meat. 

'The  Book  of  Jarom.  Nephites  wax  strong;  Lamanites  drink  blood; 
fortify  cities;  plates  delivered  to  Omni. 

*  The  Book  of  Omni.     Plates  given  to  Amaron;  plates  given  to  Chemish; 


Mosiah  warned  to  flee;  Zarahemia  discovered;  engravings  on  a  stone;  Cori- 
antumr  discovered;  his  parents  come  from  the  tower;  plates  delivered  to 
King  Benjamin. 

'  The  words  of  Mormon.     False  Christs  and  prophets. 

'  Book  of  Mosiah.  Mosiah  made  king;  the  plates  of  brass,  sword,  and 
director;  King  Benjamin  teacheth  the  people;  their  tent  doors  toward  the 
temple;  coming  of  Christ  foretold;  beggars  not  denied;  sons  and  daughters; 
Mosiah  began  to  reign;  Ammon,  etc. ,  bound  and  imprisoned;  Limhi's  procla- 
mation; twenty-four  plates  of  gold;  seer  and  translator. 

'  Record  of  Zeniff.  A  battle  fought;  King  Laman  died;  Noah  made  king; 
Abinadi  the  prophet;  resurrection;  Alma  believed  Abinadi;  Abinadi  cast  into 
I)rison  and  scourged  with  fagots;  waters  of  Mormon;  the  daughters  of  the 
Lamanites  stolen  by  King  !N"oah!s  priests;  records  on  plates  of  ore;  last  trib- 
ute of  wine;  Lamanites'  deep  sleep;  King  Limhi  baptized;  priests  and  teach- 
ers labor;  Alma  saw  an  angel;  Alma  fell  (dumb);  King  Mosiah 's  sons  preach 
to  the  Lamanites;  translation  of  records;  plates  delivered  by  Limhi;  trans- 
lated by  two  stones;  people  back  to  the  Tower;  records  given  to  Alma;  judges 
appointed;  King  Mosiah  died;  Alma  died;  Kings  of  Nephi  ended. 

'The  Book  of  Alma.  Nehor  slew  Gideon;  Amlici  made  king;  Amlici 
slain  in  battle;  Amlicites  painted  red;  Alma  baptized  in  Sidon;  Alma's 
preaching;  Alma  ordained  elders;  commanded  to  meet  often;  Alma  saw  an 
angel;  Amulek  saw  an  angel;  lawyers  questioning  Amulek;  coins  named; 
Zeesrom  the  lawyer;  Zeesrom  trembles;  election  spoken  of;  Melchizedek 
priesthood;  Zeesrom  stoned;  records  burned;  prison  rent;  Zeesrom  healed 
and  baptized;  Nehor's  desolation;  Lamanites  converted;  flocks  scattered  at 
Sebus;  Ammon  smote  off  arms;  Ammon  and  King  Lamoni;  King  Lamoni 
fell;  Ammon  and  the  queen;  king  and  queen  prostrate;  Aaron,  etc.,  deliv- 
ered; Jerusalem  built;  preaching  in  Jerusalem;  Lamoni's  father  converted; 
land  desolation  and  bountiful;  anti-Nephi-Lehies;  general  council;  swords 
buried;  1,005  massacred;  Lamanites  perish  by  fire;  slavery  forbidden;  anti- 
Nephi-Lehies  removed  to  Jershon,  called  Ammonites;  tremendous  battle; 
anti-Christ,  Korihor;  Korihor  struck  dumb;  the  devil  in  the  form  of  an  angel; 
Korihor  trodden  down;  Alma's  mission  to  Zoramites;  Rameumptom  (holy 
stand);  Alma  on  hill  Onidah;  Alma  on  faith;  prophecy  of  Zenos;  prophecy 
of  Zenock;  Amulek's  knowledge  of  Christ;  charity  recommended;  same  spirit 
possess  your  body;  believers  cast  out;  Alma  to  Helaman;  plates  given  to 
Helaman;  twenty-four  plates;  Gazelem,  a  stone  (secret);  Liahona,  or  com- 
pass; Alma  to  Shiblon;  Alma  to  Corianton;  unpardonable  sin;  resurrection; 
restoration;  justice  in  punishment;  if,  Adam,  took,  tree,  life;  mercy  rob  jus- 
tice; Moroni's  stratagem;  slaughter  of  Lamanites;  Moroni's  speech  to  Zera- 
hemnah;  prophecy  of  a  soldier;  Lamanites' covenant  of  peace;  Alma's  proph- 
ecy 400  years  after  Christ;  dwindle  in  unbelief;  Alma's  strange  departure; 
Amalickiah  leadeth  away  the  people,  destroyeth  the  church;  standard  of 
Moroni;  Joseph's  coat  rent;  Jacob's  prophecy  of  Joseph's  seed;  fevers  in  the 
land,  plants  and  roots  for  diseases;  Amalickiah's  plot;  the  king  stabbed; 
Amalickiah  marries  the  queen,  and  is  acknowledged  king;  fortifications  by 
Moroni;  ditches  filled  with  dead  bodies;  Amalickiah's  oath;  Pahoran  ap- 
pointed judge;  army  against  king-men;  Amalickiah  slain;  Ammoron  made 
king;  Bountiful  fortified;  dissensions;  2,000  young  men;  Moroni's  epistle  to 
Ammoron;  Ammoron's  answer;  Lamanites  made  drunk;  Moroni's  stratagem; 
Helaman's  epistle  to  Moroni;  Helaman's  stratagem;  mothers  taught  faith; 
Lamanites  surrendered;  city  of  Antiparah  taken;  city  of  Cumeni  taken;  200 
of  the  2, 000  fainted;  prisoners  rebel,  slain;  Manti  taken  by  stratagem;  Moroni 
to  the  governor;  governor's  answer;  King  Pachus  slain;  cords  and  ladders 
prepared;  Nephihah  taken;  Teancum's  stratagem,  slain;  peace  established; 
Moronihah  made  commander;  Helaman  died;  sacred  things,  Shiblon;  Moroni 
died;  5,400  emigrated  north;  ships  built  by  Hagoth;  sacred  things  committed 
to  Helaman;  Shiblon  died. 

'The  Book  of  Helaman.  Pahoran  died;  Pahoran  appointed  judge;  Kish- 
kuraen  slays  Pahoran;  Pacumeni  appointed  judge;  Zarahamia  taken;  Pacu- 


meni  killed;  Coriantumr  slain;  Lamanltes  surrendered;  Helaman  appointed 
judge;  secret  signs  discovered  and  Kishkumen  stabbed;  Gadianton  fled;  em- 
igration northward;  cement  houses;  many  books  and  records;  Helaman  died; 
Nephi  made  judge;  Nephites  become  wicked;  Nephi  gave  the  judgment-seat 
toCezoram;  Nephi  and  Lehi  preached  to  the  Lamanites;  8,000  baptized;  Al- 
ma and  Nephi  surrounded  with  fire;  angels  administer;  Cezoram  and  son 
murdered;  Gadianton  robbers;  Gadianton  robbers  destroyed;  Nephi's  proph- 
ecy; Gadianton  robbers  are  judges;  chief  judge  slain;  Seantum  detected;  keys 
of  the  kingdom;  Nephi  taken  away  by  the  spirit;  famine  in  the  land;  Gla- 
dian ton  band  destroyed;  famine  removed;  Samuel's  prophecy;  tools  lost;  two 
days  and  a  night,  light;  sign  of  the  crucifixion;  Samuel  stoned,  etc. ;  angels 

'Third  Book  of  Nephi.  Lachoneus  chief  judge;  Nephi  receives  the  records; 
Nephi's  strange  departure;  no  darkness  at  night;  Lamanites  become  white; 
Giddianhi  to  Lachoneus;  Gidgiddoni  chief  judge;  Giddianhi  slain;  Zemna- 
rihah  hanged;  robbers  surrendered;  Mormon  abridges  the  records;  church 
begins  to  be  broken  up;  government  of  the  land  destroyed;  chief  judge  mur- 
dered; divided  into  tribes;  Nephi  raises  the  dead;  sign  of  the  crucifixion; 
cities  destroyed,  earthquakes,  darkness,  etc.;  law  of  Moses  fulfilled;  Christ 
appears  to  Nephites;  print  of  the  nails;  Nephi  and  others  called;  baptism 
commanded;  doctrine  of  Christ;  Christ  the  end  of  the  law;  other  sheep  spoken 
of;  blessed  are  the  Gentiles;  Gentile  wickedness  on  the  land  of  Joseph; 
Isaiah's  words  fulfilled;  Jesus  heals  the  sick;  Christ  blesses  children;  little 
ones  encircled  with  fire;  Christ  administers  the  sacrament;  Christ  teaches 
his  disciples;  names  of  the  twelve;  the  twelve  teach  the  multitude;  baptism, 
holy  ghost,  and  fire;  disciples  made  white;  faith  great;  Christ  breaks  bread 
again;  miracle,  bread  and  wine;  Gentiles  destroyed  (Isaiah);  Zion  established; 
from  Gentiles,  to  your  seed;  sign,  Father's  work  commenced;  he  shall  be 
marred;  Gentiles  destroyed  (Isaiah);  New  Jerusalem  built;  work  commence 
among  all  the  tribes;  Isaiah's  words;  saints  did  arise;  Malachi's  prophecy; 
faith  tried  by  the  book  of  Mormon;  children's  tongues  loosed;  the  dead  raised; 
baptism  and  holy  ghost;  all  things  common;  Christ  appears  again;  Moses, 
church;  three  Nephites  tarry;  the  twelve  caught  up;  change  upon  their 

'Book  of  Nephi,  son  of  Nephi.  Disciples  raise  the  dead;  Zarahemia  re- 
built; other  disciples  are  ordained  in  their  stead;  Nephi  dies;  Amos  keeps  the 
records  in  his  stead;  Amos  dies,  and  his  son  Amos  keeps  the  records;  prisons 
rent  by  the  three;  secret  combinations;  Ammaron  hides  the  records. 

'Book  of  Mormon.  Three  disciples  taken  away;  Mormon  forbidden  to 
preach;  Mormon  appointed  leader;  Samuel's  prophecy  fulfilled;  Mormon 
makes  a  record;  laiids  divided;  the  twelve  shall  judge;  desolation  taken; 
women  and  children  sacrificed;  Mormon  takes  the  records  hidden  in  Shim;  Mor- 
mon repents  of  his  oath  and  takes  command;  coming  forth  of  records;  records 
hid  in  Cumorah;  230,0(X)  Nephites  slain;  shall  not  get  gain  by  the  plates; 
these  things  shall  come  forth  out  of  the  earth;  the  state  of  the  world;  miracles 
cease,  unbelief;  disciples  go  into  all  the  world  and  preach;  language  of  the 

'Book  of  Ether.  Twenty-four  plates  found;  Jared  cries  unto  the  Lord; 
Jared  goes  down  to  the  valley  of  Nimrod;  Deseret,  honey-bee;  barges  built; 
decree  of  God,  choice  land;  free  from  bondage;  four  years  in  tents  at  Morian- 
cumer;  Lord  talks  three  hours;  barges  like  a  dish;  eight  vessels,  sixteen 
stones;  Lord  touches  the  stones;  fiinger  of  the  Lord  seen;  Jared's  brother  sees 
the  Lord;  two  stones  given;  stones  sealed  up;  goes  aboard  of  vessels;  furious 
,  wind  blows;  344  days'  passage;  Orihah  anointed  king;  King  Shule  taken  cap- 
tive; Shule's  sons  slay  Noah;  Jared  carries  his  father  away  captive;  the 
daughters  of  Jared  dance;  Jared  anointed  king  by  the  hand  of  wickedness; 
Jared  murdered  and  Akish  reigns  in  his  stead;  names  of  animals;  poisonous 
serpents;  Riplakish's  cruel  reign;  Morianton  anointed  king;  poisonous  ser- 
pents destroyed;  many  wicked  kings;  Moroni  on  faith;  miracles  by  faith; 
Moroni  sees  Jesus;  New  Jerusalen  spoken  of;  Ether  cast  out;  records  finished 


in  the  cavity  of  a  rock;  secret  combinations;  war  in  all  the  land;  King  Gilead 
murdered  by  his  high  priest;  the  high  priest  murdered  by  Lib;  Lib  slain  by 
Coriantumr;  dead  bodies  cover  the  land  and  none  to  bury  them;  2,000,000 
men  slain;  hill  Ramah;  cries  rend  the  air;  sleep  on  their  swords;  Corian- 
tumr slays  Shiz;  Shiz  falls  to  the  earth;  records  hidden  by  Ether. 

'Book  of  Moroni.  Christ's  words  to  the  twelve;  manner  of  ordination; 
order  of  sacrament;  order  of  baptism;  faith,  hope  and  charity;  baptism  «f  lit- 
tle children;  women  fed  on  their  husbands'  flesh;  daughters  murdered  and 
eaten;  sufferings  of  women  and  children;  cannot  recommend  them  to  God; 
Moroni  to  the  Lamanites;  420  years  since  the  sign;  records  sealed  up  (Moroni); 
gifts  of  the  spirits;  God's  word  shall  hiss  forth.' 

From  a  manuscript  furnished  at  my  request  by  Franklin  D.  Richards,  en- 
titled The  Book  of  MormoUy  I  epitomize  as  follows:  Several  families  retain- 
ing similar  forms  of  speech  were  directed  by  God  to  America,  where  they 
became  numerous  and  prosperous.  They  lived  righteously  at  first,  but  after- 
ward became  sinful,  and  about  600  B.  c.  broke  up  as  a  nation,  leaving  records 
by  their  most  eminent  historian  Ether.  During  the  reign  of  Zedekiah,  king 
of  Judah,  two  men,  Lehi  and  Mulek,  were  warned  of  God  of  the  approaching 
destruction  of  Jerusalem,  and  were  directed  how  they  and  their  families  could 
make  their  escape,  and  were  led  to  this  land  where  they  found  the  records 
of  the  former  people.  Lehi  landed  at  Chili.  His  people  spread  to  North 
America,  became  numerous  and  wealthy,  lived  under  the  law  of  Moses  which 
they  had  brought  with  them,  and  had  their  judges,  kings,  prophets,  and 
temples.  Looking  confidently  for  the  coming  of  Christ  in  the  flesh,  in  due 
time  he  came,  and  after  his  crucifixion  organized  the  church  in  America  as  he 
had  done  in  Judea,  an  account  of  which,  together  with  their  general  history, 
was  preserved  on  metallic  plates  in  the  language  of  the  times.  An  abridgment 
was  made  on  gold  plates  about  A.  d.  400  by  a  prophet  named  Mormon,  from 
all  the  historical  plates  that  had  come  down  to  him.  Thus  were  given  not 
only  the  histories  of  the  Nephites  and  Lamanites — his  own  people — but  of 
the  Jaredites,  who  had  occupied  the  land  before  them,  and  his  book  was 
called  the  Book  of  Mormon.  Destruction  coming  upon  the  people,  Mormon's 
son,  Moroni,  was  directed  of  God  where  to  deposit  the  plates,  the  urim  and 
thumniim  being  deposited  with  them  so  that  the  finder  might  be  able  to  read 
them.  And  as  Moroni  had  left  them  so  were  they  found  by  Joseph  Smith. 
The  Book  of  Mormon  was  translated  in  1851  into  Italian,  under  the  auspices 
of  Lorenzo  Snow,  and  into  Danish  under  the  direction  of  Erastus  Snow;  in 
1852  John  Taylor  directed  its  translation  into  French  and  German,  and 
Franklin  D.  Richards  into  Welsh.  In  1855  George  Q.  Cannon  brought  out  an 
edition  in  the  Hawaiian  language  at  San  Francisco;  in  1878  N.  C.  Flygare 
supervised  its  publication  in  the  Swedish,  and  Moses  Thatcher  in  1884  in  the 
Spanish  language. 

In  December  1874,  Orson  Pratt,  at  that  time  church  historian,  prepared 
an  article  for  insertion  in  the  Universal  Cyclopedia,  a  portion  of  which  is  as 
follows:  'The  first  edition  of  this  wonderful  book  was  published  early  in 
1830.  It  has  since  been  translated  and  published  in  the  Welsh,  Danish, 
German,  French,  and  Italian  languages  of  the  east,  and  in  the  language  of 
the  Sandwich  Islands  of  the  west.  It  is  a  volume  about  one  third  as  large  as 
the  bible,  consisting  of  sixteen  sacred  books . . .  One  of  the  founders  of  the 
Jaredite  nation,  a  great  prophet,  saw  in  vision  all  things  from  the  foundation 
of  the  world  to  the  end  thereof,  which  were  written,  a  copy  of  which  was  en- 
graved by  Moroni  on  the  plates  of  Mormon,  and  then  sealed  up.  It  was  this 
portion  which  the  prophet,  Joseph  Smith,  was  forbidden  to  translate  or  to 
unloose  the  seal.  In  due  time  this  also  will  be  revealed,  together  with  all 
the  sacred  records  kept  by  the  ancient  nations  of  this  continent,  preparatory 
to  the  time  when  the  knowledge  of  God  shall  cover  the  earth  as  the  waters 
cover  the  great  deep.'  Deseret  News,  Sept.  27,  1876.  Orson  Pratt  afterward 
stated  that  the  book  of  Mormon  had  been  translated  into  ten  different  lan- 
guages. Deseret  News,  Oct.  9,  1878.  See  also  Taylder's  Mormons,  10.  For 
further  criticisms  on  the  book  of  Mormon,  see  Millennial  Star,  xix.,  index  v.; 


the  golden  plates  is  hereafter  known,  and  that  he  also 
shall  bear  witness  to  the  truth. 

Two  days  after  the  arrival  of  Oliver/^  Joseph  and  he 
begin  the  work  systematically,  the  former  translating 
while  the  latter  writes;^''  for  Oliver  has  a  vision^  mean- 

Times  and  Seasons,  ii.  305-6;  PratVs  Pamphlets^  i.  to  vi.  1-96;  Hyde's  Mor- 
monism,  210-83;  Olshausen  Gesch.  der  Mormen,  15-29;  Howe's  Morraonism 
Unveiled,  17-123;  Salt  Lake  City  Tribune,  Apr.  11,  June  5  and  6,  and  Nov. 
6,  1879;  Juvenile  Instructor,  xiv.  2-3;  Reynolds'  Myth  of  the  Manuscript 
Found,  passim;  Lee's  Mormonism,  119-26;  Clements'  Roughing  It,  127-35; 
Pop.  Science  Monthly,  Ivi.  165-73;  Bennett's  Mormxmism  Exposed,  103-40. 
See  letter  from  Thurlow  Weed,  also  statement  by  Mrs  MatUda  Spaulding 
McKinstry  in  Scribner's  Mag.,  Aug.  1880,  613-16. 

1^  Oliver  Cowdery  *  is  a  blacksmith  by  trade,  and  sustained  a  fair  reputa- 
tion until  his  intimacy  commenced  with  the  money  digger.  He  was  one  of 
the  many  in  the  world  who  always  find  time  to  study  out  ways  and  means  to 
live  without  work.  He  accordingly  quit  the  blacksmithing  business,  and  is 
now  the  editor  of  a  small  monthly  publication  issued  under  the  directions  of 
the  prophet,  and  principally  filled  with  accounts  of  the  spread  of  Mormonism, 
their  persecutions,  and  the  fabled  visions  and  commands  of  Smith. '  He  was 
*  chief  scribe  to  the  prophet,  while  transcribing,  after  Martin  had  lost  116 
pages  of  the  precious  document  by  interference  of  the  devil.  An  angel 
also  has  shown  him  the  plates  from  which  the  book  of  Mormon  proceeded, 
as  he  says.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  15,  265;  see  also  Pearl  of  Great 
Price,  xiii.  54;  Smucher's  Hist.  Mor.,  28;  Taylder's  Mormons,  xxxii. 

^'  '  Instead  of  looking  at  the  characters  inscribed  upon  the  plates,  the 
prophet  was  obliged  to  resort  to  the  old  peep-stone  which  he  formerly  used  in 
money  digging.  This  he  placed  in  a  hat,  or  box,  into  which  he  also  thrust 
his  face. .  .Another  account  they  give  of  the  transaction  is,  that  it  was  per- 
formed with  the  big  spectacles,'  which  enabled  *  Smith  to  translate  the  plates 
without  looking  at  them.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  17-18.  *  These  were 
days  never  to  be  forgotten,'  Oliver  remarks,  'to  sit  under  the  sound  of  a  voice 
dictated  by  the  inspiration  of  heaven,  awakened  the  utmost  gratitude  of  this 
bosom!  Day  after  day  I  continued,  uninterrupted,  to  write  from  his  mouth, 
as  he  translated  with  the  urim  and  thummim,  or,  as  the  Nephites  would 
have  said,  "interpreters,"  the  history  or  record  called  the  "Book  of  Mor- 
mon,'" Pearl  of  Great  Price,  55.  See  also  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  30-31; 
Millennial  Star,  iii.  148;  Smucker's  Hist.  Mormons,  35;  Pratt's  Pamphlets,  iv. 
58-9;  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  61-2.  In  relation  to  the  peep-stone  al- 
luded to,  Williard  Chase  says  in  his  sworn  testimony  that  he  discovered  a 
singular  stone  while  digging  a  well  in  the  year  1822.  Joseph  Smith  was  as- 
sisting him,  and  borrowed  the  stone  from  him,  alleging  that  he  could  see  into 
it.  After  he  obtained  the  stone  Smith  published  abroad  the  wonders  that 
he  could  see  in  the  stone,  and  made  much  disturbance  among  the  credulous 
members  of  the  community.  See  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  241.  'This 
stone  attracted  particular  notice  on  account  of  its  peculiar  shape,  resembling 
that  of  a  child's  foot.  It  was  of  a  whitish,  glassy  appearance,  though  opaque, 
resembling  quartz , . .  He  (Joseph  Jr)  manifested  a  special  fancy  for  this  geo- 
logical curiosity;  and  he  carried  it  home  with  him,  though  this  act  of  plunder 
was  against  the  strenuous  protestations  of  Mr  Chase's  children,  who  claimed 
to  be  its  rightful  owners.  Joseph  kept  this  stone,  and  ever  afterward  refused 
its  restoration  to  the  claimants.  Very  soon  the  pretension  transpired  that  he 
could  see  wonderful  things  by  its  aid.  The  idea  was  rapidly  enlarged  upon 
from  day  to  day,  and  in  a  short  time  his  spiritual  endowment  was  so  devel- 
oped that  he  asserted  the  gift  and  power  (with  the  stone  at  his  eyes)  of  re- 
vealing both  things  existing  and  things  to  come.'  Tucker's  Mormonism,  19-20. 


while,  telling  him  not  to  exercise  his  gift  of  translating 
at  present,  but  simply  to  write  at  Joseph's  dictation. 
Continuing  thus,  on  the  15th  of  May  the  two  men  go 
into  the  woods  to  ask  God  concerning  baptism,  found 
mentioned  in  the  plates.  Presently  a  messenger  de- 
scends from  heaven  in  a  cloud  of  light.  It  is  John  the 
Baptist.  And  he  ordains  them,  saying,  "Upon  you, 
my  fellow-servants,  in  the  name  of  messiah,  I  confer 
the  priesthood  of  Aaron."  Baptism  by  immersion  is 
directed;  the  power  of  laying-on  of  hands  for  the  gift 
of  the  holy  ghost  is  promised,  but  not  now  bestowed; 
then  they  are  commanded  to  be  baptized,  each  one 
baptizing  the  other,  which  is  done,  each  in  turn  lay- 
ing his  hands  upon  the  head  of  the  other,  and  ordain- 
ing him  to  the  Aaronic  priesthood.  As  they  come 
up  out  of  the  water  the  holy  ghost  falls  upon  them, 
and  they  prophesy. 

Persecutions  continue ;  brethren  of  Christ  threaten 
to  mob  them,  but  Joseph's  wife's  father  promises 
protection.  Samuel  Smith  comes,  and  is  converted, 
receiving  baptism  and  obtaining  revelations ;  and  later 
Joseph's  father  and  mother,  Martin  Harris,  and 
others.  Food  is  several  times  charitably  brought  to 
the  translators  by  Joseph  Knight,  senior,  of  Coles- 
ville.  New  York,  concerning  whom  is  given  a  revela- 
tion. In  June  comes  David  Whitmer  with  a  request 
from  his  father,  Peter  Whitmer,  of  Fayette,  New 
York,  that  the  translators  should  occupy  his  house 
thenceforth  until  the  completion  of  their  work,  and 
brings  with  him  a  two-horse  wagon  to  carry  them 
and  their  effects.  Not  only  is  their  board  to  be  free, 
but  one  of  the  brothers  Whitmer,  of  whom  there  are 
David,  John,  and  Peter  junior,  will  assist  in  the  writ- 
ing. Thither  they  go,  and  find  all  as  promised;  David 
and  Peter  Whitmer  and  Hyrum  Smith  are  baptized, 
and  receive  revelations  through  Joseph,  who  inquires 
of  the  Lord  for  them  by  means  of  the  urim  and  thum- 
mim.  The  people  thereabout  being  friendly,  meetings 
are  held,  and  the  new  revelation  taught,  many  believ- 



ing,  certain  priests  and  others  disputing.  Three 
special  witnesses  are  provided  by  Christ,  namely, 
Oliver  Cowdery,  David  Whitmer,  and  Martin  Harris, ' 
to  whom  the  plates  are  shown  by  an  angel  after  much 
prayer  and  meditation  in  the  woods.  These  are  the 
three  witnesses.  And  there  are  further  eight  wit- 
nesses, namely.  Christian  Whitmer,  Jacob  Whitmer, 
Peter  Whitmer  junior,  John  Whitmer,  Hiram  Page, 
Joseph  Smith  senior,  Hyrum  Smith,  and  Samuel  H. 
Smith,  who  testify  that  the  plates  were  shown  to 
them  by  Joseph  Smith  junior,  that  they  handled  them 
with  their  hands,  and  saw  the  characters  engraven 

"  The  objections  raised  against  this  testimony  are,  first,  there  is  no  date 
nor  place;  second,  there  are  not  three  separate  alfidavits,  but  one  testimony- 
signed  by  three  men;  third,  compare  with  Smith's  revelation  Doctrine  and 
•Covenants,  p.  173,  and  it  appears  that  this  testimony  is  drawn  up  by  Smith 
himself.  But  who  are  these  witnesses  ?  Sidney  Rigdon,  at  Independence, 
Missouri,  in  1838,  charged  Cowdery  and  Whitmer  with  'being  connected  with 
a  gang  of  counterfeiters,  thieves,  liars,  blacklegs  of  the  deepest  dye,  to  de- 
ceive and  defraud  the  saints.'  Joseph  Smith  {Times  and  Seasons,  vol.  i.  pp. 
81,  83-4)  charges  Cowdery  and  Whitmer  with  being  busy  in  stirring  up 
strife  and  turmoil  among  the  brethren  in  1838  in  Missouri;  and  he  demands, 
*  Are  they  not  murderers  then  at  the  heart  ?  Are  not  their  consciences  seared 
as  with  a  hot  iron?'  These  men  were  consequently  cut  off  from  the  church. 
In  1837  Smith  prints  this  language  about  his  coadjutor  and  witness:  'There 
are  negroes  who  have  white  skins  as  well  as  black  ones — Granny  Parish 
and  others,  who  acted  as  lackeys,  such  as  Martin  Harris!  But  they  are  so 
far  beneath  my  contempt  that  to  notice  any  of  them  would  be  too  great  a 
sacrifice  for  a  gentleman  to  make.'  Hyde's  Mormonism,  252-5.  Of  David 
Whitmer,  Mr  Howe  says:  *He  is  one  of  five  of  the  same  name  and  family 
who  have  been  used  as  witnesses  to  establish  the  imposition,  and  who  are 
now  head  men  and  leaders  in  the  Mormonite  camp.  They  were  noted  in 
their  neighborhood  for  credulity  and  a  general  belief  in  witches,  and  perhaps 
were  fit  subjects  for  the  juggling  arts  of  Smith.  David  relates  that  he  was 
led  by  Smith  into  an  open  field,  on  his  father's  farm,  where  they  found  the 
book  of  plates  lying  upon  the  ground.  Smith  took  it  up  and  requested  him 
to  examine  it,  which  he  did  for  the  space  of  half  an  hour  or  more,  when  he 
returned  it  to  Smith,  who  placed  it  in  its  former  position,  alleging  that  it 
was  in  the  custody  of  an  angel.  He  describes  the  plates  as  being  about  eight 
inches  square,  the  leaves  being  metal  of  a  whitish  yellow  color,  and  of  the 
thickness  of  tin  plates.'  Mormonism  Unveiled,  16.  See  also  Kidder^ s  Mor- 
mons, 49-51;  Tucker^ s  Origin  and  Prog.  Mor.,  69-71;  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.y 
29-30;  Bertrand^s  M^moires  d'un  Mormon,  29-31. 

^*  '  It  will  be  seen  that  the  witnesses  of  this  truth  were  principally  of  the 
two  families  of  Whitmer  and  Smith.  The  Smiths  were  the  father  and  broth- 
ers of  Joseph.  Who  the  Whitmers  were  is  not  clear,  and  all  clew  to  their 
character  and  proceedings  since  this  date,  though  probably  known  to  the 
Mormons  themselves,  is  undiscoverable  by  the  profane  vulgar. '  Mackay's  The 
Mormons,  23. 

The  theory  conmaonly  accepted  at  present  by  those  not  of  the  Mormon 
faith,  in  regard  to  the  origin  of  the  book  of  Mormon,  is  thus  given  in  the  in- 


troduction  to  the  New  York  edition  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  essentially  the 
same  as  that  advanced  previously  by  E.  D.  Howe,  and  subsequently  elabo- 
rated by  others:  'About  the  year  1809,  the  Rev.  Solomon  Spaulding,  a  clergy- 
man who  had  graduated  from  Dartmouth  college,  and  settled  in  the  town  of 
Cherry  Valley,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  removed  from  that  place  to  New 
Salem  (Conneaut),  Ashtabula  county,  Ohio.  Mr  Spaulding  was  an  enthu- 
siastic archaeologist.  The  region  to  which  he  removed  was  rich  in  American 
antiquities.  The  mounds  and  fortifications  which  have  puzzled  the  brains  of 
many  patient  explorers  attracted  his  attention,  and  he  accepted  the  theory 
that  the  American  continent  was  peopled  by  a  colony  of  the  ancient  Israelites. 
The  ample  material  by  which  he  was  surrounded,  full  of  mythical  interest  and 
legendary  suggest! veness,  led  him  to  the  conception  of  a  curious  literary  pro- 
ject. He  set  himself  the  task  of  writing  a  fictitious  history  of  the  race  which 
had  built  the  mounds.  The  work  was  commenced  and  progressed  slowly  for 
some  time.  Portions  of  it  were  read  by  Mr  Spaulding's  friends,  as  its  dif- 
ferent sections  were  completed,  and  after  three  years'  labor,  the  volume  was 
sent  to  the  press,  bearing  the  title  of  TJie  Manuscript  Found.  Mr  Spaulding 
had  removed  to  Pittsburgh,  Pa. ,  before  his  book  received  the  final  revision, 
and  it  was  in  the  hands  of  a  printer  named  Patterson,  in  that  city,  that  the 
manuscript  was  placed  with  a  view  to  publication.  This  was  in  the  year 
1812.  The  printing,  however,  was  delayed  in  consequence  of  a  difficulty 
about  the  contract,  until  Mr  Spaulding  left  Pittsburgh,  and  went  to  Amity, 
Washington  county,  New  York,  where  in  1816  he  died.  The  manuscript 
seems  to  have  lain  unused  during  this  interval.  But  in  the  employ  of  the 
printer  Patterson  was  a  versatile  genius,  one  Sidney  Rigdon,  to  whom  no 
trade  came  amiss,  and  who  happened  at  the  time  to  be  a  journeyman  at  work 
with  Patterson.  Disputations  on  questions  of  theology  were  the  peculiar  de- 
light of  Rigdon,  and  the  probable  solution  of  the  mystery  of  the  book  of  Mor- 
mon is  found  in  the  fact  that,  by  this  man's  agency,  information  of  the  exist- 
ence of  the  fictitious  record  was  first  communicated  to  Joseph  Smith. 
Smith's  family  settled  in  Palmyra,  New  York,  about  the  year  1815,  and  re- 
moved subsequently  to  Ontario  county,  where  Joseph  became  noted  for  su- 
preme cunning  and  general  shiftlessness.  Chance  threw  him  in  the  company  of 
Rigdon  soon  after  Spaulding's  manuscript  fell  under  the  eye  of  the  erratic 
journeyman,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  plan  of  founding  a  new  system  of  re- 
ligious imposture  was  concocted  by  these  two  shrewd  and  unscrupulous  par- 
ties. The  fact  that  the  style  of  the  book  of  Mormon  so  closely  imitates  that 
of  the  received  version  of  the  bible — a  point  which  seems  to  have  been  con- 
stantly kept  in  view  by  Mr  Spaulding,  probably  in  order  to  invest  the  fiction 
M^ith  a  stronger  character  of  reality — answered  admirably  for  the  purposes 
of  Rigdon  and  Smith.*  Mr  Howe  testifies  that  'an  opinion  has  prevailed  to 
a  considerable  extent  that  Rigdon  has  been  the  lago,  the  prime  mover  of 
the  whole  conspiracy.  Of  this,  however,  we  have  no  positive  proof.'  Mor- 
monism  Unveiled,  100. 

To  prove  the  foregoing,  witnesses  are  brought  forward.  John  Spaulding, 
brother  of  Solomon,  testifies:  'He  then  told  me  that  he  had  been  writing  a 
book,  which  he  intended  to  have  printed,  the  avails  of  which  he  thought 
would  enable  him  to  pay  all  his  debts.  The  book  was  entitled  The  Manuscript 
Found,  of  which  he  read  to  me  many  passages.  It  was  an  historical  romance 
of  the  first  settlers  of  America,'  etc.  He  goes  on  to  speak  of  Nephi  and  Lehi 
as  names  familiar,  as  does  also  Martha  Spaulding,  John's  wife.  Henry  Lake, 
formerly  Solomon's  partner,  testifies  to  the  same  effect;  also  John  N.  Miller, 
who  worked  for  Lake  and  Spaulding  in  building  their  forge;  also  Aaron 
Wright,  Oliver  Smith,  and  Nahum  Howard,  neighbors;  also  Artemas  Cunning- 
ham, to  whom  Spaulding  owed  money.  To  these  men  Solomon  Spaulding 
used  to  talk  about  and  read  from  his  Manuscript  Found,  which  was  an  ac- 
count of  the  ten  lost  tribes  in  America,  which  he  wanted  to  publish  and  with 
the  profits  pay  his  debts.  After  the  book  of  Mormon  was  printed,  and  they 
saw  it,  or  heard  it  read,  they  were  sure  it  was  the  same  as  Spaulding's  ManU' 
script  Found.  Id.,  21S-87, 


Who  Wrote  the  Booh  of  Mormon?  is  the  title  of  a  4to  pamphlet  of  16 
pages  by  Robert  Patterson  of  Pittsburgh.  Reprinted  from  the  illustrated 
history  of  Washington  county,  Philadelphia,  1882.  This  Patterson  is  the 
son  of  printer  Patterson,  to  whose  office  the  Spaulding  MS.  is  said  to  have 
been  sent.  Little  new  information  is  brought  out  by  this  inquisition.  First 
he  extracts  passages  from  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  quoting  at  second- 
hand from  Kidder's  Mormonism  ard  the  M(yrmon8,  in  the  absence  of  the  orig- 
inal, stating  erroneously  that  Howe's  book  was  first  printed  in  1835.  I  give 
elsewhere  an  epitome  of  the  contents  of  Howe's  work.  Ballantyne  in  his 
Reply  to  a  Tract,  by  T.  Richards,  What  is  Mormonism?  wherein  is  advanced 
the  Spaulding  theory,  asserts  in  answer  that  Spaulding's  manuscript  was  not 
known  to  Smith  or  Rigdon  until  after  the  publication  of  the  Booh  of  Mor- 
mon, and  that  the  two  were  not  the  same,  the  latter  being  about  three  times 
larger  than  the  former.  *Dr  Hurlburt,'  he  says,  'and  certain  other  noted 
enemies  of  this  cause,  having  heard  that  such  a  manuscript  existed,  deter- 
mined to  publish  it  to  the  world  in  order  to  destroy  the  book  of  Mormon,  but 
after  examining  it,  found  that  it  did  not  read  as  they  expected,  consequently 
declined  its  publication.'  The  Spaulding  theory  is  advanced  and  supported 
by  the  following,  in  addition  to  the  eight  witnesses  whose  testimony  was  given 
by  Howe  in  his  Mormonism  Unveiled.  Mrs  Matilda  Spaulding  Davidson,  once 
wife  of  Solomon  Spaulding,  said  to  Rev.  D.  R.  Austin,  who  had  the  statement 
printed  in  the  Boston  Recorder,  May  1839,  that  Spaulding  was  in  the  habit 
of  reading  portions  of  his  romance  to  his  friends  and  neighbors.  When  John 
Spaulding  heard  read  for  the  first  time  passages  from  the  book  of  Mormon 
he  'recognized  perfectly  the  work  of  his  brother.  He  was  amazed  and  af- 
flicted that  it  should  have  been  perverted  to  so  wicked  a  purpose.  His  grief 
found  vent  in  a  flood  of  tears,  and  he  arose  on  the  spot  and  expressed  to  the 
meeting  his  sorrow  and  regret  that  the  writings  of  his  deceased  brother  should 
be  used  for  a  purpose  so  vile  and  shocking.*  Statements  to  the  same  effect 
are  given  as  coming  from  Mrs  McKinstry,  daughter  of  Spaulding,  printed  in 
Scribner^s  Monthly,  August  1880;  W.  H.  Sabine,  brother  of  Mrs  Spaulding; 
Joseph  Miller,  whose  statements  were  printed  in  the  Pittsburgh  Telegraph, 
Feb.  6,  1879;  Redick  McKee  in  the  Washington  Reporter,  April  21,  1869; 
Rev.  Abner  Jackson  in  a  communication  to  the  Washington  County  Histori- 
cal Society,  printed  in  the  Washington  Reporter,  Jan.  7,  1881,  and  others. 
See  also  Kidder's  Mormonism,  37-49;  Cal'fomia — /ts  Past  History,  198-9; 
Ferris'  Utah  and  Mormons,  50-1;  Gunnison's  Mormons,  93-7;  Bertrand's 
M^moires  d'un  Mormon,  33-^;  Hist  of  Mormons,  41-50;  Bennett's  Mormon- 
ism, 115-24;  Howe's  Mormonism,  289-90. 

Robert  Patterson,  in  his  pamphlet  entitled  Who  Wrote  the  Booh  of  Mor- 
mon? thus  discusses  the  case  of  Sidney  Rigdon:  'It  was  satisfactorily  proven 
that  Spaulding  was  the  author  of  the  book  of  Mormon;  but  how  did  Joseph 
Smith  obtain  a  copy  of  it  ?  The  theory  hitherto  most  widely  published,'  says 
Patterson,  'and  perhaps  generally  accepted,  has  been  that  Rigdon  was  a 
printer  in  Patterson's  printing-office  when  the  Spaulding  manuscript  was 
brought  there  in  1812-14,  and  that  he  either  copied  or  purloined  it.  Having 
it  thus  in  his  possession,  the  use  made  of  it  was  an  after  thought  suggested 
by  circumstances  many  years  later.  More  recently  another  theory  has  been 
advanced,  that  Rigdon  obtained  possession  of  the  Spaulding  manuscript  dur- 
ing his  pastorate  of  the  first  baptist  church  or  soon  thereafter,  1822-4,  with- 
out any  necessary  impropriety  on  his  part,  but  rather  through  the  courtesy 
of  some  friend,  in  whose  possession  it  remained  unclaimed,  and  who  regarded 
it  as  a  literary  curiosity.  The  friends  of  Rigdon,  in  response  to  the  first 
charge,  deny  that  he  ever  resided  in  Pittsburgh  previous  to  1822,  or  that  he 
ever  was  a  printer,  and  in  general  answer  to  both  charges  affirm  that  he 
never  at  any  time  had  access  to  Spaulding's  manuscript. '  Rigdon  denies  em- 
phatically that  he  ever  worked  in  Patterson's  printing-office  or  knew  of  such 
an  esta-blishment;  and  the  testimony,  produced  by  Patterson,  of  Carvil  Rig- 
don, Sidney's  brother,  Peter  Boyer,  his  brother-in-law,  Isaac  King,  Samuel 
CJooper,  Robert  Dubois,  and  Mrs  Lambdin  points  in  the  same  direction.     On 


the  other  hand,  Mrs  Davidson,  Joseph  Miller,  Redick  McKee,  Rev.  Cephas 
Dodd,  and  Mrs  Eichbaum  are  quite  positive  that  either  Rigdon  worked  in  the 
printi'ng-oflBce,  or  had  access  to  the  manuscript.  'These  witnesses,'  continues 
Patterson,  'arc  all  whom  we  can  find,  after  inquirfes  extending  through  some 
three  years,  who  can  testify  at  all  to  Rigdon's  residence  in  Pittsburgh  before 
1816,  and  to  his  possible  employment  in  Patterson's  printing-office  or  bindery. 
Of  this  employment  none  of  them  speak  from  personal  knowledge.  In  mak- 
ing inquiries  among  two  or  three  score  of  the  oldest  residents  of  Pittsburgh 
and  vicinity,  those  who  had  any  opinion  on  the  subject  invariably,  so  far  as 
now  remembered,  repeated  the  story  of  Rigdon's  employment  in  Patterson's 
office  as  if  it  were  a  well  known  and  admitted  fact;  they  could  tell  all  about 
it,  but  when  pressed  as  to  their  personal  knowledge  of  it  or  their  authority 
for  the  conviction,  they  had  none.'  Nevertheless  he  concludes,  'after  an  im- 
partial consideration  of  the  preceding  testimony,  that  Rigdon  as  early  as  1823 
certainly  had  possession  of  Spaulding's  manuscript;  how  he  obtained  it  is 
unimportant  for  the  present  purpose;  that  during  his  career  as  a  minister  of 
the  Disciples  church  in  Ohio,  he  carefully  preserved  under  lock  and  key  this 
document,  and  devoted  an  absorbed  attention  to  it;  that  he  was  aware  of  the 
forthcoming  book  of  Mormon  and  of  its  contents  long  before  its  appearance; 
that  the  said  contents  were  largely  Spaulding's  romance,  and  partly  such 
modifications  as  Rigdon  had  introduced;  and  that,  during  the  preparation  of 
the  book  of  Mormon,  Rigdon  had  repeated  and  long  interviews  with  Smith, 
thus  easily  supplying  him  with  fresh  instalments  of  the  pretended  revelation.' 
In  a  letter  to  the  editors  of  the  Boston  Journal^  dated  May  27,  1839,  Rigdon 
says:  '  There  was  no  man  by  the  name  of  Patterson  during  my  residence  at 
Pittsburgh  who  had  a  printing-office;  what  might  have  been  before  I  lived 
there  I  know  not.  Mr  Robert  Patterson,  I  was  told,  had  owned  a  printing- 
office  before  I  lived  in  that  city,  but  had  been  unfortunate  in  business,  and 
failed  before  my  residence  there.  This  Mr  Patterson,  who  was  a  presbyterian 
preacher,  I  had  a  very  slight  acquaintance  with  during  my  residence  in  Pitts- 
burgh. He  was  then  acting  under  an  agency  in  the  book  and  stationery 
business,  and  was  the  owner  of  no  property  of  any  kind,  printing-office  or 
anything  else,  during  the  time  I  resided  in  the  city. '  Smucker's  Mormons,  45-8. 

In  Philadelphia,  in  1840,  was  published  2^ he  Origin  of  the  Spaulding 
Story,  concerning  the  Manuscript  Found;  with  a  short  biography  of  Dr  P.  Hul- 
bert,  the  originator  of  the  same;  and  some  testimony  adduced,  showing  it  to  be  a 
sheer  fabrication  so  far  as  its  connection  with  the  Book  of  Mormon  is  concerned. 
By  B.  Winchester,  minister  of  the  Gospel.  The  author  goes  on  to  say  that 
Hulbert,  a  methodist  preacher  at  Jamestown,  N.  Y.,  joined  the  Mormons  in 
1833,  and  was  expelled  for  immoral  conduct,  whereupon  he  swore  vengeance 
and  concocted  the  Spaulding  story.  Hearing  of  a  work  written  by  Solomon 
Spaulding  entitled  The  Manuscript  Found,  he  sought  to  prove  to  those  about 
him  that  the  book  of  Mormon  was  derived  from  it,  *  not  that  any  of  these 
persons  had  the  most  distant  idea  that  this  novel  had  ever  been  converted 
into  the  book  of  Mormon,  or  that  there  was  any  connection  between  them. 
Indeed,  Mr  Jackson,  who  had  read  both  the  book  of  Mormon  and  Spaulding's 
manuscript,  told  Mr  H.  when  he  came  to  get  his  signature  to  a  writing  testi- 
fying to  the  probability  that  Mr  S.'s  manuscript  had  been  converted  into  the 
book  of  Mormon,  that  there  was  no  agreement  between  them;  for,  said  he, 
Mr  S.'s  manuscript  was  a  very  small  work,  in  the  form  of  a  novel,  saying 
not  one  word  about  the  children  of  Israel,  but  professed  to  give  an  account 
of  a  race  of  people  who  originated  from  the  Romans,  which  Mr  S.  said  he  had 
translated  from  a  Latin  parchment  that  he  had  found. '  Winchester  states  fur- 
ther that  Hurlburt,  or  Hulbert,  wrote  Morrnonism  Unveiled  and  sold  it  to 
Howe  for  $500. 

The  Myth  of  the  Manuscript  Found;  or  the  aibsurdities  of  the  Spaulding 
story;  By  Elder  George  Reynolds,  was  published  at  Salt  Lake  City  in  1883. 
It  is  a  12mo  vol.  of  104  pages,  and  gives  first  the  history  of  the  Spaulding  man- 
iiscript,  and  names  Hurlburt  as  the  originator  of  the  story.  Chap.  iii.  is  en- 
titled '  the  bogus  affidavit,'  referring  to  the  alleged  sworn  statement  of  Mrs 


The  translation  of  the  book  of  Mormon  being  fin- 
ished, Smith  and  Cowdery  go  to  Palmyra,  secure  the 
copyright,  and  agree  with  Egbert  B.  Grandin  to 
print  five  thousand  copies  for  three  thousand  dollars. 
Meanwhile,  a  revelation  comes  to  Martin  Harris,  at 
Manchester,  in  March,  commanding  him  to  pay  for 
the  printing  of  the  book  of  Mormon,  under  penalty 
of  destruction  of  himself  and  property.^*^     The  title- 

Davison,  the  widow  of  Spaulding,  published  by  Storrs,  but  denied  by  Mrs 
Davison.  Rigdon's  connection,  or  rather  lack  of  connection  with  the  manu- 
script is  next  discussed.  Then  is  answered  an  article  in  Scribner's  Magazine 
by  Mrs  Dickenson,  grand  niece  of  Mr  Spaulding,  and  probably  the  most  shal- 
low treatment  of  the  subject  yet  presented  on  either  side.  Further  discus- 
sions on  the  book  are  followed  by  an  analysis  of  the  life  of  Joseph,  and  finally 
internal  evidences  and  prophecies  are  considered.  'It  is  evident,' Mr  Rey- 
nolds concludes,  '  that  if  Mr  Spaulding's  story  was  what  its  friends  claim, 
then  it  never  could  have  formed  the  ground-work  of  the  book  of  Mormon; 
for  the  whole  historical  narrative  is  different  from  beginning  to  end.  And 
further,  the  story  that  certain  old  inhabitants  of  New  Salem,  who,  it  is  said, 
recognized  the  book  of  Mormon,  either  never  made  such  a  statement,  or  they 
let  their  imagination  run  away  with  their  memory  into  the  endorsement  of  a 
falsehood  and  an  impossibility. ' 

'^"Speaking  of  Martin  Harris,  E.  D.  Howe  says:  *  Before  his  acquaintance 
with  the  Smith  family  he  was  considered  an  honest,  industrious  citizen  by 
his  neighbors.  His  residence  was  in  the  town  of  Palmyra,  where  he  had 
accumulated  a  handsome  property.  He  was  naturally  of  a  very  visionary 
turn  of  mind  on  the  subject  of  religion,  holding  one  sentiment  but  a  short 
time.'  Mortgaged  his  farm  for  $3, WO,  and  printed  the  Book  of  Mormon,  as 
he  said,  to  make  money.  The  price  first  was  $1.75,  then  $1.25,  afterward 
whatever  they  could  get.  *  Since  that  time  the  frequent  demands  on  Mar- 
tin's purse  have  reduced  it  to  a  very  low  state.  He  seems  to  have  been  the 
soul  and  body  of  the  whole  imposition,  and  now  carries  the  most  incon- 
testable proofs  of  a  religious  maniac, .  .Martin  is  an  exceedingly  fast  talker. 
He  frequently  gathers  a  crowd  around  in  bar-rooms  and  in  the  streets. 
Here  he  appears  to  be  in  his  element,  answering  and  explaining  all  manner 
of  dark  and  abstruse  theological  questions. .  .He  is  the  source  of  much 
trouble  and  perplexity  to  the  honest  portion  of  his  brethren,  and  would  un- 
doubtedly long  since  have  been  cast  off  by  Smith  were  it  not  for  his  money,  and 
the  fact  that  he  is  one  of  the  main  pillars  of  the  Mormon  fabric. '  Mormonism 
Unveiled,  13-15.  'The  wife  of  Martin  Harris  instituted  a  lawsuit  against 
him  [Joseph  Smith,  Jr],  and  stated  in  her  affidavit  that  she  believed  the  chief 
object  he  had  in  view  was  to  defraud  her  husband  of  all  his  property.  The 
trial  took  place  at  New  York,  and  the  facts,  as  related  even  by  the  mother 
of  the  prophet,  are  strongly  condemnatory  of  his  conduct. .  .Harris  denied 
in  solemn  terms  that  Smith  had  ever,  in  any  manner,  attempted  to  get  pos- 
session of  his  money,  and  ended  by  assuring  the  gentlemen  of  the  court  that, 
if  they  did  not  believe  in  the  existence  of  the  plates,  and  continued  to  resist 
the  truth,  it  would  one  day  be  the  means  of  damning  their  souls.'  Taylder^a 
Mormons,  xxxi.-ii.  'In  the  beginning  of  the  printing  the  Mormons  pro- 
fessed to  hold  their  manuscripts  as  sacred,  and  insisted  upon  maintaining  con- 
stant vigilance  for  their  safety  during  the  progress  of  the  work,  each  morn- 
ing carrying  to  the  printing-office  the  instalment  required  for  the  day,  and 
withdrawing  the  same  at  evening.  No  alteration  from  copy  in  any  manner 
was  to  be  made.     These  things  were  ' '  strictly  commanded, "  as  they  said.     Mr 


page  is  not  a  modern  production,  but  a  literal  trans- 
lation from  the  last  leaf  of  the  plates,  on  the  left-hand 
side,  and  running  like  all  Hebrew  writing. 

And  now  in  a  chamber  of  Whitmer's  house  Smith, 
Cowdery,  and  David  Whitmer  meet,  and  earnestly  ask 
God  to  make  good  his  promise,  and  confer  on  them 
the  Melchisedec  priesthood,  which  authorizes  the  lay- 
ing-on  of  hands  for  the  gift  of  the  holy  ghost.  Their 
prayer  is  answered;  for  presently  the  word  of  the 
Lord  comes  to  them,  commanding  that  Joseph  Smith 
should  ordain  OHver  Cowdery  to  be  an  elder  in  the 
church  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  Oliver  in  like  manner 
should  so  ordain  Joseph,  and  the  two  should  ordain 
others  as  from  time  to  time  the  will  of  the  Lord  should 
be  made  known  to  them.^^  But  this  ordination  must 
not  take  place  until  the  baptized  brethren  assemble 
and  give  to  this  act  their  sanction,  and  accept  the 
ordained  as  spiritual  teachers,  and  then  only  after  the 
blessing  and  partaking  of  bread  and  wine.  It  is  next 
revealed  that  twelve  shall  be  called  to  be  the  disciples 
of  Christ,  the  twelve  apostles  of  these  last  days,  who 
shall  go  into  all  the  world  preaching  and  baptizing. 

John  H.  Gilbert,  as  printer,  had  the  chief  operative  trust  of  the  type-setting 
and  press-work  of  the  job.  After  the  first  day's  trial  he  found  the  manu- 
scripts in  so  very  imperfect  a  condition,  especially  in  regard  to  grammar, 
that  he  became  unwilling  further  to  obey  the  "command,"  and  so  announced 
to  Smith  and  his  party;  when  finally,  upon  much  friendly  expostulation,  he 
was  given  a  limited  discretion  in  correcting,  which  was  exercised  in  the  par- 
ticulars of  syntax,  orthography,  punctuation,  capitalizing,  paragraphing,  etc. 
Many  errors  under  these  heads,  nevertheless,  escaped  correction,  as  appear 
in  the  first  edition  of  the  printed  book.  Very  soon,  too — after  some  ten 
days — the  constant  vigilance  by  the  Mormons  over  the  manuscripts  was  re- 
laxed by  reason  of  the  confidence  they  came  to  repose  in  the  printers.  Mr 
Gilbert  has  now  (1867)  in  his  possession  a  complete  copy  of  the  book  in  the 
original  sheets,  as  laid  off  by  him  from  the  press  in  working . .  .  Meanwhile, 
Harris  and  his  wife  had  separated  by  mutual  arrangement,  on  account  of 
her  persistent  unbelief  in  Mormonism  and  refusal  to  be  a  party  to  the  mort- 
gage. The  family  estate  was  divided,  Harris  giving  her  about  eighty  acres 
of  the  farm,  with  a  comfortable  house  and  other  property,  as  her  share  of  the 
assets;  and  she  occupied  this  property  until  the  time  of  her  death.'  Tucker's 
Origin  and  Prog.  Mor.,  50-7. 

^^  Speaking  of  the  manner  in  which  Smith  delivered  these  revelations, 
Howe  says:  'In  this  operation  he  abandoned  his  spectacles,  or  peep-stone,  and 
merely  delivered  it  with  his  eyes  shut.  In  this  manner  he  governs  his  follow- 
ers, by  asking  the  Lord,  as  he  says,  from  day  to  day.'  Mormonism  Unveiled^ 


By  the  spirit  of  prophecy  and  revelation  it  is  done. 
The  rise  of  the  church  of  Jesus  Christ  in  these  last 
days  is  on  the  6th  of  April,  1830,  at  which  date  the 
church  was  organized  under  the  provisions  of  the 
statutes  of  the  state  of  New  York  by  Joseph  Smith 
junior,  Hyrum  Smith,  Oliver  Cowdery,  David  Whit- 
mer,  Samuel  H.  Smith,  and  Peter  Whitmer.  Joseph 
Smith,  ordained  an  apostle  of  Jesus  Christ,  is  made 
by  the  commandment  of  God  the  first  elder  of  this 
church,  and  Oliver  Cowdery,  likewise  an  apostle,  is 
made  the  second  elder.  Again  the  first  elder  falls 
into  worldly  entanglements,  but  upon  repentance  and 
self-humbling  he  is  delivered  by  an  angel. 

The  duties  of  elders,  priests,  teachers,  deacons,  and 
members  are  as  follow :  All  who  desire  it,  w^th  hon- 
esty and  humility,  may  be  baptized  into  the  church; 
old  covenants  are  at  an  end,  all  must  be  baptized  anew. 
An  apostle  is  an  elder;  he  shall  baptize,  ordain  other 
elders,  priests,  teachers,  and  deacons,  administer  bread 
and  wine,  emblems  of  the  flesh  and  blood  of  Christ;  he 
shall  confirm,  teach,  expound,  exhort,  taking  the  lead 
at  meetings,  and  conducting  them  as  he  is  taught  by 
the  holy  ghost.  The  priest's  duty  is  to  preach,  teach, 
expound,  exhort,  baptize,  administer  the  sacrament, 
and  visit  and  pray  with  members ;  he  may  also  ordain 
other  priests,  teachers,  and  deacons,  giving  a  certifi- 
cate of  ordination,  and  lead  in  meetings  when  no 
elder  is  present.  The  teacher's  duty  is  to  watch  over 
and  strengthen  the  members,  preventing  evil  speak- 
ing and  all  iniquity,  to  see  that  the  meetings  are  regu- 
larly held,  and  to  take  the  lead  in  them  in  the  absence 
of  elder  or  priest.  The  deacon's  duty  is  to  assist  the 
teacher;  teacher  and  deacon  may  warn,  expound,  ex- 
liort,  but  neither  of  them  shall  baptize,  administer 
the  sacrament,  or  lay  on  hands.  The  elders  are  to 
meet  in  council  for  the  transaction  of  church  business 
every  three  months,  or  oftener  should  meetings  be 
called.  Subordinate  oflficers  will  receive  from  the 
elders  a  license  defining  their  authority;  elders  will 

Hist.  Utah.    5 


receive  their  license  from  other  elders  by  vote  cf 
church  or  conference.  There  shall  be  presidents, 
bishops,  high  counsellors,  and  high  priests;  the  pre- 
siding elder  shall  be  president  of  the  high  priesthood, 
and  he,  as  well  as  bishops,  high  counsellors,  and  high 
priests,  will  be  ordained  by  high  council  or  general 
conference.  The  duty  of  members  is  to  walk  in  holi- 
ness before  the  Lord  according  to  the  scriptures,  to 
bring  their  children  to  the  elders,  who  will  lay  their 
hands  on  them  and  bless  them  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ.  The  bible,  that  is  to  say,  the  scriptures  of 
the  old  and  new  testaments,  is  accepted  wholly,  save 
such  corruptions  as  have  crept  in  through  the  great 
and  abominable  church;  the  book  of  Mormon  is  a 
later  revelation,  supplementary  thereto.  Thus  is  or- 
ganized the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day 
Saints,^^  in  accordance  with  special  revelations  and 
commandments,  and  after  the  manner  set  forth  in  the 
new  testament. 

The  first  public  discourse,  following  the  meetings 
held  in  Whitmer's  house,  was  preached  on  Sunday, 
the  11th  of  April,  1830,  by  Ohver  Cowdery,  who  the 

22  The  church  was  not  at  that  time  so  called,  nor  indeed  until  after  the 
4th  of  May,  1834.  See  chap,  iv.,  note  50;  also  Millennial  Star,  iv.  115;  Bur- 
ton's City  of  the  Saints,  671-2.  Kidder,  Mormonism,  68,  affirms  that  this 
name  was  not  adopted  till  some  years  later.  Mather  is  only  a  year  and  a  day 
astray  when  he  says,  'The  conference  of  elders  on  May  3,  1833,  repudiated 
the  name  of  "Mormons"  and  adopted  that  of  "Latter-Day  Saints.'"  Lippin- 
cott's  Mag. ,  Aug.  1880.  The  term  '  Mormons, '  as  first  applied  by  their  enemies 
to  members  of  the  church  of  Latter-Day  Saints,  was  quite  offensive  to  them, 
though  later  they  became  somewhat  more  reconciled  to  it.  As  at  present  popu- 
larly employed,  it  is  by  no  means  a  term  of  reproach,  though  among  themselves 
they  still  adhere  to  the  appellation  '  Saints, '  j  ust  as  quakers  speak  of  them- 
selves as  the  'Society  of  Friends. '  The  term  'Mormon'  seems  to  me  quite  fit- 
ting for  general  use,  fully  as  much  so  as  presbyterian,  reformed  Dutch,  uni- 
versalist,  and  others,  few  of  wdiich  were  of  their  own  choosing.  '  Mormon  was 
the  name  of  a  certain  man,  and  also  of  a  particular  locality  upon  the  Ameri- 
can continent;  but  was  never  intended  to  signify  a  body  of  people.  The  name 
by  which  we  desire  to  be  known  and  to  walk  worthy  of  is  "Saints."'  BelVs 
Reply  to  Theobald,  2.  At  the  time  of  the  riots  in  Missouri,  in  addressing  com- 
munications to  the  governor,  and  in  many  other  instances,  they  designate 
themselves  as  *  members  of  the  church  of  Christ,  vulgarly  called  Mormons. ' 
See  also  De  SmeVs  Western  Missions,  393;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  41-2. 
The  term  'gentile'  was  generally  applied  to  unbelievers  of  the  white  race. 
The  Indians,  originally,  were  denominated  'of  the  house  of  Israel,'  'of  the 
house  of  Joseph,'  or  'of  the  house  of  Jacob,'  also  the  Lamanites. 


same  day  baptized  in  Seneca  Lake  several  persons, 
among  whom  were  Hyrum  and  Katherine  Page,  some 
of  the  Whitmers,  and  the  Jolly  family.  The  first 
miracle  likewise  occurred  during  the  same  month, 
Joseph  Smith  casting  out  a  devil  from  Newel  Knight, 
son  of  Joseph  Knight,  who  with  his  family  had  been 
universalists.  Newel  had  been  a  constant  attendant 
at  the  meetings,  and  was  much  interested;  but  when 
he  attempted  to  pray  the  devil  prevented  him,  writhing 
his  limbs  into  divers  distortions,  and  hurling  him  about 
the  room.  "I  know  that  you  can  deliver  me  from 
this  evil  spirit,"  cried  Newel.  Whereupon  Joseph 
rebuked  the  devil  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ,  and 
the  evil  spirit  departed  from  the  young  man.  Seeing 
this,  others  came  forward  and  expressed  their  belief 
in  the  new  faith,  and  a  church  was  established  at  Coles- 

On  the  1st  of  June  the  first  conference  as  an  or- 
ganized church  was  held,  there  being  thirty  members. 
The  meeting  was  opened  by  singing  and  prayer,  after 
which  they  partook  of  the  sacrament,  which  was  fol- 
lowed by  confirmations  and  further  ordinations  to  the 
several  ojBfices  of  the  priesthood.  The  exercises  were 
attended  by  the  outpouring  of  the  holy  ghost,  and 
many  prophesied,  to  the  infinite  joy  and  gratification  of 
the  elders.  Some  time  after,  on  a  Saturday  previous 
to  an  appointed  sabbath  on  which  baptism  was  to  be 
performed,  the  brethren  constructed,  across  a  stream  of 
water,  a  dam,  which  w^as  torn  away  by  a  mob  during 
the  night.  The  meeting  was  held,  however,  though 
amid  the  sneers  and  insults  of  the  rabble,  Oliver  preach- 
ing. Present  among  others  was  Emily  Coburn,  Newel 
Knight's  wife's  sister,  formerly  a  presbyterian.  Her 
pastor,  the  Rev.  Mr  Shearer,  arrived,  and  tried  to 
persuade  her  to  return  to  her  father.  Failing  in  this, 
he  obtained  from  her  father  a  power  of  attorney,  and 
bore  her  off  by  force;  but  Emily  returned.  The  dam 
was  repaired,  and  baptism  administered  to  some  thir- 
teen persons  the  following  morning;  whereupon  fifty 


men  surrounded  Mr  Knight's  house,  threatening  vio- 
lence. The  same  night  Joseph  was  arrested  by  a 
constable  on  a  charge  of  disorderly  conduct,  and  for 
preaching  the  book  of  Mormon.  It  was  the  purpose 
of  the  populace  to  capture  Joseph  from  the  constable 
and  use  him  roughly,  but  by  hard  driving  he  escaped. 
At  the  trial  which  followed,  an  attempt  was  made  to 
prove  certain  charges,  namely,  that  he  obtained  a 
horse  from  Josiah  Steal,  and  a  yoke  of  oxen  from 
Jonathan  Thompson,  by  sa3dng  that  in  a  revelation  he 
was  told  that  he  was  to  have  them;  also  as  touching 
his  conduct  toward  two  daughters  of  Mr  Stoal;  but 
all  testified  in  his  favor,  and  he  was  acquitted.  As 
he  was  leaving  the  court-room,  he  was  again  arrested 
on  a  warrant  from  Broome  county,  and  taken  midst 
insults  and  buffetings  to  Colesville  for  trial.  The  old 
charges  were  renewed,  and  new  ones  preferred.  Newel 
Knight  was  made  to  testify  regarding  the  miracle 
wrought  in  his  behalf,  and  a  story  that  the  prisoner 
had  been  a  money  digger  was  advanced  by  the  prosecu- 
tion. Again  he  was  acquitted,  and  again  escaped  from 
the  crowd  outside  the  court-house,  whose  purpose  it 
was  to  tar  and  feather  him,  and  ride  him  on  a  rail. 
These  persecutions  were  instigated,  it  was  said,  chiefly 
by  presbyterians. 

While  Joseph  rested  at  his  home  at  Harmony  fur- 
ther stories  were  circulated,  damaging  to  his  character, 
this  time  by  the  methodists.  One  went  to  his  father- 
in-law  with  falsehoods,  and  so  turned  him  and  his 
family  against  Joseph  and  his  friends  that  he  would 
no  longer  afford  them  protection  or  receive  their  doc- 
trine. This  was  a  heavy  blow;  but  proceeding  in 
August  to  Colesville,  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith  and 
John  and  David  Whitmer  continued  the  work  of 
praj^er  and  confirmation.  Fearing  their  old  enemies, 
who  lay  in  wait  to  attack  them  on  their  way  back, 
they  prayed  that  their  eyes  might  be  blinded;  and  so 
it  came  to  pass.  Then  they  held  service  and  returned 
safely,  although  five  dollars  reward  had  been  offered 


for  notification  of  their  arrival.  Removing  his  family 
to  Fayette,  Joseph  encountered  further  persecutions, 
to  which  was  added  a  fresh  grief  Hiram  Page  was 
going  astray  over  a  stone  which  he  had  found,  and  by 
means  of  which  he  had  obtained  revelations  at  va- 
riance with  Joseph's  revelations  and  the  rules  of  the 
new  testament.  It  was  thought  best  not  to  agitate 
the  subject  unnecessarily,  before  the  meeting  of  the 
conference  to  be  held  on  the  1st  of  September;  but 
the  Whitmer  family  and  Oliver  Cowdery  seeming 
to  be  too  greatly  impressed  over  the  things  set  forth 
by  the  rival  stone,  it  was  resolved  to  inquire  of  the 
Lord  concerning  the  matter;  whereupon  a  revelation 
came  to  Oliver  Cowdery,  forbidding  such  practice; 
and  he  was  to  say  privately  to  Hiram  Page  that 
Satan  had  deceived  him,  and  that  the  things  which 
he  had  written  from  the  stone  were  not  of  God. 
Oliver  was  further  commanded  to  go  and  preach  the 
gospel  to  the  Lamanites,^  the  remnants  of  the  house 
of  Joseph  living  in  the  west,^*  where  he  was  to  estab- 

''  '  The  Lamanites  originally  were  a  remnant  of  Joseph,  and  in  the  first 
year  of  the  reign  of  Zedekiah,  King  of  Judah,  were  led  in  a  miraculous  man- 
ner from  Jerusalem  to  the  eastern  borders  of  the  Red  Sea,  thence  for  some 
time  along  its  borders  in  a  nearly  south-east  direction,  after  which  they  altered 
their  course  nearly  eastward,  until  they  came  to  the  great  waters,  where  by 
the  command  of  God  they  built  a  vessel  in  which  they  were  safely  brought 
across  the  great  Pacific  Ocean,  and  landed  upon  the  western  coast  of  South 
America.  The  original  party  included  also  the  Nephites,  their  leader  being 
a  prophet  called  Nephi;  but  soon  after  landing  they  separated,  because  the 
Lamanites,  whose  leader  was  a  wicked  man  called  Laman,  persecuted  the 
others.  After  the  partition  the  Nephites,  who  had  brought  with  them  the 
old  testament  down  to  the  time  of  Jeremiah,  engraved  on  plates  of  brass,  in 
the  Egyptain  language,  prospered  and  built  large  cities.  But  the  bold,  bad 
Lamanites,  originally  white,  became  dark  and  dirty,  though  still  retaining  a 
national  existence.  They  became  wild,  savage,  and  ferocious,  seeking  by 
every  means  the  destruction  of  the  prosperous  Nephites,  against  whom  they 
many  times  arrayed  their  hosts  in  battle;  but  were  repulsed  and  driven  back 
to  their  own  territories,  generally  with  great  loss  to  both  sides.  The  slain, 
frequently  amounting  to  tens  of  thousands,  were  piled  together  in  great  heaps 
and  overspread  with  a  thin  covering  of  earth,  which  will  satisfactorily  account 
for  those  ancient  mounds  filled  with  human  bones,  so  numerous  at  the  pres- 
ent day,  both  in  North  and  South  America.'  Pratt  (Orson),  Senes  of  Pamph- 
lets, vi.  7-8;  Pratt  {P.  P.),  Voice  of  Warninq,  81-117. 

^*'The  attention  of  the  little  band  was  directed,  from  the  very  commence- 
ment of  their  organization,  to  the  policy  and  expediency  of  fixing  their  head- 
quarters in  the  far  west,  in  the  thinly  settled  and  but  partially  explored 
territories  belonging  to  the  United  States,  where  they  might  squat  upon  or 
purchase  good  lands  at  a  cheap  rate,  and  clear  the  primeval  wilderness. 


lish  a  church  and  build  a  city,^^  at  a  point  to  be  desig- 
nated later. 

"Behold,  I  say  unto  thee,  Oliver,  that  it  shall  be 
given  unto  thee  that  thou  shalt  be  heard  by  the 
church  in  all  things  whatsoever  thou  shalt  teach  them 
by  the  comforter  concerning  the  revelations  and  com- 
mandments which  I  have  given.  But  behold,  verily, 
verily,  I  say  unto  thee,  no  one  shall  be  appointed  to 
receive  commandments  and  revelations  in  this  church, 
excepting  my  servant  Joseph  Smith,  Jr,  for  he  re- 
ceiveth  them  even  as  Moses;  and  thou  shalt  be  obe- 
dient unto  the  things  which  I  shall  give  unto  him, 
even  as  Aaron,  to  declare  faithfully  the  command- 
ments and  the  revelations  with  power  and  authority 
unto  the  church.  And  if  thou  art  led  at  any  time  by 
the  comforter  to  speak  or  teach,  or  at  all  times  by  the 
way  of  commandment  unto  the  church,  thou  mayest 
do  it.  But  thou  shalt  not  write  by  way  of  command- 
ment, but  by  wisdom;  and  thou  shalt  not  command 
him  who  is  at  thy  head  and  at  the  head  of  the  church; 
for  I  have  given  him  the  keys  of  the  mysteries  and 
the  revelations  which  are  sealed,  until  I  shall  appoint 
unto  them  another  in  his  stead." 

They  required  elbow-room,  and  rightly  judged  that  a  rural  population  would 
be  more  favorable  than  an  urban  one  to  the  reception  of  their  doctrine. '  Mack- 
ay's  The  Mor.,  63. 

^^  The  most  ancient  prophecy  which  the  saints  are  now  in  possession  of 
relating  to  the  New  Jerusalem  was  one  delivered  by  Enoch,  the  seventh  from 
Adam.  This  was  revealed  anew  to  Joseph  Smith  in  December  1830.  In  it 
the  Lord  is  represented  as  purposing  'to  gather  out  mine  own  elect  from 
the  four  quarters  of  the  earth  unto  a  place  which  I  shall  prepare. .  .But  this 
revelation  does  not  tell  in  what  part  of  the  earth  the  New  Jcnisalem  should 
be  located.  The  book  of  Mormon,  which  the  Lord  has  brought  out  of  the 
earth,  informs  us  that  this  holy  city  is  to  be  built  upon  the  continent  of 
America,  but  it  does  not  inform  us  upon  what  part  of  that  vast  country  it 
should  be  built.'  Pratt's  Series  of  Pamphlets,  vii.  4;  Pratt's  Interesting  Ac- 
county  16-25;  First  Book  of  Nephi  in  Book  of  Mormon. 




Parley  Pratt's  Conversion — Mission  to  the  Lamanites— The  Mission- 

Smith — Edward  Partridge — The  Melchisedec  Priesthood  Given — 
Smith  and  Rigdon  Journey  to  Missouri  —  Bible  Translation — 
Smith's  Second  Visit  to  Missouri — Unexampled  Prosperity — Causes 
OF  Persecutions — Mobocracy — The  Saints  are  Driven  from  Jackson 
County — Treachery  of  Boggs — Military  Organization  at  Kirtland 
— The  Name  Latter-day  Saints — March  to  Missouri. 

One  evening  as  Hyruui  Smith  was  driving  cows 
along  the  road  toward  his  father's  house,  he  was 
overtaken  by  a  stranger,  who  inquired  for  Joseph 
Smith,  translator  of  the  book  of  Mormon.  ''He  is 
now  residing  in  Pennsylvania,  a  hundred  miles  away," 
was  the  reply. 

"And  the  father  of  Joseph?" 

*'He  also  is  absent  on  a  journey.  That  is  his  house 
yonder,  and  I  am  his  son." 

The  stranger  then  said  that  he  was  a  preacher  of 
the  word;  that  he  had  just  seen  for  the  tirst  time  a 
copy  of  the  wonderful  book;  that  once  it  was  in  his 
hands  he  could  not  lay  it  down  until  he  had  devoured 
it,  for  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  was  upon  him  as  he  read, 
and  he  knew  that  it  was  true;  the  spirit  of  the  Lord 
had  directed  him  thither,  and  his  heart  was  full  of  joy. 

Hyrum  gazed  at  him  in  amazement;  for  converts 
of  this  quality,  and  after  this  fashion,  were  not  com- 
mon in  those,  days  of  poverty  and  sore  trial.  He 
was  little  more  than  a  boy,  being  but  twenty-three, 


and  of  that  fresh,  fair  innocence  which  sits  only  on  a 
youthful  face  beaming  with  high  enthusiasm.  But  it 
was  more  than  a  boy's  soul  that  was  seen  through 
those  eyes  of  deep  and  solemn  earnestness;  it  was 
more  than  a  boy's  strength  of  endurance  that  was  in- 
dicated by  the  broad  chest  and  comely,  compact  limbs; 
and  more  than  a  boy's  intelligence  and  powers  of 
reasoning  that  the  massive  brow  betokened. 

Hyrum  took  the  stranger  to  the  house,  and  they 
passed  the  night  in  discourse,  sleeping  little.  The 
convert's  name  was  Parley  P.  Pratt.  He  was  a  na- 
tive of  Burlington,  New  York,  and  born  April  12, 
1807.  His  father  was  a  farmer  of  limited  means  and 
education,  and  though  not  a  member  of  any  religious 
society,  had  a  respect  for  all.  The  boy  had  a  passion 
for  books;  the  bible  especially  he  read  over  and  over 
again  with  deep  interest  and  enthusiasm.  He  early 
manifested  strong  religious  feeling;  mind  and  soul 
seemed  all  on  fire  as  he  read  of  the  patriarchs  and 
kings  of  the  old  testament,  and  of  Christ  and  his 
apostles  of  the  new.  In  winter  at  school,  and  in 
summer  at  work,  his  life  passed  until  he  was  sixteen, 
when  he  went  west  with  his  father  William,  some 
two  hundred  miles  on  foot,  to  Oswego,  two  miles 
from  which  town  they  bargained  for  a  thickly  wooded 
tract  of  seventy  acres,  at  four  dollars  an  acre,  paying 
some  seventy  dollars  in  cash.  After  a  summer's  work 
for  wages  back  near  the  old  home,  and  a  winter's 
work  clearing  the  forest  farm,  the  place  was  lost 
through  failure  to  meet  the  remaining  payments. 
Another  attempt  to  make  a  forest  home,  this  time  in 
Ohio,  thirty  miles  west  of  Cleveland,  was  more  suc- 
cessful; and  after  much  toil  and  many  hardships,  he 
found  himself,  in  1827,  comfortably  established  there, 
with  Thankful  Halsey  as  his  wife. 

Meanwhile  religion  ran  riot  through  his  brain.  His 
mind,  however,  was  of  a  reasoning,  logical  caste. 
"Why  this  difference,"  he  argued,  ''between  the  an- 
cient and  modern  Christians,  their  doctrines  and  their 


practice?  Had  I  lived  and  believed  in  the  days  of 
the  apostles,  and  had  so  desired,  they  would  have 
said,  *  Repent,  be  baptized,  and  receive  the  holy  ghost.* 
The  scriptures  are  the  same  now  as  then;  why  should 
not  results  be  the  same?"  In  the  absence  of  anything 
better,  he  joined  the  baptists,  and  was  immersed;  but 
he  was  not  satisfied.  In  1829  Sidney  Rigdon,  of 
whom  more  hereafter,  preached  in  his  neighborhood; 
he  heard  him  and  was  refreshed.  It  was  the  ancient 
gospel  revived — repentance,  baptism,  the  gift  of  the 
holy  ghost.  And  yet  there  was  something  lacking — 
the  authority  to  minister;  the  power  which  should 
accompany  the  form  of  apostleship.  At  length  he  and 
others,  who  had  heard  Rigdon,  organized  a  society  on 
the  basis  of  his  teachings,  and  Parley  began  to  preach. 
The  spirit  working  in  him  finally  compelled  him  to 
abandon  his  farm  and  go  forth  to  meet  his  destiny, 
he  knew  not  whither.  In  this  frame  of  mind  he  wan- 
dered eastward,  and  while  his  family  were  visiting 
friends,  he  came  upon  the  book  of  Mormon  and  Hy- 
rum  Smith.  Now  did  his  soul  find  rest.  Here  was 
inspiration  and  revelation  as  of  old;  here  was  a  new 
dispensation  with  attendant  signs  and  miracles. 

As  he  left  Smith's  house  the  following  morning, 
having  an  appointment  to  preach  some  thirty  miles 
distant,  Hyrum  gave  him  a  copy  of  the  sacred  book. 
Travelling  on  foot,  and  stopping  now  and  then  to  rest, 
he  read  at  intervals,  and  found  to  his  great  joy  that 
soon  after  his  ascension  Christ  had  appeared  in  his 
glorified  body  to  the  remnant  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph 
in  America,  that  he  had  administered  in  person  to  the 
ten  lost  tribes,  that  the  gospel  had  been  revealed  and 
written  among  nations  unknown  to  the  apostles,  and 
that  thus  preserved  it  had  escaped  the  corruptions  of 
the  great  and  abominable  church. 

Returning  to  Smith's  house.  Parley  demanded  of 
Hyrum  baptism.  They  went  to  Whitmer's,  where 
they  were  warmly  welcomed  by  a  little  branch  of  the 
church  there  assembled.     The  new  convert  was  bap- 


tized  by  Cowdery,  and  was  ordained  an  elder.  He 
continued  to  preach  in  those  parts  with  great  power. 
Congregations  were  moved  to  tears,  and  many  heads 
of  families  came  forward  and  accepted  the  faith. 
Then  he  went  to  his  old  home.  His  father,  mother, 
and  some  of  the  neighbors  believed  only  in  part ;  but 
his  brother  Orson,  nineteen  years  of  age,  embraced 
with  eagerness  the  new  religion,  and  preached  it  from 
that  time  forth.  Returning  to  Manchester,  Parley 
for  the  first  time  met  Joseph  Smith,  who  received  him 
warmly,  and  asked  him  to  preach  on  Sunday,  which 
he  did,  Joseph  following  with  a  discourse. 

Revelations  continued,  now  in  the  way  of  command, 
and  now  in  the  spirit  of  prophecy.  In  Harmony,  to 
the  first  elder  it  was  spoken:  "Magnify  thine  office; 
and  after  thou  hast  sowed  thy  fields  and  secured  them, 
go  speedily  unto  the  churches  which  are  in  Coles ville, 
Fayette,  and  Manchester,  and  they  shall  support 
thee;  and  I  will  bless  them,  both  spiritually  and 
temporally;  but  if  they  receive  thee  not,  I  will  send 
on  them  a  cursing  instead  of  a  blessing,  and  thou 
shalt  shake  the  dust  off  thy  feet  against  them  as  a 
testimony,  and  wipe  thy  feet  by  the  wayside."  And 
to  Cowdery,  thus:  "Oliver  shall  continue  in  bearing 
my  name  before  the  world,  and  also  to  the  church; 
and  he  shall  take  neither  purse  nor  scrip,  neither 
staves  nor  even  two  coats."  To  Emma,  wife  of  Jo- 
seph: "Thy  sins  are  forgiven  thee,  and  thou  art  an 
elect  lady,  whom  I  have  called;  and  thou  shalt  com- 
fort thy  husband,  my  servant  Joseph,  and  shalt  go 
with  him,  and  be  unto  him  as  a  scribe  in  the  absence 
of  my  servant  Oliver,  and  he  shall  support  thee." 
Emma  was  also  further  directed  to  make  a  selection  of 
hymns  to  be  used  in  church.^ 

^  The  hymn-book  of  Emma  Smith  does  not  appear  to  have  been  published, 
but  a  little  book  containing  hymns  selected  by  Brigham  Young  passed  through 
eight  editions  up  to  1849,  the  eighth  being  published  in  Liverpool  in  that  year. 
Smucher's  Hist.  o/Mor.,  57-61;  Millennial  Star,  iv.  150-1.  The  preface  to 
the  first  edition  was  signed  by  Brigham  Young,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  and  John 


In  the  presence  of  six  elders,  at  Fayette,  in  Septem- 
ber 1830,  came  the  voice  of  Jesus  Christ,  promising 
them  every  blessing,  while  the  wicked  should  be  de- 
stroyed. The  millennium  should  come ;  but  first  dire 
destruction  should  fall  upon  the  earth,  and  the  great 
and  abominable  church  should  be  cast  down.  Hiram 
Page  renounced  his  stone.  David  Whitmer  was  or- 
dered to  his  father's  house,  there  to  await  further  in- 
structions. Peter  Whitmer  junior,  Parley  P.  Pratt, 
and  Ziba  Peterson  were  directed  to  go  with  Oliver 
and  assist  him  in  preaching  the  gospel  to  the  Laman- 
ites,  that  is  to  say,  to  the  Indians  in  the  west,  the 
remnant  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph.  Thomas  B.  Marsh 
was  promised  that  he  should  begin  to  preach.  Miracles 
were  limited  to  casting  out  devils  and  healing  the  sick. 
Wine  for  sacramental  purposes  must  not  be  bought, 
but  made  at  home.^ 

Taking  with  them  a  copy  of  the  revelation  assign- 
ing to  them  this  work,  these  first  appointed  mission- 
aries set  out,  and  continued  their  journey,  preaching 
in  the  villages  through  which  they  passed,  and  stop- 
ping at  Buffalo  to  instruct  the  Indians  as  to  their  an- 
cestry, until  they  came  to  Kirtland,  Ohio.  There 
they  remained  some  time,  as  many  came  forward  and 
embraced  their  faith,  among  others  Sidney  Rigdon, 
a  preaching  elder  in  the  reformed  baptist  church,  who 
presided  over  a  congregation  there,  a  large  portion  of 
whom  likewise  became  interested  in  the  latter-day 

Taylor.  The  preface  to  the  ninth  edition,  published  at  Liverpool  and  Lon- 
don in  1851,  is  by  Franklin  D.  Richards,  who  states  that  54,000  copies  of  the 
several  editions  have  been  sold  in  the  European  missions  alone  within  eleven 
years.     Several  editions  have  since  been  published  in  Europe  and  America. 

^  Smith  says:  '  In  order  to  prepare  for  this  (confirmation)  I  set  out  to  go 
to  procure  some  wine  for  the  occasion,  but  had  gone  only  a  short  distance 
when  I  was  met  by  a  heavenly  messenger,  and  received  the  revelation.'  Ilil- 
lennial  Star,  iv.  151;  Times  and  Seasons,  iv.  117-18. 

^ At  the  town  of  Kirtland,  two  miles  from  Rigdon's  residence,  was  a  num- 
ber of  the  members  of  his  church  who  lived  together,  and  had  all  things  in 
common,  from  which  circumstance,  Smith  says,  the  idea  arose  that  this  was 
the  case  with  the  Mormon  believers.  To  these  people  the  missionaries  re- 
paired and  preached  with  some  success,  gathering  in  seventeen  on  the  first 
occasion.     Rigdon  after  spending  some  time  in  the  study  of  the  book  of  Mor- 


Rigdon  was  a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  and  was  now 
thirty-seven  years  of  age.  He  worked  on  his  father's 
farm  until  he  was  twenty-six,  when  he  went  to  live 
with  the  Rev.  Andrew  Clark,  and  the  same  year,  1819, 
was  licensed  to  preach.  Thence  he  went  to  Warren, 
Ohio,  and  married;  and  after  preaching  for  a  time  he 
was  called  to  take  charge  of  a  church  at  Pittsburgh, 
where  he  met  with  success,  and  soon  became  very 
popular.  But  his  mind  was  perplexed  over  the  doc- 
trines he  was  required  to  promulgate,  and  in  1824  he 
retired  from  his  ministry.  There  were  two  friends 
who  had  likewise  withdrawn  from  their  respective 
churches,  and  with  whom  he  conferred  freely,  Alex- 
ander Campbell,  of  his  own  congregation,  and  one 
Walter  Scott,  of  the  Scandinavian  church  of  that  city. 
Campbell  had  formerly  lived  at  Bethany,  Virginia, 
where  was  issued  under  his  auspices  a  monthly  jour- 
nal called  the  Christian  Baptist.  Out  of  this  friend- 
ship and  association  arose  a  new  church,  called  the 
Campbellites,  its  doctrines  having  been  published 
by  Campbell  in  his  paper.  During  the  next  two 
years  Pigdon  was  obliged  to  work  in  a  tannery  to 
support  his  family;  then  he  removed  to  Bainbridge, 
Ohio,  where  he  again  began  to  preach,  confining  him- 
self to  no  creed,  but  leaning  toward  that  of  the  Camp- 
bellites. Crowds  flocked  to  hear  him,  and  a  church 
was  established  in  a  neighboring  town  through  his  in- 
strumentality. After  a  year  of  this  work  he  accepted 
a  call  to  Mentor,  thirty  miles  distant.  Slanderous 
reports  followed  him,  and  a  storm  of  persecution  set 
in  against  him;  but  by  his  surpassing  eloquence  and 
deep  reasoning  it  was  not  only  soon  allayed,  but 
greater  multitudes  than  ever  waited  on  his  ministra- 

mon  concluded  to  accept  its  doctrines,  and  to.cfethei'  with  his  wife  was  bap- 
tized into  the  church,  which  now  numbered  about  twenty  in  this  section. 
Millennial  Star,  iv.  181-4;  v.  4-7,  17;  Times  and  Season.'^,  iv.  177,  193-4. 
Rigdon  had  for  nearly  three  years  already  taught  the  literal  interpretation  ol 
scripture  prophecies,  the  gathering  of  the  Israelites  to  receive  the  second  com- 
ing, the  literal  reign  of  the  saints  on  earth,  and  the  use  of  miraculous  gifts  in 
the  church.  Gunnison's  Mormons.  101. 


Kigdon  was  a  cogent  speaker  of  imposing  mien  and 
impassioned  address.  As  a  man,  however,  his  charac- 
ter seems  to  have  had  a  tinge  of  insincerity.  He  was 
fickle,  now  and  then  petulant,  irascible,  and  sometimes 
domineering.  Later,  Joseph  Smith  took  occasion 
more  than  once  to  rebuke  him  sharply,  fearing  that 
he  might  assume  the  supremacy. 

Upon  hearing  the  arguments  of  Pratt  and  Cow- 
dery,  and  investigating  the  book  of  Mormon,  Rigdon 
was  convinced  that  he  had  not  been  legally  ordained, 
and  that  his  present  ministry  was  without  the  divine 
authority.  In  regard  to  the  revival  of  the  old  dis- 
pensation, he  argued  thus:  *'If  we  have  not  famihar- 
ity  enough  with  our  creator  to  ask  of  him  a  sign,  we 
are  no  Christians;  if  God  will  not  give  his  creatures 
one,  he  is  no  better  than  Juggernaut."  The  result  was, 
that  he  and  others  accepted  the  book  and  its  teach- 
ings,* received  baptism  and  the  gift  of  the  holy  ghost, 
and  were  ordained  to  preach. 

On  one  occasion  Cowdery  preached,  followed  by 
Kigdon.  After  service  they  went  to  the  Chagrin 
River  to  baptize.  Rigdon  stood  in  the  stream  and 
poured  forth  his  exhortations  with  eloquent  fervor. 
One  after  another  stepped  forward  until  thirty  had 
been  baptized.  Present  upon  the  bank  was  a  hard- 
headed  lawyer,  Yarnem  J.  Card,  who  as  he  listened 
grew  pale  with  emotion.  Suddenly  he  seized  the  arm 
of  a  friend  and  whispered,  ''Quick,  take  me  away,  or 
in  a  moment  more  I  shall  be  in  that  water  I"  One 
hundred  and  twenty-seven  converts  at  once,  the  num- 

*  Howe  intimates  that  Rigdon  knew  more  of  the  book  and  the  people  than 
he  pretended.  Of  the  proselytes  made  in  his  church  he  says:  '  Near  the  res- 
idence of  Rigdon,  in  Kirtland,  there  had  been  for  some  time  previous  a  few 
families  belonging  to  his  congregation,  who  had  formed  themselves  into  a 
common  stock  society,  and  had  become  considerably  fanatical,  and  were  daily 
looking  for  some  wonderful  event  to  take  place  in  the  world.  Their  minds 
had  become  fully  prepared  to  embrace  Mormonism,  or  any  other  mysterious 
ism  that  should  first  present  itself.  Seventeen  in  number  of  these  persona 
readily  believed  the  whole  stoiy  of  Cowdery  about  the  finding  of  the  golden 
plates  and  the  spectacles.  They  were  all  reimmersed  in  one  night  by  Cowdery. ' 
Mormonism  Unveiled,  103. 


ber  afterward  increasing  to  a   thousand,  were  here 
gathered  into  the  fold.^ 

After  adding  to  their  number  one  Frederic  G.  Will- 
iams, the  missionaries  continued  on  their  way,  arriving 
first  at  Sandusky,  where  they  gave  instructions  to  the 
Indians  in  regard  to  their  forefathers,  as  they  had 
done  at  Buffalo,  and  thence  proceeded  to  Cincinnati 
and  St  Louis.  In  passing  by  his  old  forest  home, 
Pratt  was  arrested  on  some  trivial  charge,  but  made 
his  escape.  The  winter  was  very  severe,  and  it  was 
some  time  before  they  could  continue  their  journey. 
At  length  they  set  out  again,  wading  in  snow  knee- 
deep,  carrying  their  few  effects  on  their  backs,  and 
having  to  eat  corn  bread  and  frozen  raw  pork;  and 
after  travelling  in  all  fifteen  hundred  miles,  most  of  the 
way  on  foot,  preaching  to  tens  of  thousands  by  the 
way,  and  organizing  hundreds  into  churches,  they 
reached  Independence,  Missouri,  in  the  early  part  of 
1831.  There  Whitmer  and  Peterson  went  to  work 
as  tailors,  while  Pratt  and  Cowdery  passed  over  the 

^  Speaking  of  the  doings  at  Kirtland  after  the  departure  of  the  Lamanite 
mission,  Mr  Howe  says:  'Scenes  of  the  most  wild,  frantic,  and  horrible  fanat- 
icism ensued.  They  pretended  that  the  power  of  miracles  was  about  to  be 
given  to  all  those  who  embraced  the  new  faith,  and  commenced  communicat- 
ing the  holy  spirit  by  laying  their  hands  upon  the  heads  of  the  converts, 
which  operation  at  first  produced  an  instantaneous  prostration  of  body  and 
mind.  Many  would  fall  upon  the  floor,  where  they  would  lie  for  a  long 
time  apparently  lifeless.  They  thus  continued  these  enthusiastic  exhibitions 
for  several  weeks.  The  fits  usually  came  on  during  or  after  their  prayer 
meetings,  which  w^ere  held  nearly  every  evening.  The  young  men  and  wo- 
men were  more  particularly  subject  to  this  delirium.  They  would  exhibit 
all  the  apish  actions  imaginable,  making  the  most  ridiculous  grimaces,  creeping 
Tipon  their  hands  and  feet,  rolling  upon  the  frozen  ground,  go  through  with 
all  the  Indian  modes  of  warfare,  such  as  knocking  down,  scalping,  ripping 
open  and  tearing  out  the  bowels.  At  other  times  they  would  run  through 
the  fields,  get  upon  stumps,  preach  to  imaginary  congregations,  enter  the 
water  and  perform  all  the  ceremony  of  baptizing,  etc.  Many  would  have  fits 
of  speaking  all  the  difierent  Indian  dialects,  which  none  could  understand. 
Again,  at  the  dead  hour  of  night  the  young  men  might  be  seen  running  over 
the  fields  and  hills  in  pursuit,  as  they  said,  of  the  balls  of  fire,  light,  etc., 
which  they  saw  moving  through  the  atmosphere ...  On  the  arrival  of  Smith 
in  Kirtland  he  appeared  astonished  at  the  wild  enthusiasm  and  scalping  per- 
formances of  his  proselytes  there.  He  told  them  that  he  had  inquired  of  the 
Lord  concerning  the  matter,  and  had  been  informed  that  it  was  all  the  work 
of  the  devil,  as  heretofore  related.  The  disturbance  therefore  ceased.'  Mor- 
monism  Unveiled,  104,  116. 


border,  crossed  the  Kansas  Kiver,  and  began  their 
work  among  the  Lamanites,  or  Indians,  thereabout. 
The  chief  of  the  Delawares  was  sachem  of  ten 
tribes.  He  received  the  missionaries  with  courtesy, 
and  set  food  before  them.  When  they  asked  him  to 
call  a  council  before  which  they  might  expound  their 
doctrines,  he  at  first  declined,  then  assented;  where- 
upon Cowdery  gave  them  an  account  of  their  ances- 
tors, as  contained  in  the  wonderful  book,  a  copy  of 
which  he  left  with  the  chief  on  taking  his  depart- 
ure, which  soon  occurred;  for  when  it  was  known 
upon  the  border  settlements  what  the  missionaries 
were  doing,  they  were  ordered  out  of  the  Indian  coun- 
try as  disturbers  of  the  peace.®  After  preaching  a 
short  time  in  Missouri,  the  five  brethren  thought  it 
best  that  one  of  their  number  should  return  east  and 
report.  The  choice  fell  on  Pratt.  Starting  out  on 
foot,  he  reached  St  Louis,  three  hundred  miles  dis- 
tant, in  nine  days.  Thence  he  proceeded  by  steamer 
to  Cincinnati,  and  from  that  point  journeyed  on  foot 
to  Strongville,  forty  miles  from  Kirtland.  Overcome 
by  fatigue  and  illness,  he  was  forced  to  remain  at  this 
place  some  ten  days,  when  he  continued  his  journey 
on  horseback.  He  was  welcomed  at  Kirtland  by 
hundreds  of  the  saints,  Joseph  Smith  himself  being 

In  December  1830  comes  Sidney  Rigdon  to  Jo- 
seph Smith  at  Manchester,  and  with  him  Edward 
Partridge,  to  inquire  of  the  Lord;  and  they  are  told 
what  they  shall  do ;  they  shall  preach  thereabout,  and 
also  on  the  Ohio.^ 

*  *  One  of  their  leading  articles  of  faith  is,  that  the  Indians  of  North  Amer- 
ica, in  a  very  few  years,  will  be  converted  to  Mormonism,  and  through  rivers 
of  blood  wiU  again  take  possession  of  their  ancient  inheritance.'  Howe's 
Mormonism  Vnveiled,  145. 

^ '  We  before  had  Moses  and  Aaron  in  the  persons  of  Smith  and  Cowdery, 
and  we  now  have  John  the  Baptist,  in  the  person  of  Sidney  Rigdon.  Their 
plans  of  deception  appear  to  have  been  more  fully  matured  and  developed 
after  the  meeting  of  Smith  and  Rigdon.  The  latter  being  found  very  inti- 
mate with  the  scriptures,  a  close  reasoner,  and  as  fully  competent  to  make 


The  year  1831  opens  with  flattering  prospects. 
On  the  2d  of  January  a  conference  is  held  at  Fayette, 
attended  by  revelations  and  prophecy.  James  Col- 
ville,  a  baptist  minister,  accepts  the  faith,  but  shortly 
recants,  being  tempted  of  Satan,  and  in  fear  of  per- 
secution.^    Smith  and  his  wife  go  with  Rigdon  and 

white  appear  black  and  black  white  as  any  other  man;  and  at  all  times  pre- 
pared to  establish,  to  the  satisfaction  of  great  numbers  of  people,  the  negative 
or  affirmative  of  any  and  every  question  from  scripture,  he  was  forthwith 
appointed  to  promulgate  all  the  absurdities  and  ridiculous  pretensions  of 
Mormonism,  and  call  on  the  holy  prophets  to  prove  all  the  words  of  Smith. 
But  the  miraculous  powers  conferred  upon  him  we  do  not  learn  have  yet  been 
put  in  requisition.  It  seems  that  the  spirit  had  not,  before  the  arrival  of 
Rigdon,  told  Smith  anything  about  the  promised  land,  or  his  removal  to  Ohio. 
It  is  therefore  very  questionable  what  manner  of  spirit  it  was  which  dic- 
tated most  of  the  after  movements  of  the  prophet.  The  spirit  of  Rigdon,  it 
must  be  presumed,  however,  generally  held  sway;  for  a  revelation  was  soon 
had  that  Kirtland,  the  residence  of  Rigdon  and  his  brethren,  was  to  be  the 
eastern  border  of  the  promised  land,  and  from  thence  to  the  Pacific  Ocean. 
On  this  land  the  New  Jerusalem,  the  city  of  refuge,  was  to  be  built.  Upon 
it  all  true  Mormons  were  to  assemble,  to  escape  the  destruction  of  the 
world  which  was  so  soon  to  take  place.'  Howe\s  Mormonism  Unveiled,  109-10. 
Tucker,  Origin  and  Prog.  Mor.,  76-8,  thus  speaks  of  the  first  appearance  of 
this  first  regular  Mormon  preacher  before  a  Palmyra  congregation :  '  Rigdon 
introduced  himself  as  the  messenger  of  God,  declaring  that  he  was  commanded 
from  above  to  proclaim  the  Mormon  revelation.  After  going  through  with  a 
ceremonious  form  of  prayer,  in  which  he  expressed  his  grateful  sense  of  the 
blessings  of  the  glorious  gospel  dispensation  now  opening  to  the  world,  and 
the  miraculous  light  from  heaven  to  be  displayed  through  the  instrumentality 
of  the  chosen  revelator,  Joseph  Smith  Jr, ...  he  announced  his  text  as  fol- 
lows: First  book  of  Nephi,  chapter  iv. — "And  the  angel  spake  unto  me,  say- 
ing. These  last  records  which  thou  hast  seen  among  the  gentiles  shall  estab- 
lish the  truth  of  the  first,  which  is  of  the  twelve  apostles  of  the  lamb,,  and 
shall  make  known  the  plain  and  precious  things  which  have  been  taken  away 
from  them;  and  shall  make  known  to  all  kindreds,  tongues,  and  people  that 
the  lamb  of  God  is  the  son  of  the  eternal  father  and  saviour  of  the  world;  and 
that  all  men  must  come  unto  him  or  they  cannot  be  saved. "  The  preacher 
assumed  to  establish  the  theory  that  the  book  of  Mormon  and  the  old  bible 
were  one  in  inspiration  and  importance,  and  that  the  precious  things  now  re- 
vealed had  for  wise  purposes  been  withheld  from  the  book  first  promulgated 
to  the  world,  and  were  necessary  to  establish  its  truth.  In  the  course  of  his 
argument  he  applied  various  quotations  from  the  two  books  to  prove  his  posi- 
tion. Holding  the  book  of  Mormon  in  his  right  hand,  and  the  bible  in  his 
left  hand,  he  brought  them  together  in  a  manner  corresponding  to  the  em- 
phatic declaration  made  by  him,  that  they  were  both  equally  the  word  of  God; 
that  neither  was  perfect  without  the  other;  and  that  they  were  inseparably 
necessary  to  complete  the  everlasting  gospel  of  the  saviour  Jesus  Christ.'  It 
is  said  that  Rigdon,  after  his  return  to  Kirtland  from  his  visit  to  Smith,  in 
one  of  his  eloquent  discourses  on  the  new  faith,  'gave  a  challenge  to  the 
world  to  disprove  the  new  bible,  and  the  pretensions  of  its  authors.'  Rigdon's 
old  friend,  Thomas  Campbell,  hearing  of  it,  wrote  him  from  Mentor  accept- 
ing, at  the  same  time  enclosing  an  outline  of  what  his  line  of  argument  would 
be.     There  the  matter  dropped. 

^  See  Millennial  Star,  v.  33-5;  Times  and  Seasons,  iv.  352-4.     Mather,  in 
LippincoWs  Mag.,  Aug.  1880,  states  that  to  escape  persecution  sixty  believ- 


Partridge  to  Kirtland,  arriving  there  early  in  Feb- 
ruary, and  taking  up  their  residence  with  N.  K.  Whit- 
ney, who  shows  them  great  kindness.  Among  the 
hundred  believers  there  at  the  time,  certain  false  doc- 
trines have  crept  in;  these  are  quickly  overcome,  and 
a  plan  for  community  of  goods  which  the  family  of 
saints  had  adopted  is  abolished.  Commandment  comes 
by  revelation  that  a  house  shall  be  built  for  Joseph ;  that 
Sidney  shall  live  as  seems  to  him  good,  for  his  heart 
is  pure;  that  Edward  Partridge  shall  be  ordained  a 
bishop;^  that  all  but  Joseph  and  Sidney  shall  go  forth, 
two  by  two,  into  the  regions  westward  and  preach 
the  gospel.^° 

''And  now,  behold,  I  speak  unto  the  church:  thou 
shalt  not  kill ;  thou  shalt  not  steal ;  thou  shalt  not  lie ; 
thou  shalt  love  thy  wife,  cleaving  unto  her  and  to 
none  else;  thou  shalt  not  commit  adultery;  thou  shalt 
not  speak  evil  of  thy  neighbor,  nor  do  him  any  harm. 
Thou  knowest  my  laws,  given  in  my  scriptures;  he 
that  sinneth  and  repenteth  not  shall  be  cast  out.  And 
behold,  thou  wilt  remember  the  poor,  and  consecrate 
of  thy  properties  for  their  support,  laying  the  same 
before  the  bishop  of  my  church,  the  residue  not  to  be 
taken  back,  but  to  be  used  by  the  church  in  buying 
lands  and  building  houses  of  worship,  for  I  will  conse- 
crate of  the  riches  of  those  who  embrace  my  gospel 
among  the  gentiles  unto  the  poor  of  my  people  who 
are  of  the  house  of  Israel.     Let  him  that  goeth  to 

era  abandoned  their  homes  in  the  Susquehanna  valley  and  moved  westward, 
*Some  of  the  followers,'  he  says,  'were  moved  by  a  spirit  of  adventure,  while 
others  placed  their  property  in  the  common  lot  and  determined  to  accompany 
the  prophet  to  his  earthly  as  well  as  to  his  heavenly  kingdom.  Smith  Baker 
was  one  of  the  teamsters,  and  reports  that  the  train  consisted  of  three  bag- 
gage and  eleven  passenger  wagons.  The  exodus  was  along  the  old  state  road, 
north  of  Binghamton,  to  Ithaca,  and  thence  across  Cayuga  Lake  to  Palmyra.' 

•  *  Smith  had  api)ointed  as  his  bishop  one  Edward  Partridge,  a  very  hon- 
est and  industrious  hatter  of  Painesville,  Ohio,  who  had  withal  a  comfortable 
stock  of  the  good  things  of  the  world.  He  was  stationed  at  Independence, 
and  had  the  sole  control  of  all  the  temporal  and  spiritual  aflfairs  of  the  colony, 
always  obedient,  however,  to  the  revelations  promulgated  by  Smith.' 

^" '  Some  of  the  membere  pretended  to  receive  parchment  commissions 
miraculously,  which  vanished  from  their  sight  as  soon  as  they  had  been  cop- 
ied,'   For  a  copy  of  one  of  these,  with  seal  attached,  see  Howe^a  Mormonism 
Unveiled,  107;  Kidder's  Mormonism,  73. 
Hist,  Utah.    6 


the  east  tell  them  that  shall  be  converted  to  flee  to 
the  west.  And  again,  thou  shalt  not  be  proud;  let 
thy  garments  be  plain,  the  work  of  thine  own  hand, 
and  cleanly.  Thou  shalt  not  be  idle.  And  whosoever 
among  you  is  sick,  and  has  faith,  shall  be  healed; 
and  if  he  has  not  faith  to  be  healed,  but  believe,  he 
shall  be  nourished  with  all  tenderness.  If  thou  wilt 
ask,  thou  shalt  receive  revelation  and  knowledge. 
Whosoever  hath  faith  sufficient  shall  never  taste  death. 
Ye  shall  live  together  in  love;  that  whether  ye  live 
ye  may  live  in  me,  or  if  ye  die  ye  may  die  in  me.  So 
saith  the  Lord." 

Edward  Partridge  was  born  at  Pittsfield,  Massachu- 
setts, August  27,  1793.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he 
was  apprenticed  to  a  hatter.  His  was  an  earnest, 
thoughtful  nature,  and  his  mind  much  troubled  about 
religion.  In  1828  he  entered  Sidney  Rigdon  s  Camp- 
bellite  church,  and  in  that  faith  remained  until  met 
by  the  missionaries  Pratt,  Cowdery,  and  the  others, 
w^hen  he  accepted  the  new  revelation,  and  was  subse- 
quently baptized  by  Joseph  in  the  Seneca  Piver.  He 
had  a  profitable  business  at  the  time;  but  when  it  was 
revealed  that  he  should  leave  his  merchandise  and  de- 
vote his  whole  time  to  the  church,  he  obeyed  without 
a  murmur. 

Joseph  and  Sidney  were  much  together  now^  in  their 
revelations  and  rulings.  A  woman  attempted  prophe- 
sying and  was  rebuked.  Sarcasm  was  employed,  and 
scurrilous  stories  were  printed  in  the  new^spapers ;  an  ac- 
count of  a  great  Asiatic  earthquake  was  headed  ''Mor- 
monism  in  China."  Revelations  during  March  were 
frequent.  In  one  of  them  John  Whitmer  was  ap- 
pointed church  historian;  and  it  was  revealed  that  he 
should  keep  the  church  records,  w^rite  and  keep  a  regu- 
lar history,  and  act  as  secretary  to  Joseph,  as  had 
Oliver  Cowdsry  formerly."     Lands  might  be  bought 

^1  'Since  the  organization  of  the  church  on  the  sixth  day  of  April,  1830, 
there  has  been  a  record  kept  in  our  church  of  its  general  transactions,  of  its 


for  immediate  necessity;  but  remember  the  city  to  be 
presently  built,  and  be  prudent.^^  And  now  from  the 
shaking  quakers  came  one  Lemon  Copley  and  accepted 
the  gospel,  though  not  in  its  fullness,  as  he  retained 

persecutions  and  general  history.  The  one  in  charge  of  this  duty  is  called  by 
us  "  the  historian  and  general  church  recorder."  The  first  who  occupied  this 
position  was  John  Whitmer,  until  1838,  when  he  was  excommunicated  from 
the  church  for  transgression,  and  took  portions  of  the  church  records  with 
him.'  Richards'  Bibliography  of  Utah,  MS.,  2.  'The  earliest  clerk  service 
rendered  the  prophet  Joseph,  of  which  there  is  any  account,  was  by  Martin 
Harris;  Joseph's  wife,  Emma,  then  Oliver  Cowdery,  who,  as  is  claimed,  wrote 
the  greater  portion  of  the  original  manuscript  of  the  Booh  of  Mormon,  as  he 
translated  it  from  the  gold  plates  by  the  uriin  and  thummim  which  he  obtained 
with  the  plates.  In  March  1831  John  Whitmer  was  appointed  to  keep  the 
church  record  and  history  continually,  Oliver  having  been  appointed  to  other 
labors.  Whitmer  was  assisted,  temporarily,  on  occasions  of  absence  or  illness 
by  Warren  Parrish.  At  a  meeting  of  high  council  at  Kirtland,  Sept.  14, 
1835,  it  was  decided  that  "Oliver  Cowdery  be  appointed,  and  that  he  act 
hereafter  as  recorder  for  the  church,"  Whitmer  having  just  been  called  to  be 
editor  of  the  Messenger  and  Advocate.  At  a  general  conference  held  in  Far 
West  April  6,  1838,  John  Corrilland  Elias  Higbee  were  appointed  historians, 
and  George  W.  Robinson  "general  church  recorder  and  clerk  for  the  first 
presidency."  On  the  death  of  Elder  Robert  B.  Thompson,  which  occurred  at 
Nauvoo  on  the  twenty-seventh  of  August,  1841,  in  his  obituary  it  is  stated: 
"Nearly  two  years  past  he  had  officiated  as  scribe  to  President  Joseph  Smith 
and  clerk  for  the  church,  which  important  stations  he  filled  with  tliat  dignity 
and  honor  befitting  a  man  of  God."  During  the  expulsion  from  Missouri,  and 
the  early  settlement  of  Nauvoo,  James  Mulholland,  William  Clayton,  and 
perhaps  others  rendered  temporary  service  in  this  line  until  the  13th  of 
December,  1841,  when  Willard  Richards  was  appointed  recorder,  general 
clerk,  and  private  secretary  to  the  prophet,  which  offices  he  occupied  until 
his  death,  in  March  1854,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  George  A.  Smith,  who 
held  it  until  his  death  on  the  first  of  September,  1875,  with  Wilford  Wood- 
ruff as  his  assistant.  Soon  after,  Orson  Pratt  succeeded  to  the  office,  retain- 
ing Woodruff  as  his  assistant,  until  his  demise  on  the  third  of  October,  1881. 
Directly  after  President  Woodruff  was  appointed  to  the  office,  and  in  January 
1884,  Apostle  Franklin  D.  Richards  was  appointed  his  assistant.'  See  Times 
and  Seasons,  v.  401;  Millennial  Star,  v.  82;  Richards'  Narrative,  MS.,  94-8. 
^^  Of  the  future  of  this  city  there  were  many  revelations  and  many  con- 
jectures. '  It  was  said  that  it  would  in  a  few  years  exceed  in  splendor  every- 
thing known  in  ancient  times.  Its  streets  were  to  be  paved  with  gold;  all 
that  escaped  the  general  destruction  which  was  soon  to  take  place  would 
there  assemble  with  all  their  wealth;  the  ten  lost  tribes  of  Israel  had  been 
discovered  in  their  retreat,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  north  pole,  where  they  had 
for  ages  been  secluded  by  immense  barriers  of  ice,  and  became  vastly  rich; 
the  ice  in  a  few  years  was  to  be  melted  away,  when  those  tribes,  with  St 
John  and  some  of  the  Nephites,  which  the  book  of  Mormon  had  immortalized, 
would  be  seen  making  their  appearance  in  the  new  city,  loaded  with  immense 
quantities  of  gold  and  silver.  Whether  the  prophet  himself  ever  declared 
that  these  things  had  been  revealed  to  him,  or  that  he  had  seen  them  through 
his  magic  stone  or  silver  spectacles,  we  will  not  say;  but  that  such  stories 
and  hundreds  of  others  equally  absurd  were  told  by  those  who  were  in  daily 
intercourse  with  him,  as  being  events  which  would  probably  take  place,  are 
susceptible  of  proof.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  127-8.  'Kirtland  was 
never  intended  to  be  the  metropolis  of  Mormonism;  it  Avas  selected  as  a  tem- 
porary abiding  place,  to  make  money  in  reference  to  a  removal  farther  west.' 
Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  72. 


somewhat  of  his  former  faith ;  whereupon  a  revelation 
ordered  him  to  go  with  Parley  P.  Pratt  and  preach  to 
the  shakers,  not  according  to  his  old  ideas,  but  as 
Parley  should  direct. 

''And  again,  I  say  unto  you  that  whoso  forbiddeth 
to  marry  is  not  ordained  of  God,  for  marriage  is  or- 
dained of  God  unto  man;  wherefore  it  is  lawful  that 
he  should  have  one  wife,  and  they  twain  shall  be  one 
flesh.     Beware  of  false  spirits.     Given  May  1831." 

The  saints  from  New  York  began  to  come  in  num- 
bers, and  Bishop  Partridge  was  ordered  to  look  after 
them  and  attend  to  their  requirements.  It  was  or- 
dered that  if  any  had  more  than  they  required,  let 
them  give  to  the  church ;  if  any  had  less,  let  the  church 
relieve  their  necessities.  The  6th  of  June  a  confer- 
ence of  elders  was  held  at  Kirtland,  and  several  re- 
ceived the  authority  of  the  Melchisedec  priesthood. 
The  next  conference  should  be  held  in  Missouri, 
whither  Joseph  and  Sidney  should  proceed  at  once, 
and  there  it  would  be  told  them  what  to  do.  And 
to  the  same  place  others  should  go,  two  by  two,  each 
couple  taking  different  routes  and  preaching  by  the 
way.  Among  those  who  went  forth  were  Lyman 
Wight  and  John  Corrill,  John  Murdock  and  Hyrum 
Smith  by  the  way  of  Detroit,  Thomas  B.  Marsh  and 
Selah  J.  Griffin,  Isaac  Morley  and  Ezra  Booth,  David 
Whitmer  and  Harvey  Whitlock,  Parley  P.  Pratt  and 
Orson  Pratt,  Solomon  Hancock  and  Simeon  Carter, 
Edson  Fuller  and  Jacob  Scott,  Levi  Hancock  and 
Zebedee  Coltrin,  Reynolds  Gaboon  and  Samuel  H. 
Smith,  Wheeler  Baldwin  and  William  Carter,  Joseph 
Wakefield  and  Solomon  Humphrey.  With  Joseph 
and  Sidney  were  to  go  Martin  Harris  and  Edward 
Partridge,  taking  with  them  a  letter  of  recommenda- 
tion from  the  church.^^     "And  thus,  even  as  I  have 

"  *From  this  point  in  the  history  of  this  delusion,*  says  Howe,  'it  began 
to  spread  with  considerable  rapidity.  Nearly  all  of  their  male  converts, 
however  ignorant  and  worthless,  were  forthwith  transformed  into  elders,  and 
sent  forth  to  proclaim,  with  all  their  wild  enthusiasm,  the  wonders  and  mys 
teries  of  Mormonism.     All  those  having  a  taste  for  the  marvellous  and  de- 


said,  if  ye  are  faithful,  ye  shall  assemble  yourselves 
together  to  rejoice  upon  the  land  of  Missouri,  which 
is  the  land  of  your  inheritance,  which  is  now  the  land 
of  your  enemies.  Behold,  I  the  Lord  will  hasten  the 
city  in  its  time,  and  will  crown  the  faithful  with  joy 
and  with  rejoicing.  Behold  I  am  Jesus  Christ  the  son 
of  God,  and  I  will  lift  them  up  at  the  last  day.    Amen." 

While  preparing  for  the  journey  to  Missouri,  a  let- 
ter was  received  from  Oliver  Cowdery,  reporting  on 
his  missionary  work,  and  speaking  of  another  tribe  of 
Lamanites,  living  three  hundred  miles  west  of  Santa 
Fd,  called  the  Navarhoes  (Navajoes),  who  had  large 
flocks  of  sheep  and  cattle,  and  who  made  blankets. 
W.  W.  Phelps,^*  with  his  family  joining  the  society, 
was  commissioned  to  assist  Oliver  Cowdery  in  select- 
ing, writing,  and  printing  books  for  schools.  Thus 
the  move  from  Ohio  to  Missouri  was  begun,  Joseph 
and  his  party  starting  from  Kirtland  the  19th  of  June, 
going  by  wagon,  canal-boat,  and  stage  to  Cincinnati, 
by  steamer  to  St  Louis,  and  thence  on  foot  to  Inde- 
pendence, arriving  about  the  middle  of  July. 

lighting  in  novelties  flocked  to  hear  them.  Many  travelled  fifty  and  a 
hundred  miles  to  the  throne  of  the  prophet  in  Kirtland,  to  hear  from  hia  own 
mouth  the  certainty  of  his  excavating  a  bible  and  spectacles.  Many,  even  in 
the  New  England  states,  after  hearing  the  frantic  story  of  some  of  these 
elders,  would  forthwith  place  their  all  into  a  wagon,  and  wend  their  way  to 
the  promised  land,  in  order,  as  they  supposed,  to  escape  the  judgments  of 
heaven,  which  were  soon  to  be  poured  out  upon  the  land.  The  state  of  New 
York,  they  were  privately  told,  would  most  probably  be  sunk,  unless  the 
people  thereof  believed  in  the  pretensions  of  Smith.'  Mormonism  Unveiled, 

^*Howe  writes  thus  of  Phelps:  'Before  the  rise  of  Mormonism  he  was  an 
avowed  infidel;  having  a  remarkable  propensity  for  fame  and  eminence,  he 
was  supercilious,  haughty,  and  egotistical.  His  great  ambition  was  to  em- 
bark in  some  speculation  where  he  could  shine  preeminent.  He  took  an 
active  part  for  several  years  in  the  political  contests  of  New  York,  and 
made  no  little  display  as  an  editor  of  a  partisan  newspaper,  and  after  being 
foiled  in  his  desires  to  become  a  candidate  for  lieutenant-governor  of  that 
state,  his  attention  was  suddenly  diverted  by  the  prospects  which  were  held 
out  to  him  in  the  gold-bible  speculation.  In  this  he  was  sure  of  becoming 
a  great  man,  and  made  the  dupes  believe  he  was  master  of  fourteen  dif- 
ferent languages,  of  which  they  frequently  boasted.  But  he  soon  found 
that  the  prophet  would  sufier  no  growing  rivalships,  whose  sagacity  he  had 
not  well  calculated,  until  he  was  met  by  a  revelation  which  informed  him 
that  he  could  rise  no  higher  than  a  printer.'  Mormonism  Unveiledy  274. 


"  Harken,  O  ye  elders  of  my  churca,  saith  the  Lord 
your  God,  who  have  assembled  yourselves  together, 
according  to  my  commandments,  in  this  land,  which 
is  the  land  of  Missouri,  which  is  the  land  which  1 
have  appointed  and  consecrated  for  the  gathering  of 
the  saints;  wherefore  this  is  the  land  of  promise,  and 
the  place  for  the  city  of  Zion.  And  thus  saith  the 
Lord  your  God,  if  you  will  receive  wisdom  here  is 
wisdom.  Behold  the  place  which  is  now  called  Inde- 
pendence is  the  centre  place,  and  the  spot  for  the 
temple  is  lying  westward  upon  a  lot  which  is  not  far 
from  the  court-house:  wherefore  it  is  wisdom  that 
the  land  should  be  purchased  by  the  saints;  and  also 
every  tract  lying  westward,  even  unto  the  line  run- 
ning directly  between  jew  and  gentile;  and  also  every 
tract  bordering  by  the  prairies,  inasmuch  as  my  disci- 
ples are  enabled  to  buy  lands." 

Further,  Sidney  Gilbert  was  made  church  agent,  to 
receive  money  and  buy  lands ;  he  was  also  directed  to 
establish  a  store.  Partridge  was  to  partition  the 
lands  purchased  among  the  people;  Phelps  was 
made  church  printer.  But  the  last  two  becoming  a 
little  headstrong  on  entering  upon  their  new  duties, 
Joseph  found  it  necessary  to  reprimand  and  warn 
them.  Harris  was  held  up  as  an  example  to  emulate, 
for  he  had  given  much  to  the  church.  It  was  or- 
dered that  an  agent  be  appointed  to  raise  money  in 
Ohio  to  buy  lands  in  Missouri,  and  Rigdon  was  com- 
missioned to  write  a  description  of  the  new  land  of 
Zion  for  the  same  purpose.  Ziba  Peterson  was  dis- 
possessed of  his  lands,  and  made  to  work  for  others, 
in  punishment  for  his  misdemeanors. 

Thus  the  latter-day  saints  had  come  to  the  border 
line  of  civilization,  and  looking  over  it  into  the  west 
they  thought  here  to  establish  themselves  forever. 
Here  was  to  be  the  temple  of  God;  here  the  city  of 
refuge;  here  the  second  advent  of  the  savior.  Mean- 
while their  headquarters  were  to  be  at  the  town  of 

CITY  OF  ZION.  87 

In  Kaw  township,  twelve  miles  west  of  Indepen- 
dence, the  Colesville  branch  of  the  church  built  a  log 
house;  the  visible  head  of  the  church,  on  the  2d  of 
August,  laying  the  first  log,  brought  thither  by 
twelve  men,  in  honor  of  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel. 
Next  day  the  ground  for  the  temple,  situated  a  little 
west  of  Independence,^^  was  dedicated,  and  the  day  fol- 
lowing was  held  the  first  conference  in  the  land  of  Zion.^^ 

It  was  now  commanded  that  Smith,  Rigdon,  Cow- 
dery,  and  others  should  return  east,  and  make  more 
proselytes,  money  for  the  purpose  to  be  furnished 
them  out  of  the  general  fund."     Accordingly  on  the 

^5  Of  Independence  one  of  them  says:  'It  is  a  new  town,  containing  a  court- 
house built  of  brick,  two  or  three  merchants'  stores,  and  15  or  20  dwelling- 
houses  built  mostly  of  logs  hewed  on  both  sides;  and  is  situated  on  a  handsome 
rise  of  ground  about  three  miles  south  of  Missouri  River,  and  about  12  miles 
east  of  the  dividing  line  between  the  United  States  and  the  Indian  reserve, 
and  is  the  county  seat  of  Jackson  county. '  Booth's  letter  in  Howe's  Mormonism 
Unveiled,  196.  On  the  south  side  of  the  Missouri,  Parley  Pratt  says.  Auto- 
biography, 78,  'some  families  were  entirely  dressed  in  skins,  without  any 
other  clothing,  including  ladies  young  and  old.  Buildings  were  generally 
without  glass  windows,  and  the  door  open  in  winter  for  a  light. ' 

^^  Booth,  in  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  196-9,  says:  'The  designation  of 
the  site  where  the  city  of  Zion  was  to  begin  was  attended  with  considerable 
parade  and  an  ostentatious  display  of  talents,  both  by  Rigdon  and  Cowdery. 
And  the  next  day  the  ground  for  the  temple  was  consecrated,  Smith  claiming 
the  honor  of  laying  the  comer-stone  himself.  The  location  of  the  stone  was 
marked  by  a  sapling  from  which  the  bark  was  removed  on  the  north  and  east 
sides:  on  the  south  side  a  letter  T  was  cut,  which  stood  for  temple,  and  on 
the  east  side  Zom.,  for  Zomas;  which  Smith  said  is  the  original  word  for  Zion. 
This  stone  was  placed  near  the  foot  of  the  sapling  and  covered  with  bushes 
cut  for  the  purpose;  the  spot  being  on  an  elevation  half  a  mile  from  Inde- 
pendence.' 'The  Colesville  branch  was  among  the  first  organized  by  Joseph 
Smith,  and  constituted  the  first  settlers  of  the  members  of  the  church  in 
Missouri.  They  had  arrived  late  in  the  summer  and  cut  some  hay  for  their 
cattle,  sowed  a  little  grain,  prepared  some  ground  for  cultivation,  and  were 
engaged  during  the  fall  and  winter  in  building  log  cabins,  etc.  The  winter 
was  cold,  and  for  some  time  about  10  families  lived  in  one  cabin,  which  was 
open  and  unfinished,  while  the  frozen  ground  served  for  a  floor.  Our  food 
consisted  of  beef,  and  a  little  bread  made  of  com  which  had  been  grated 
into  coarse  meal  by  rubbing  the  ears  on  a  tin  grater.'  Pratt's  Autobiogra- 
phy, 76.  .See  also  Millennial  Star,  v.  131.  It  was  revealed  through  Joseph 
the  seer  that  the  property  of  the  Colesville  branch  should  be  held  in  com- 
mon, and  that  Partridge  (its  bishop)  have  charge  and  distribute  from  the  com- 
munity storehouse  according  to  the  needs  of  each.  Smith's  Doctrine  and 
Covenants  (1876),  187-8.  Smith  in  the  beginning  of  the  church  attempted  to 
establish  communism,  each  giving  their  all  to  the  bishop,  and  only  drawing 
out  of  the  office  sufl&cient  to  live  upon.  This  was  found  to  be  impracticable, 
and  it  was  silently  permitted  to  glide  into  the  payment  of  tithing.  Hyde's 
Mormonism,  37. 

^^  'This  year,  1831,  passed  off  with  a  gradual  increase,  and  considerable 
wealth  was  drawn  in,  so  that  they  began  to  boast  of  a  capital  stock  of  ten  or 


9th  Joseph  and  ten  elders  started  down  the  river  in 
sixteen  canoes,  the  leaders  arriving  at  Kirtland 
the  27th/^  after  having  suffered  hardship  and  mortifi- 
cation through  disaffection  among  the  elders.  Titus 
Billings,  who  had  charge  of  the  church  property  there, 
w^as  ordered  to  dispose  of  the  lands,  and  prepare  to 
remove  to  Missouri  in  the  following  spring,  together 
with  part  of  the  people,  and  such  money  as  could  be 
raised.  It  was  provided  that  those  wishing  to  buy 
land  in  Zion  could  do  so  by  forwarding  the  purchase- 
money.  The  account  of  the  new  country  written  by 
Sidney  Rigdon  did  not  please  Joseph,  and  he  was  or- 
dered to  write  another;  if  that  should  not  prove  satis- 
factory, he  was  to  be  deprived  of  office.^^ 

On  the  12th  of  September  Joseph  removed  to  the 
town  of  Hiram,  thirty  miles  away,  and  prepared  to 
begin  again  the  translation  of  the  bible,  with  Rigdon  as 
scribe.  The  farm  of  Isaac  Morley  was  ordered  sold, 
while  Frederic  G.  Williams  should  retain  his,  for  it 
was  desirable  to  keep  a  footing  at  Kirtland  yet  for 

fifteen  thousand  dollars.  Their  common-stock  principles  appear  to  be  some- 
what similar  to  those  of  the  shakers.'  Howe^s  Mormonism  Unveiled,  128-9. 

^^  Booth  intimates  that  Smith  and  Rigdon  preferred  living  in  Ohio  to  en- 
during the  hardships  of  Missouri.  '  Before  they  went  to  Missouri  their  lan- 
guage was,  "We  shall  winter  in  Ohio  but  one  winter  more;"  and  when  in 
Missouri,  "It  will  be  many  years  before  we  come  here,  for  the  lord  has  a  great 
work  for  us  to  do  in  Ohio. "  And  the  great  work  is  to  make  a  thorough  al- 
teration of  the  bible,  and  invent  new  revelations,  and  these  are  to  be  sent  to 
Missouri  in  order  to  be  printed.'  Letter  in  Bowels  Mormonism  Unveiled. 

^'  'Some  dispute,  of  which  the  nature  is  not  clearly  known,  appears  to  have 
arisen  between  Joseph  and  his  friend  Sidney  Rigdon  before  their  return.  It 
is  probable,  from  the  course  of  subsequent  events,  that  Sidney,  even  at  this 
time,  aspired  to  greater  power  in  the  church  than  suited  the  prophet, . . . 
who  saw  fit  to  rebuke  him  by  a  revelation  accusing  him  of  "being  exalted  in 
his  heart,  and  despising  the  counsel  of  the  lord.  They  afterward  became 
reconciled.'"  Smucker's  Mormons,  75-6,  confirmed  by  Millennial  Star,  v.  149; 
Times  and  Seasons,  v.  467.  From  this  time  till  January  1832,  Joseph  con- 
tinued preaching  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States,  making  converts  with 
great  rapidity.  He  found  it  necessary,  however,  further  to  check  the  pre- 
sumption of  some  new  and  indiscreet  converts  who  also  had  revelations  from 
the  Lord,  which  they  endeavored  to  palm  off  upon  the  public.  Among  others, 
one  W.  E.  McLellan  was  rebuked  for  endeavoring  to  *  write  a  commandment 
like  unto  one  of  the  least  of  the  Lord's. '  Machay's  Mormons,  67-8.  See  anecdote 
of  'The  Swamp  Angel;'  also  account  of  raising  the  dead  by  Smith,  about  this 
time.  Ward's  Mormon  Wife,  10-11,  15-24.  For  text  of  rebuke,  where  the 
name  of  the  offender  is  given  William  E.  M'Lellin,  see  Millennial  Star,  v.  185- 
6;  Tim^s  and  Seasons,  v.  496. 


five  years.  The  store  kept  by  Newel  K.  Whitney 
and  Sidney  Gilbert  should  likewise  be  continued.  A 
system  of  tithes  should  be  established.  Ezra  Booth 
apostatized,  and  wrote  letters  against  the  church.^** 
Orson  Hyde,  clerk  in  Gilbert  and  Whitney's  store, 
was  baptized,  and  later  make  an  elder.  Phelps  was 
told  to  buy  at  Cincinnati  a  printing-press  and  type, 
and  start  a  monthly  paper  at  Independence,  to  be 
called  the  Evening  and  Morning  Star,  which  was  done. 
Oliver  Cowdery  was  instructed  in  November  to  return 
to  Missouri,  and  with  him  John  Whitmer,  the  latter 
to  visit  the  several  stations,  and  gather  further 
materials  for  church  history.     Newel  K.   Whitney 

^  Booth's  letters  were  first  printed  at  Ravenna,  in  the  Ohio  Star,  and  after- 
ward by  E.  D.  Howe  in  his  book,  Mormonism  Unveiled,  175-221.  They  are 
nine  in  number,  and  are  full  of  general  denunciation  and  sorrow  over  his  past 
blindness,  and  an  account  of  the  hardships  and  disappointments  attending 
his  journey  to  and  from  Missouri.  I  quote  the  more  pertinent  points. 
'When  I  embraced  Mormonism  I  conscientiously  believed  it  to  be  of  God.' 
*  The  relation  in  which  Smith  stands  to  the  church  is  that  of  a  prophet,  seer, 
revealer,  and  translator;  and  when  he  speaks  by  the  spirit,  or  says  he  knows 
a  thing  by  the  communication  of  the  spirit,  it  is  received  as  coming  directly 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Lord.'  'This  system,  to  some,  carries  the  force  of 
plausibility,  and  appears  under  an  imposing  form.  It  claims  the  bible  for  its 
patron,  and  proffers  the  restoration  of  the  apostolic  church,  with  all  the  gifts 
and  graces  with  which  the  primitive  saints  were  endowed.'  'Many  of  them 
have  been  ordained  to  the  high  priesthood,  or  the  order  of  Melchisedec,  and 
profess  to  be  endowed  with  the  same  power  as  the  ancient  apostles  were.  But 
they  have  been  hitherto  unsuccessful  in  finding  the  lame,  the  halt,  and  the 
blind  who  had  the  faith  sufficient  to  become  the  subjects  of  their  miracles, 
and  it  is  now  concluded  that  this  work  must  be  postponed  until  they  get  to 
Missouri;  for  the  Lord  will  not  show  those  signs  to  this  wicked  and  adulterous 

feneration.  In  the  commandment  given  to  the  churches  in  the  state  of  New 
'ork  to  remove  to  the  state  of  Ohio,  they  were  assured  that  these  mii-acles 
should  be  wrought  in  the  state  of  Ohio;  but  now  they  must  be  deferred  until 
they  are  settled  in  Missouri.'  'Everything  in  the  church  is  done  by  com- 
mandment; and  yet  it  is  said  to  be  done  by  the  voice  of  the  church.  For 
instance,  Smith  gets  a  commandment  that  he  shall  be  the  head  of  the  church, 
or  that  he  shall  rule  the  conference,  or  that  the  church  shall  build  him  an 
elegant  house  and  give  him  1,000  dollars.  For  this  the  members  of  the  church 
must  vote,  or  they  will  be  cast  off  for  rebelling  against  the  commandments  of 
the  Lord. '  'Smith  describes  an  angel  as  having  the  appearance  of  a  tall,  slim, 
well  built,  handsome  man,  with  a  bright  pillar  upon  his  head.'  The  bishop's 
'business  is  to  superintend  the  secular  concerns  of  the  church.  He  holds  a 
deed  of  the  lands;  and  the  members  receive  a  writing  from  him  signifying 
that  they  are  to  possess  the  land  as  their  own  so  long  as  they  are  obedient  to 
Smith's  commandments.'  'The  Lord's  storehouse  is  to  be  furnished  with 
goods  suited  to  the  Indian  trade,  and  persons  are  to  obtain  license  from  the 
government  to  dispose  of  them  to  the  Indians  in  their  own  territory;  at  the 
same  time  they  are  to  disseminate  the  principles  of  Mormonism  among 


was  appointed  bishop,  to  receive  and  account  for 
church  funds  collected  by  the  various  elders.  Many 
of  the  elders  who  went  to  Missouri  were  by  this  time 
at  work  in  different  parts  of  the  east  and  the  west.^^ 

On  the  16th  of  February,  1832,  while  Smith  and 
Rigdon  were  translating  the  gospel  of  St  John,  they 
were  favored  by  a  glorious  vision  from  the  Lord,^^  which 
gave  them  great  comfort  and  encouragement.  The 
revelations  about  this  time  were  frequent  and  lengthy, 
their  purport  being  in  great  part  to  direct  the  move- 
ments of  missionaries.  Simonds  Rider  and  Eli,  Ed- 
ward, and  John  Johnson  now  apostatized. 

On  the  night  of  the  25th  of  March,  Smith  and 
Rigdon  were  seized  by  a  mob,  composed  partly  of  the 
Campbellites,  methodists,  and  baptists  of  Hiram, 
twelve  or  fifteen  being  apostate  Mormons.  The  cap- 
tives were  roughly  treated^  and  expected  to  be  killed; 
but  after  they  had  been  stripped,  beaten,  and  well 
covered  with  tar  and  feathers,  they  were  released. 
Smith  preached  and  baptized  as  usual  the  next  day, 
Sunday,  but  Rigdon  was  delirious  for  some  time  after- 
ward.^^    This  broke  up  for  the  present  the  translation 

^^ '  Thirty  or  forty  elders  were  sent  off  in  various  directions  in  pursuit  of 
proselytes,  and  the  year  passed  off  with  a  gradual  increase.'  Howe's  Mormon- 
ism  Unveiled,  128-9.  The  men,  after  baptism,  are  elders,  and  are  empowered 
to  perform  the  ceremony  upon  others.  Carvcdho's  Incidents  of  Travel,  148. 
For  names  of  apostates  at  this  time,  see  iimucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  77.  For  in- 
stances of  young  women  induced  to  unite  with  the  sect  about  this  time,  see 
Ward''s  Mormon  Wife,  42-81.  Mackay  erroneously  states  that  the  number 
of  saints  in  Kirtland  at  this  time,  including  women  and  children,  was  but  150. 
The  Mormons,  71-2. 

^^In  January  it  was  revealed  that  the  work  of  translating  should  be  pro- 
ceeded with  by  Smith  and  Rigdon  until  finished;  and  that  several  of  the 
elders,  among  whom  was  Orson  Hyde,  a  recent  convert,  should  go  forth  in 
various  directions  in  pairs  as  before,  and  preach.  Smith  and  some  of  the 
elders  attended  a  conference  at  Amherst,  Loraine  Co.,  after  returning  from 
which  both  himself  and  Rigdon  were  shown  the  devil  in  a  vision,  and  had  the 
revelation  of  St  John  explained  to  them.  In  March  it  was  revealed  that 
steps  should  be  taken  to  regulate  and  establish  storehouses  for  the  benefit  of 
the  poor,  both  at  Kirtland  and  at  Zion.  More  missionaries  were  sent  out,  and 
word  was  received  that  the  emigrants  had  safely  reached  Missouri.  Times 
and  Seasons,  v.  576-7,  592-6,  608-9. 

^  Times  and  Seasons,  v.  611-12.  Mackay,  Mormons,  68-71,  erroneously 
dates  the  outrage  Jan.  25th.  One  account  says  aqua-fortis  was  poured  into 
Smith's  mouth.  Deseret  News,  Aug.  6,  1862.  Smith  says  'they  tried  to  force 
a  vial  into  my  mouth,  and  broke  it  in  my  teeth. '  One  reason  assigned  for 
this  treatment  was  that  they  were  attempting  to  establish  communism  and 


of  the  bible;  Rigdon  went  to  Kirtland,  and  on  the  2d 
of  April,  in  obedience  to  a  revelation,  Smith  started 
for  Missouri,  having  for  his  companions  Whitney, 
Peter  Whitmer,  and  Gause.  The  spirit  of  mobocracy 
was  aroused  throughout  the  entire  country.  Joseph 
even  feared  to  go  to  Kirtland,  and  escaped  by  way  of 
Warren,  where  he  was  joined  by  Rigdon,  whence  the 
two  proceeded  to  Cincinnati  and  St  Louis  by  way  of 
Wheeling,  Virginia,  a  mob  following  them  a  good  part 
of  the  way.  The  brethren  at  Independence  and  vicin- 
ity welcomed  their  leaders  warmly,  but  the  unbeliev- 
ers there  as  elsewhere  hourly  threatened  violence.^* 
In  May  the  first  edition  of  the  Book  of  Command- 
ments'^^ was  ordered  printed;  the  following  month,  pub- 
dishonorable  dealing,  forgery,  and  swindling.  Burton's  City  of  the  Saints,  672. 
Smith  merely  says  that  Rigdon  was  mad;  but  his  mother  asserts  that  he 
counterfeited  the  madness  in  order  to  mislead  the  saints  into  the  belief  that 
the  keys  of  the  kingdom  had  been  taken  from  the  church,  and  would  not  be 
restored,  as  he  said,  until  they  had  built  him  a  new  house.  This,  she  says, 
gave  rise  to  great  scandal,  which  Joseph  however  succeeded  in  silencing. 
Rigdon  repented  and  was  forgiven.  He  stated  that  as  a  punishment  for  his 
fault,  the  devil  had  three  times  thrown  him  out  of  his  bed  in  one  night. 
Eemy^s  Journey  to  Great  Salt  Lake,  i.  283  (note). 

'■^^The  26th  of  April  Smith  called  a  general  council,  which  acknowledged 
him  as  president  of  the  high  priesthood,  to  which  he  had  been  ordained  at  the 
Amherst  conference  in  January,  and  Bishop  Partridge  and  Rigdon,  who  had 
quarrelled,  were  reconciled,  probably  by  Smith,  as  Rigdon  was  supposed  to  be 
at  Kirtland  at  the  time.  This  greatly  rejoiced  Smith;  and  he  immediately 
received  a  revelation,  in  which  it  was  announced  that  the  stakes  must  be 
strengthened,  and  all  property  was  to  be  held  in  common.  Times  and  Seasons, 
V.  624-5;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  71. 

^  The  first  edition  of  Doctrine  and  Covenants  presents  the  following  title 
page:  A  Book  of  Commandments  for  the  Government  of  the  Church  of  Christ 
organized  according  to  law  on  the  6th  of  April,  1830.  Zion:  Published  by  W. 
W.  Phelps  <fc  Co.,  1833.  This  edition  contains  the  revelations  given  up  to 
September,  1831.  There  were  3,000  copies  printed  of  this  edition.  Then 
there  Mas  T'he  Book  of  Doctrine  and  Covenants  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of 
Latter- Day  Saints;  Selected  from  the  BevelcUions  of  God.  By  Joseph  Smithy 
President.  Mrst  European  Edition,  Liverpool,  no  date.  The  preface,  how- 
ever, by  Thomas  Ward,  is  dated  Liverpool,  June  14,  1845.  There  are  two 
principal  divisions  and  an  appendix.  The  first  consists  of  seven  lectures  on 
faith,  delivered  by  Sidney  Rigdon  before  a  class  of  elders  at  Kirtland;  the 
second  is  called  Covenants  and  Commandments,  and  consists  chiefly  of  revela- 
tions given  1830-42,  to  Joseph  Smith,  the  same  for  the  most  part  that  are  also 
printed  in  Times  and  Seasons,  under  title  of  History  of  Joseph  Smith.  There 
are  also  rules,  minutes  of  council,  visions,  and  expositions.  The  appendix 
contains  rules  on  marriage,  a  dissertation  on  government  and  laws,  and  a  brief 
account  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith.  'The  book  of  Mormon,  although  most 
known,  is  not  the  chief  book  of  the  sect.  The  Book  of  Teachings  and  Cove- 
nants, containing  some  of  the  revelations  which  Smith  pretended  to  have  re 
ceived  from  heaven,  is  regarded  by  his  disciples  as  a  book  of  the  law  which  God 


lished  in  connection  with  the  Upper  Missiouri  Adver- 
tiser, appeared  the  first  number  of  the  Evening  and 
Morning  Star,  under  the  auspices  of  W.  W.  Phelps, 
whose  printing-press  was  the  only  one  within  a  hun- 
dred and  twenty  miles  of  Independence.  On  the  6th 
of  May  Smith,  Rigdon,  and  Whitney  again  set  out 
on  their  return  to  Kirtland.^^  On  the  way  Whitney 
broke  his  leg.  Smith  was  poisoned,  and  that  so  badly 
that  he  dislocated  his  jaw  in  vomiting,  and  the  hair 
upon  his  head  became  loosened;  Whitney,  however, 
laid  his  hands  on  him,  and  administered  in  the  name 
of  the  Lord,  and  he  was  healed  in  an  instant.'^'' 

Some  three  or  four  hundred  saints  being  now  gath- 
ered in  Missouri,  most  of  them  settled  on  their  own 
inheritances  in  this  land  of  Zion,  besides  many  others 
scattered  abroad  throughout  the  land,  who  were  yet  to 
come  hither,  it  was  deemed  best  to  give  the  matter  of 
schools  some  attention.  Parley  P.  Pratt  was  labor- 
ing in  Illinois.  Newel  K.  Whitney  was  directed  in 
September  to  leave  his  business  in  other  hands,  visit 

has  given  this  generation.  Smith  also  published  other  revelations,  which  are 
contained  in  a  little  book  called  The  Pear^l  of  Great  Price.^  De  SmeVs  Western 
Missions,  393.  'This  book  abounds  in  grammatical  inaccuracies,  even  to  a 
greater  extent  than  the  book  of  Mormon.'  Mackay^s  The  Mormons,  43.  A 
bungling  statement  is  made  by  Mather,  Lippincott's  Mag.,  Aug.  1880,  to  the 
effect  that  in  1835  'Rigdon's  Book  of  Doctrine  and  Covenants  and  his  Lectures 
on  Faith  were  adopted.' 

^^  Arrangements  were  early  made  for  the  establishment  of  a  store.  Ferris^ 
Utah  and  Mormons,  75.  When  the  printing  press  was  bought — see  Deseret 
News,  June  30,  1869 — a  supply  of  goods  was  purchased;  and  arrangements 
were  made  at  the  May  council  to  keep  up  the  supply,  which,  with  few  excep- 
tions, were  considered  satisfactory.  On  April  27th  considerable  business  was 
transacted  *for  the  salvation  of  the  saints  who  were  settling  among  a  fero- 
cious set  of  mobbers,  like  lambs  among  wolves. '  On  the  28th  and  29th  Smith 
visited  the  settlement  above  Big  Blue  River  in  Kaw  township,  12  miles  west 
of  Independence,  including  the  Coles ville  branch,  and  returned  on  the  30th, 
when  it  was  revealed  that  all  minors  should  be  supported  by  their  parents, 
but  after  becoming  of  age  'they  had  claims  upon  the  church,  or  in  other 
words,  the  Lord's  storehouse,'  as  was  also  the  case  with  widows  left  destitute. 
Times  and  Seasons,  v.  625-6. 

^^  On  May  6th,  leaving  affairs  as  he  supposed  in  a  flourishing  condition. 
Smith  started  for  Kirtland  to  look  after  the  mill,  store,  and  farm  in  that 
neighborhood,  but  owing  to  an  accident  which  resulted  in  the  breaking  of 
Whitney's  leg.  Smith  was  delayed  4  weeks  en  route.  Rigdon,  who  was  also  of 
the  party,  proceeded  through  without  stopping,  and  the  other  two  arrived 
some  time  in  June.  The  season  was  passed  by  Smith  in  his  work  of  translat- 
ing the  scriptures,  and  in  attending  to  business  affairs.  Times  and  Seasons, 
V.  626. 


the  churches,  collect  money,  and  administer  to  the 
wants  of  the  poor.  The  new  translation  of  the  bible 
was  again  taken  up  and  continued  through  the  winter, 
the  new  testament  being  completed  and  sealed  up,  not 
to  be  opened  till  it  reached  Zion.^ 

On  January  23, 1833,  the  ceremony  of  washing  feet 
is  instituted  after  John's  gospel.  Each  elder  washes 
his  own  feet  first,  after  which  Joseph  girds  himself 
with  a  towel  and  washes  the  feet  of  them  all.  "Be- 
hold, verily,  thus  saith  the  Lord  unto  you,  in  conse- 
quence of  evils  and  designs,  which  do  and  will  exist 
in  the  hearts  of  conspiring  men  in  the  last  days,  I 
have  warned  you,  and  forewarned  you,  by  giving  unto 
you  this  word  of  wisdom  by  revelation,  that  inasmuch 
as  any  man  drinketh  wine  or  strong  drink  among  you, 
behold  it  is  not  good,  nor  meet  in  the  sight  of  your 
father.  And  again,  tobacco  is  not  for  the  body,  nei- 
ther for  the  belly,  and  it  is  not  good  for  man.  And 
again,  hot  drinks  are  not  for  the  body  or  belly." 

"  Hardly  had  President  Smith  turned  his  back  upon  Zion,  when  dissensions 
broke  out  among  the  saints  there.  He  corresponded  regularly  with  the  Stcir^ 
giving  advice  and  warning,  but  matters  apparently  grew  worse,  for  in  Janu- 
ary 1833  a  conference  of  twelve  high  priests  was  held  at  Kirtland,  or  Kirt- 
land  Mills,  as  they  now  called  their  settlement,  at  which  Orson  Hyde  and 
Hyrum  Smith  were  appointed  to  write  an  epistle  to  the  brotherhood  of  Zion. 
The  document  was  dated  Jan.  14th,  and  began:  'From  a  conference  of  12  high 
priests  to  the  bishop,  his  council,  and  the  inhabitants  of  Zion.'  After  pre- 
mising that  Smith  and  certain  others  had  written  on  this  all-important  sub- 
ject, and  that  the  replies  received  had  not  given  satisfactory  assurances  of 
confession  and  repentance,  charges  were  made  that  old  grievances,  supposed 
to  be  settled,  had  been  again  brought  up  in  a  censorious  spirit,  and  that  they 
had  accused  Brother  Smith  of  seeking  after  monarchical  power  and  authority. 
This  complaint  was  made  by  Carroll  in  a  letter  dated  June  2d.  Again, 
Brother  Gilbert,  on  Dec.  10th,  wrote  a  letter  which  contained  '  low,  dark,  and 
blind  insinuations,  which  they  declined  to  entertain,  though  the  writer's 
claims  and  pretensions  to  holiness  were  great.'  Brother  Phelps,  Dec.  1 5th, 
wrote  a  letter  betraying  *a  lightness  of  spirit  that  ill  becomes  a  man  placed 
in  the  important  and  responsible  station  that  he  is  placed  in.'  To  a  request 
that  Smith  should  come  to  Zion,  made  by  Phelps  in  a  previous  letter,  it  was 
answered  that  'Brother  Smith  will  not  settle  in  Zion  until  she  repent  and 
purify  herself. .  .and  remember  the  commandments  that  have  been  given  her 
to  do  them  as  well  as  say  them. '  Finally,  it  was  threatened  that  unless  these 
disturbances  should  cease,  they  should  all  be  cut  oflf,  and  the  Lord  would  seek 
another  place.  Brother  Ziba  Peterson  was  delivered  'over  to  the  buflfetinga 
of  Satan,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  that  he  may  learn  not  to  transgress  the  com* 
mandments  of  Crod.'   Times  aiid  Seasom,  v.  801. 


The  first  presidency  is  organized  on  the  8th  of  March, 
Sidney  Rigdon  and  Frederick  G.  Wilhams  being 
Smith's  councillors.  Money  flows  in,  and  a  council 
of  high  priests,  March  23d,  orders  the  purchasing  for 
$11,100  of  three  farms  at  Kirtland,  upon  which  the 
saints  may  build  a  stake,  or  support,  in  Zion,^^  and  the 
foundations  of  the  temple  are  laid,  for  here  they  will 
remain  for  five  years  and  make  money  until  the  west- 
ern Zion  shall  be  made  ready  and  a  temple  built 
there  also.  On  the  land  is  a  valuable  quarry  of  stone, 
and  good  clay  for  bricks;  they  also  buy  a  tannery. 
In  April  the  school  of  the  prophets  closes,  to  reopen  in 
the  autumn.  Shederlaomach  is  made  by  revelation  a 
member  of  the  united  firm.  It  is  not  the  will  of  the 
Lord  to  print  any  of  the  new  translation  in  the  Star;  but 
when  it  is  published,  it  will  all  go  to  the  world  together, 
in  a  volume  by  itself,  and  the  new  testament  and  the 
book  of  Mormon  will  be  printed  together.  Those 
preparing  to  go  to  Zion  should  organize. 

Commandment  comes  to  lay  at  Kirtland  the  foun- 
dation of  the  city  of  the  stake  in  Zion,  with  a  house 
of  the  Lord,  a  school-house  for  the  instruction  of 
elders,  a  house  for  the  presidency,  a  house  of  wor- 
ship and  for  the  school  of  the  prophets,  an  endow- 
ment house  with  a  room  for  the  school  of  apostles, 
and  a  house  in  which  to  print  the  translation  of  the 
scriptures.    A  church  is  established  in  Medina  county, 

^  'The  church  that  was  to  be  established  in  Jackson  county  was  called  Zion, 
the  centre  of  gathering,  and  those  established  by  revelation  in  other  places 
were  called  stakes  of  Zion,  or  stakes;  hence  the  stake  at  Kirtland,  the  stake  at 
Far  West,  etc.  Each  stake  was  to  have  a  presidency,  consisting  of  three  high 
priests,  chosen  and  set  apart  for  that  purpose,  whose  jurisdiction  was  confined 
to  the  limits  of  the  stake  over  which  they  took  the  watch  care.'  Kidder's 
Mormonism,  121-2.  A  stake  of  Zion  is  an  organization  comprising  a  presir 
dency,  high  priests,  and  its  council  of  12  high  priests.  The  latter  is  a  tribu- 
nal for  the  trial  of  brethren.  It  is  a  court  of  appeal  from  the  bishops,  and 
has  also  jurisdiction  in  spiritual  matters.  Richards'  Narrative,  MS.,  55. 
For  origin  of  name,  see  Doctrine  and  Convenants  (1876),  263.  *The  next 
year,  1833,  commenced  with  somethLag  like  a  change  of  operations.  In- 
stead of  selling  their  possessions  in  Ohio,  they  again  began  to  buy  up  im- 
proved land,  mills,  and  water  privileges.  It  would  seem  that  the  Missouri 
country  began  to  look  rather  dreary  to  the  prophet  and  his  head  men,  sup- 
posing that  they  could  not  enjoy  their  power  there  as  well  as  in  Ohio.'  Howe's 
Mormonism  Unveiled,  130. 


Ohio,  by  Sidney  Rigdon,  who  sometimes  proves  him- 
self unruly.  Dr  Hurlbut  is  tried  before  the  bishop's 
council  of  high  priests  on  a  charge  of  unchristian- 
like  conduct  with  the  female  sex,  and  condemned,  but 
on  confession  is  pardoned. ^^ 

Temples  are  ordered  built  in  the  city  of  Zion,  in 
Missouri,  as  follow :  a  house  of  the  Lord  for  the  pres- 
idency of  the  high  and  most  holy  priesthood  after  the 
order  of  Melchisedec ;  the  sacred  apostolic  repository, 

'°  Four  years  after  the  first  printing  of  the  Book  of  Mormon^  at  Palmyra, 
New  York,  was  issued  in  Ohio  the  following  work:  Mormonism  Unveiled: 
or,  A  faithful  account  of  that  singular  Imposition  and  Delusion,  from  its  rise  to 
the  present  time.  With  sketches  of  the  characters  of  its  Propagators,  and  a  full 
detail  of  the  manner  in  which  the  famous  Golden  Bible  was  brought  before  the 
World.  To  which  are  added  inquiries  into  the  probability  that  the  historical 
part  of  the  said  bible  was  written  by  one  Solomon  Spaulding,  more  than  twenty 
years  ago,  and  by  him  intended  to  have  been  published  as  a  romance.  By  E.  D. 
Howe.  Painesmlle,  Printed  and  Published  by  the  Author,  ISSfy.  12mo,  290 
pages.  Painesville  is  situated  but  a  short  distance  from  Kirtland,  then  the 
headquarters  of  Mormonism,  where  about  that  time  was  ordained  the  first 
quorum  of  the  twelve  apostles,  and  Sidney  Rigdon  was  delivering  Joseph 
Smith's  famous  lectures  on  faith,  subsequently  printed  in  Doctrine  and  Cove- 
nants, already  noticed.  Here  also,  shortly  afterward,  the  first  Mormon  temple 
was  dedicated.  Great  excitement  prevailed  throughout  that  section  regarding 
religion,  and  the  book  was  widely  circulated.  It  was  a  powerful  weapon, 
and  promptly  and  skillfully  handled;  yet  it  seems  to  have  been  no  serious  bar- 
rier to  the  dissemination  of  the  new  doctrines.  The  work  is  well  written; 
and  while  not  vehement  in  its  denunciations,  it  brings  forward  a  large  mass 
of  evidence  to  prove,  as  he  says,  *  the  depths  of  folly,  degradation,  and  super- 
stition to  which  human  nature  can  be  carried.'  He  observes  that  'the  diffi- 
culty of  procuring,  or  arriving  at  the  whole  truth,  in  relation  to  a  religious 
imposition  which  has  from  its  birth  been  so  studiously  veiled  in  secrecy,  and 
generally  under  a  belief  that  the  judgments  of  God  would  follow  any  dis- 
closures of  what  its  votaries  had  seen  or  heard,  will  be  readily  discovered. ' 
The  author  begins  with  some  account  of  the  Smith  family.  Their  thoughts 
turned  greatly  toward  gaining  possession  of  hidden  treasures.  Young  Joseph 
*had  become  very  expert  in  the  arts  of  necromancy,  juggling,  the  use  of  the 
divining  rod,  and  looking  into  what  they  termed  a  peep-stone,  by  which 
means  he  soon  collected  about  him  a  gang  of  idle,  credulous  young  men,  to 
perform  the  labor  of  digging  into  the  hills  and  mountains,  and  other  lonely 
places  in  that  vicinity  in  search  of  gold. '  After  comments  on  Cowdery,  Har- 
ris, and  Whitmer,  Mr  Howe  gives  a  commentary  on  the  golden  bible.  Some 
63  pages  are  devoted  to  this,  and  to  observations  on  the  credibility  of  the 
three  and  the  eight  witnesses.  Sarcasm  is  the  weapon  employed,  and  gen- 
erally with  efiect;  the  exposition  in  regard  to  contradictions  and  historical 
inaccuries  might  apply  with  equal  force  to  the  bible,  the  koran,  or  any  other 
sacred  book.  Mention  is  next  made  of  Pratt's  conversion,  which,  he  intimates, 
was  not  accidental,  followed  by  an  account  of  the  expedition  to  the  Lam- 
anites.  Thus  the  line  of  events  is  followed  by  Mr  Howe  to  the  time  of  the 
publication  of  his  book,  at  the  end  of  which  are  given  letters  and  testimonials 
to  disprove  the  statements  and  doctrines  of  the  Mormons,  and  also  to  prove 
that  the  book  of  Mormon  was  the  work  of  Spaulding.  On  the  whole,  besides 
being  the  first  book  published  in  opposition  to  the  Mormons,  it  is  also  one  of 
the  most  ably  written,  the  most  original,  and  the  most  respectable. 


for  the  use  of  the  bishop;  the  holy  evangehcal  house, 
for  the  high  priesthood  of  the  holy  order  of  God; 
house  of  the  Lord  for  the  elders  of  Zion;  house  of  the 
Lord  for  the  presidency  of  the  high  priesthood ;  house 
of  the  Lord  for  the  high  priesthood  after  the  order  of 
Aaron;  house  of  the  Lord  for  the  teachers  in  Zion; 
house  of  the  Lord  for  the  deacons  in  Zion ;  and  others. 
There  are  also  to  be  farms,  barns,  and  dwellings.  The 
ground  secured  for  the  purpose  is  a  mile  square,  and 
will  accommodate  fifteen  or  twenty  thousand  people. ^^ 

Affairs  in  Missouri  were  very  prosperous.  ''Immi- 
gration had  poured  into  the  county  of  Jackson  in  great 
numbers,"  says   Parley   P.  Pratt,  ''and  the  church 

^^  A  plan  and  specifications  for  the  new  city  of  Zion  were  sent  out  from 
Kirtland.  The  plot  was  one  mile  square,  drawn  to  a  scale  of  660  feet  to  one 
inch.  Each  square  was  to  contain  ten  acres,  or  660  feet  fronts.  Lots  were 
to  be  laid  out  alternately  in  the  squares;  in  one,  fronting  north  or  south;  in 
the  next  east  or  west;  each  lot  extending  to  the  centre  line  of  its  square,  with 
a  frontage  of  66  feet  and  a  depth  of  330  feet,  or  half  an  acre.  By  this  ar- 
rangement in  one  square  the  houses  would  stand  on  one  street,  and  in  the 
square  opposite  on  another  street.  Through  the  middle  of  the  plot  ran  a 
range  of  blocks  660  feet  by  990  feet  set  apart  for  the  public  buildings,  and 
in  these  the  lots  were  all  laid  off  north  and  south,  the  greatest  length  of  the 
blocks  being  from  east  to  west:  thus  making  all  the  lots  equal  in  size.  The 
whole  plot  was  supposed  to  be  sufficient  for  the  accommodation  of  from  15,000 
to  20,000  people.  All  stables,  bams,  etc.,  were  to  be  built  north  or  south  of 
the  plot,  none  being  permitted  in  the  city  among  the  houses.  Sufficient  ad- 
joining ground  on  all  sides  was  to  be  reserved  for  supplying  the  city  with 
vegetables,  etc.  All  streets  were  to  be  132  feet  (8  perches)  wide,  and  a  like 
width  was  to  be  laid  off  between  the  temple  and  its  surrounding  streets.  But 
one  house  was  to  be  built  on  a  lot,  and  that  must  front  on  a  line  25  feet  from 
the  street,  the  space  in  front  to  be  set  out  with  trees,  shrubs,  etc.,  according 
to  the  builder's  taste.  All  houses  to  be  of  either  brick  or  stone.  The  house 
of  the  Lord  for  the  presidency  was  to  be  61  feet  by  87  feet,  1 0  feet  of  the  length 
for  a  stairway.  The  interior  was  so  arranged  as  to  permit  its  division  into  4 
parts  by  curtains.  At  the  east  and  west  ends  were  to  be  pulpits  arranged  for 
the  several  grades  of  president  and  council,  bishop  and  council,  high  priests 
and  elders,  at  the  west;  and  the  lesser  priesthood,  comprising  presidency, 
priests,  teachers,  and  deacons,  at  the  east.  Provision  was  also  made  to  seat 
visiting  officers  according  to  their  grades.  The  pews  were  fitted  with  sliding 
seats,  so  that  the  audience  could  face  either  pulpit  as  required.  There  was 
to  be  no  gallery,  but  the  house  was  to  be  divided  into  2  stories  of  14  feet  each. 
A  bell  of  very  large  size  was  also  ordered.  Finally,  on  each  public  building 
must  be  written.  Holiness  to  the  Lord.  When  this  plot  was  settled,  another 
was  to  be  laid  out,  and  so  on.  Timea  and  Seasons,  vi.  785-7,  800.  Zion  City 
— its  prototype  in  Enoch's  City.  Young's  History  of  the  Seventies,  9-15,  no. 
10,  in  Mormon  Pamphlets.  It  was  revealed  to  Smith  that  the  waters  of 
the  gulf  of  Mexico  covered  the  site  of  a  prehistoric  city,  built  by  and  named 
for  Enoch;  and  that  it  was  translated  because  its  inhabitants  liad  become  so 
far  advanced  that  further  earthly  residence  was  unnecessary.  Zion,  Smith's 
ideal  city,  was  finally  to  reach  a  like  state  of  perfection. 


in  that  county  now  numbered  upward  of  one  thou- 
sand souls.  These  had  all  purchased  lands  and  paid 
for  them,  and  most  of  them  were  improving  in  build- 
ings and  in  cultivation.  Peace  and  plenty  had  crowned 
their  labors,  and  the  wilderness  became  a  fruitful  field, 
and  the  solitary  place  began  to  bud  and  blossom  as  the 
rose.  They  lived  in  peace  and  quiet,  no  lawsuits  with 
each  other  or  with  the  world ;  few  or  no  debts  were  con- 
tracted, few  promises  broken;  there  were  no  thieves, 
robbers,  or  murderers;  few  or  no  idlers;  all  seemed 
to  worship  God  with  a  ready  heart.  On  Sundays  the 
people  assembled  to  preach,  pray,  sing,  and  receive 
the  ordinances  of  God.  Other  days  all  seemed  busy 
in  the  various  pursuits  of  industry.  In  short,  there 
has  seldom,  if  ever,  been  a  happier  people  upon  the 
earth  than  the  church  of  the  saints  now  were."  They 
were  for  the  most  part  small  farmers,  tradesmen,  and 
mechanics,  and  were  not  without  shrewdness  in  the 
management  of  their  secular  affairs. 

But  all  this  must  now  be  changed.  The  saints  ot 
God  must  be  tried  as  by  fire.  Persecutions  such  as 
never  before  were  witnessed  in  these  latter  days,  and 
the  coming  of  which  were  foretold  by  Joseph,  are 
upon  them;  they  shall  be  buffeted  for  five  years,  and 
the  end  is  not  yet.  "  Political  demagogues  were  afraid 
we  should  rule  the  country,"  says  Parley,  ''and  re- 
ligious priests  and  bigots  felt  that  we  were  powerful 
rivals. "^^  Moreover,  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  were 
indiscreet;  they  were  blinded  by  their  prosperity; 
already  the  kingdom  of  God  and  the  kingdom  of  this 
world  had  come  unto  them;  now  let  the  gentiles 

^^Autobiography,  103. 

^' '  Their  prophet  had  declared  that  Zion  should  be  established,  and  should 
put  down  her  enemies  under  her  feet.  Why,  then,  should  they  hesitate  to  pro- 
claim their  anticipations?  They  boasted  openly  that  they  should  soon  possess 
the  whole  country,  and  that  the  unbelievers  should  be  rooted  out  from  the 
land.'  Edinburgh  Review,  April  1854.  'We  have  been  credibly  informed 
that  Rigdon  has  given  it  as  his  opinion  that  the  Mormons  will  be  able  to 
elect  a  member  of  congress  in  five  years,  and  that  in  three  years  they  would 
take  the  offices  in  the  town  of  Kirtland.  They  say  that  when  they  get  the 
Hist.  Utah.    7 


And  the  gentiles  did  tremble,  as  they  saw  so  rapidly 
increasing  their  unwelcome  neighbors,  whose  compact 
organization  gave  them  a  strength  disproportionate 
to  their  numbers.  Since  there  was  no  law  to  stop  their 
coming,  they  determined  to  face  the  issue  without  law.^ 

In  April  the  people  held  consultations  as  to  the 
best  way  of  disposing  of  the  Mormons;  and  again 
about  the  middle  of  July  three  hundred  persons  met 
at  Independence  to  form  a  plan  for  driving  them  out. 
A  declaration,  in  substance  as  follows,  was  drawn  up 
and  signed  by  nearly  all  present.  The  citizens  of  Jack- 
son county  fear  the  effect  upon  society  of  a  pretended 
religious  sect,  fanatics  or  knaves,  settling  among  them, 
and  mean  to  get  rid  of  them  at  any  hazard,  and  for 
the  following  reasons:  They  blasphemously  pretend 
to  personal  intercourse  with  the  deity,  to  revelations, 
miracles,  healing  the  sick,  casting  out  devils,  and  other 
delusions ;  they  are  the  dregs  of  society,  held  together 
by  the  acts  of  designing  leaders,  and  are  idle  and 
vicious.  They  are  poor.  They  tamper  with  the 
slaves  and  free  negroes.  They  declare  the  Indian  re- 
gion to  be  theirs  by  heavenly  inheritance. 

In  answer.  Parley  P.  Pratt  asks  if  their  supernatural 
pretensions  are  more  extravagant  than  those  of  the 
old  and  new  testament;  if  it  is  anywhere  written 
that  there  shall  be  no  more  spiritual  manifestations  as 
of  old ;  does  the  word  of  God  or  the  law  of  man  make 
poverty  a  crime?  and  have  they  not  paid  for  all  the  land 
they  occupy?  They  are  no  more  dregs  than  their 
neighbors,  and  the  charge  of  fraternizing  with  the 
blacks  is  not  true;  neither  is  that  of  vice  or  crime,  as 

secular  power  into  their  hands,  everything  will  be  performed  by  immediata 
revelations  from  God.  We  shall  then  have  Pope  Joseph  the  First  and  hia 
hierarchy.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  145. 

^*  *So  early  as  April  1832,  the  saints  were  made  to  feel  themselves  nnwel- 
come  sojourners  in  Jackson  co.  Stones  and  brickbats  were  thrown  through 
the  windows  of  their  houses,  and  they  were  otherwise  annoyed  and  insulted. 
Meetings  were  held  during  that  year  and  the  early  part  of  1833,  at  which 
resolutions  were  sometimes  passed,  and  sometimes  the  assembly  indulged  in 
a  fight  among  its  members;  but  nothing  more  serious  resulted.  Stoning 
houses,  however,  was  resumed  in  the  early  summer  of  the  last-mentioned  year. ' 
TiTues  and  Seasons^  i.  17;  vi.  851. 


tEe  county  records  will  show.  In  regard  to  the  lands 
of  the  Indians,  no  violence  or  injustice  is  contemplated ; 
and  if  it  were,  what  record  of  robbery,  murder,  and 
treacherous  betrayal  could  excel  that  already  made 
by  the  people  of  Missouri  and  others  in  the  United 
States  for  our  example?^ 

On  the  20th  the  people  again  met  according  to  ap- 
pointment. The  old  charges  were  reiterated,  and  the 
old  resolutions  renewed,  with  some  additions.^®  To 
put  them   into  action  the  men  of  Jackson  county 

35  Persecution  of  the  Saints,  21-8.  Mackay,  The  Mormons,  72-4,  says  *the 
manner  in  which  the  Mormons  behaved  in  their  Zion  was  not  calculated  to 
make  friends.  The  superiority  they  assumed  gave  offense,  and  the  rumors 
that  were  spread  by  some  false  friends,  who  had  been  turned  out  of  the 
church  for  misconduct,  excited  against  them  an  intense  feeling  of  alarm  and 
hatred.  They  were  accused  of  communism,  and  not  simply  a  community  of 
goods  and  chattels,  but  of  wives. ,  .Joined  to  the  odium  unjustly  cast  upon 
them  for  these  reasons,  they  talked  so  imprudently  of  their  determination  to 
possess  the  whole  state  of  Missouri,  and  to  suffer  no  one  to  live  in  it  who 
would  not  conform  to  their  faith,  that  a  party  was  secretly  formed  against 
them,  of  which  the  object  was  nothing  less  than  their  total  and  immediate 
expulsion  from  their  promised  Zion . . .  The  anti-Mormon  press  contained  at 
the  same  time  an  article  entitled  "Beware  of  false  prophets,"  written  by  a 
person  whom  Joseph  called  a  black  rod  in  the  hand  of  Satan.  This  article 
was  distributed  from  house  to  bouse  in  Independence  and  its  neighbor- 
hood, and  contained  many  false  charges  against  Smith  and  his  associates, 
reiterating  the  calumny  about  the  community  of  goods  and  wives. '  Smith 
calls  this  man  'one  Pixley,'  and  says  he  was  sent  by  the  missionary  society, 
to  civilize  and  christianize  the  heathen  of  the  west,  and  that  he  was  not  only 
a  black  rod,  but  *  a  poisoned  shaft  in  the  power  of  our  foes,  to  spread  lies 
and  falsehoods ' ...  It  is  also  probable  that  the  more  indolent  Missourians 
gazed  with  jealous  eyes  as  the  new-comers  exhibited  that  agricultural  thrift 
which  has  always  characterized  them  as  a  people;  for  we  find  the  twelve  high 
priests,  through  Hyde  and  Hyrum  Smith,  reprimanding  Brother  Phelps  as 
follows:  "If  you  have  fat  beef  and  potatoes,  eat  them  in  singleness  of  heart, 
and  boast  not  yourselves  in  these  things. " '  Times  and  Stasons,  v.  721 ;  vi.  816. 
'It  was  conjectured  by  the  inhabitants  of  Jackson  county  that  the  Mormonitea 
as  a  body  are  wealthy,  and  many  of  them  entertain  fears  that  next  Decem- 
ber, when  the  list  of  land  is  exposed  for  sale,  they  will  outbid  others,  and 
establish  themselves  as  the  most  powerful  body  in  the  county.'  Booth,  in 
Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  195. 

'^ It  was  further  declared:  '1st,  That  no  Mormon  shall  in  future  move 
and  settle  in  this  county.  2d,  That  those  now  here,  who  shall  give  a  defi- 
nite pledge  of  their  intention,  within  a  reasonable  time,  to  remove  out  of  the 
county,  shall  be  allowed  to  remain  unmolested  until  they  shall  have  sufficient 
time  to  sell  their  property  and  close  their  business  without  any  sacrifice. 
3d,  That  the  editor  of  the  Star  be  required  forthwith  to  close  his  office,  and 
discontinue  the  business  of  printing  in  this  county;  and  as  to  all  other  stores 
and  shops  belonging  to  the  sect,  their  owners  must  in  every  case  comply  with 
the  terms  strictly,  agreeably  to  the  2d  article  of  this  declaration;  and  upon 
failure,  prompt  and  efficient  measures  will  be  taken  to  close  the  same.  4th, 
That  the  Mormon  leaders  here  are  required  to  use  their  influence  in  prevent- 
ing any  further  emigration  of  their  distant  brethren  to  this  county,  and 


sallied  forth  for  the  office  of  the  Star,^  and  de- 
manded that  the  publication  be  discontinued.  Com- 
pliance being  refused,  Phelps'  house,  containing  the 
printing-office,  was  torn  down,  materials  and  paper 
destroyed/^  and  Bishop  Partridge  and  Elder  Allen 
were  tarred  and  feathered.^^  Meanwhile,  clergymen 
of  other  denominations,  and  officers  of  the  state  and 
county,  looked  on,  saying,  "Mormons  are  the  common 
enemies  of  mankind,  and  ought  to  be  destroyed,"  and 
''You  now  know  what  our  Jackson  boys  can  do,  and 
you  must  leave  the  country."*^ 

Again  the  mob  appeared  on  the  morning  of  the  23d, 
bearing  a  red  flag,  and  demanding  the  departure  of 
the  Mormons.  Seeing  no  way  of  escape,  the  elders 
entered  into  treaty  with  the  assailants,  and  promised 
to  leave  the  county  within  a  certain  time.^^     Cowdery 

counsel  and  advise  their  brethren  to  comply  with  the  above  requisitions. 
6th,  That  those  who  fail  to  comply  with  the  above  requisitions  be  referred 
to  those  of  their  brethren  who  have  the  gift  of  tongues,  to  inform  them  of  the 
lot  that  awaits  them.'  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  141. 

2*  'Six  of  ike  principal  elders  met  the  mob's  committee.  The  latter  de- 
manded that  the  printing-office,  the  shops,  and  the  store,  be  closed  forth- 
with, and  that  the  society  leave  the  county  immediately.  The  elders  asked 
for  three  months'  delay,  which  was  refused;  then  for  ten  days,  which  was  also 
refused;  the  latter  refusal  being  accompanied  with  a  notification  that  fifteen 
minutes  was  the  longest  time  that  could  be  granted.  Each  elder  liaving  de- 
clined to  accede  to  the  terms,  one  of  the  mob  remarked  on  leaving  that  he 
was  sorry,  for,  said  he,  "the  work  of  destruction  will  commence  immediate- 
ly."' Times  and  Seasons,  i.  18.  Phelps,  the  editor,  Partridge,  the  bishop, 
and  Gilbert,  the  store-keeper,  are  mentioned.  8 mucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  89. 

2^  'In  a  short  time  time  hundreds  of  the  mob  gathered  around  the  print- 
ing-office (a  two-story  brick  building),  which  they  soon  threw  down.  The 
press  was  thrown  from  the  upper  story,  and  all  the  books,  stock,  and  material 
scattered  through  the  streets.  After  destroying  the  printing  house,  they 
proceeded  to  Gilbert  and  Whitney's  store  for  the  same  purpose,  but  Gilbert 
agreeing  to  shut  it,  and  box  the  goods  soon,  they  concluded  to  let  it  alone.* 
Times  and  Seasons,  i.  18;  Pratt's  Persecution  of  the  Saints,  29. 

^'  'A  number  more  were  taken,  but  succeeded  in  escaping  through  the  over- 
anxiety  of  their  keepers,  who  crowded  forward  to  enjoy  the  sport.'  Times  and 
Seasons,  i.  18.  Phelps  the  editor  was  one.  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  89.  Par- 
tridge says  the  mob  was  led  by  George  Simpson.  Times  and  Seasons,  vi. 

*"  Spoken  by  Lilburn  W.  Boggs,  lieutenant-governor,  a  man  who  thence- 
forward appears  to  have  persecuted  the  Mormc^is  v/ith  unrelenting  hostility. 
He  'was  in  the  inunediate  neighborhood  of  the  riot,  but  declined  to  take  any 
part  in  preserving  the  peace.'  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  89-90;  Times  and  Sea- 
sons, vi.  819. 

*^  Six  persons  signed  the  agreement  that  one  half  of  the  Mormons  should 
leave  in  January  and  one  half  in  April  1834,  the  publication  of  the  paper 
to  be  discontinued.    Mackay's  The  Mormons,  76;  Pratt's  Persecution,  30. 


was  despatched  to  Kirtland  to  consult  as  to  what  was 
best  to  be  done.  Meanwhile,  incendiary  articles  ap- 
peared in  the  Western  Monitor^  printed  at  Fayette,  Mis- 
souri. *'Two  years  ago,"  said  that  journal,  "  some  two 
or  three  of  this  people  made  their  appearance  on  the 
upper  Missouri,  and  they  now  number  some  twelve 
hundred  souls  in  this  county."  They  look  at  the 
land  as  theirs  to  inherit,  by  either  fair  means  or  foul; 
and  w^hen  the  officers  of  law  and  government  shall  be 
Mormon,  we  must  go.  ^'One  of  the  means  resorted 
to  by  them,  in  order  to  drive  us  to  emigrate,  is  an  in- 
direct invitation  to  the  free  brethren  of  color  in  Illi- 
nois to  come  up  like  the  rest  to  the  land  of  Zion." 
True,  they  deny  this,  but  that  is  only  subterfuge. 
So  it  is  resolved  that  no  more  Mormons  shall  be  per- 
mitted to  come;  that  those  here  must  go  within  a 
reasonable  time;  and  that  the  Star  printing-office 
shall  be  declared  confiscated. 

An  appeal  was  made  to  the  governor,  Daniel  Dunk- 
lin, for  redress,  and  while  awaiting  the  answer  mat- 
ters were  continued  much  in  the  usual  way.  The 
brethren  were  instructed  by  their  elders  not  to  retal- 
iate, but  to  bear  all  with  meekness  and  patience.  At 
length  a  letter  came  from  the  governor,  assuring  them 
of  his  protection,  and  advising  them  to  resort  to  the 
courts  for  damages.  The  church  leaders  ordered  that 
none  should  leave  Independence  except  those  who 
had  signed  an  agreement  to  that  effect.  Four  law- 
yers were  engaged  for  one  thousand  dollars  to  carry 
the  matter  into  the  courts.  No  sooner  was  this 
knowm  than  the  w^hole  country  rose  in  arms  and  made 
war  upon  the  Mormons.  On  the  nights  of  October 
30th,  31st,  and  November  1st,  armed  men  attacked 
branches  of  the  church  west  of  Big  Blue,  and  at  the 
prairie  unroofed  the  houses  and  beat  the  men.  Al- 
most simultaneously  attacks  were  made  at  other 
points.  Stones  flew  freely  in  Independence,  and 
houses  were  destroyed  and  the  inmates  wounded. 
Gilbert's  store  was  broken  open,  and  the  goods  scat- 


tered  in  the  streets.  On  November  2d  thirty  saints 
retired  with  their  famihes  and  effects  to  a  point  half  a 
mile  from  town.  Next  day  four  of  the  brethren  went  to 
Lexington  for  a  peace  warrant,  but  the  circuit  judge 
refused  to  issue  one  through  fear  of  the  mob.  "You 
had  better  fight  it  out  and  kill  the  outlaws  if  they 
come  upon  you,"  said  the  judge.*^  The  saints  then 
armed,  and  on  the  4th  there  was  a  fight,  in  which  two 
gentiles  and  one  Mormon  were  killed,  and  several  on 
both  sides  wounded.  One  of  the  store-breakers  was 
brought  before  the  court,  and  during  the  trial  the 
populace  became  so  furious  that  Gilbert,  Morley,  and 
Corrill  were  thrust  into  jail  for  protection.  The  morn- 
ing of  the  5th  broke  with  signs  of  yet  more  bloody 
determination  on  both  sides.  The  militia  were  called 
out  to  preserve  the  peace,  but  this  only  made  matters 
w^orse.  The  lieutenant-governor,  Boggs,  pretending 
friendship,  got  possession  of  the  Mormons'  arms,  and 
seized  a  number  to  be  tried  for  murder.^*  Further 
and  yet  more  violent  attacks  were  made;  hope  was 
abandoned;  the  now  defenceless  saints  were  forced  to 
fly  in  every  direction,  some  out  into  the  open  prairie, 
some  up  and  some  down  the  river.  "  The  struggle 
was  over,"  writes  Pratt,  *'our  liberties  were  gone!" 
On  the  7th  both  banks  were  lined  with  men,  women, 
and  children,  with  wagons,  provisions,  and  personal 
effects.  Cold  weather  came  on  with  wind  and  rain, 
to  which  most  of  the  fugitives  were  exposed,  few  of 
them  having  tents.  Some  took  refuge  in  Clay  county, 
some  in  Lafayette  county,  and  elsewhere.** 

Throughout    all    these    trying    scenes.    Governor 

^"^  Pratt's  Autobiography,  105;  Mackai/s  The  Mormons,  77-8;  Pratfs 
Persecution,  31-6. 

"In  a  memorial  to  the  legislature  of  Missouri,  dated  Far  West,  Dec.  10, 
1838,  and  signed  by  nine  prominent  Mormons,  is  this  statement:  'A  battle 
took  place  in  which  some  two  or  three  of  the  mob  and  one  of  our  j)eople  were 
killed.  This  raised,  as  it  were,  the  whole  county  ia  arms,  and  nothing  could 
satisfy  them  but  an  immediate  surrender  of  the  arms  of  our  people,  and  they 
forthwith  had  to  leave  the  county.  Fifty-one  guns  were  given  up,  which 
have  never  been  returned  or  paid  for  to  this  day.' 

"  'About  1,500  people  were  expelled  from  Jackson  co.  in  Nov.  1833,  and 
about  300  of  their  houses  burned.'  Geo.  A.  Smith,  in  Deseret  News,  June  30, 


Dunklin  endeavored  to  uphold  the  law,  but  Boggs, 
lieutenant-governor,  was  with  the  assailants.  Wells, 
attorney-general,  wrote  to  the  council  for  the  church, 
the  21st,  saying  that  if  they  wished  to  replace  their 
houses  in  Jackson  county  the  governor  would  send 
them  an  adequate  force,  and  if  they  would  organize 
themselves  into  companies,  he  would  supply  them 
with  arms.  Application  was  made  accordingly.  "It 
is  a  disgrace  to  the  state,"  writes  Judge  Ryland, 
"for  such  acts  to  happen  within  its  limits,  and  the 
disgrace  will  attach  to  our  official  characters  if  we 
neglect  to  take  proper  means  to  insure  the  punish- 
ment due  such  offenders."  In  view  of  this  advice  from 
the  state  authorities,  the  saints  resolved  to  return  to 
their  homes  as  soon  as  protection  should  be  afforded 
them,  and  it  was  ordered  by  revelation  that  they 
should  do  so,  but  with  circumspection  and  not  in 

All  this  time  President  Joseph  Smith  was  at  Kirt- 
land,  harassed  with  anxiety  over  affairs  in  Missouri, 
still  pursuing  the  usual  tenor  of  his  way,  and  not 
knowing  what  moment  like  evils  might  befall  him 
and  his  fold  there.*^  It  was  resolved  by  the  first  presi- 
dency that  the  Star  should  be  published  at  Kirtland 

1869,  247.  *  Several  women  thus  driven  from  their  homes  gave  birth  to  chil- 
dren in  the  woods  and  on  the  prairies.'  Greene's  Facts,  18.  Pratt  says  203 
houses  were  burned,  according  to  the  estimate  of  the  enemy. 

*5  On  Dec.  15th,  Phelps  writes  to  Smith  from  Clay  co. :  '  The  situation  of  the 
saints,  as  scattered,  is  dubious,  and  afiFords  a  gloomy  prospect. .  .We  are  in 
Clay,  Ray,  Lafayette,  Jackson,  Van  Buren,  etc.  [counties],  and  cannot  hear 
from  each  other  oftener  than  we  do  from  you. .  .The  governor  is  willing  to  re- 
store us,  but  as  the  constitution  gives  him  no  power  to  guard  us  when  back, 
we  are  not  willing  to  go.  The  mob  swear  if  we  come  we  shall  die!  Our  peo- 
ple fare  very  well,  and  when  they  are  discreet,  little  or  no  persecution  is  felt. 
The  militia  in  the  upper  counties  is  in  readiness  at  a  moment's  warning, 
having  been  ordered  out  by  the  governor,  to  guard  a  court-martial  and  court 
of  inquiry,  etc.,  but  we  cannot  attend  a  court  of  inquiry  on  account  of  the 
expense,  until  we  are  restored  and  protected.'  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  944. 

*°  Smith  wrote  to  the  saints  about  this  time  that  he  had  heard  they  had 
surrendered  their  arms  and  fled  across  the  river.  If  this  report  was  true,  he 
advised  them  not  to  recommence  hostilities;  but  if  they  were  still  in  posses- 
sion, they  should  'maintain  the  ground  as  long  as  there  is  a  man  left.'  They 
were  also  advised  to  prosecute  to  the  extent  of  the  law;  but  must  not  look 
for  pecuniary  assistance  from  Kirtland,  for  matters  there  were  by  no  means 
in  a  flourishing  condition.  It  was  recommended  that  a  tract  of  land  be  pur- 
chased in  Clay  co.  for  present  necessaries.   Times  and  SeasonSf  vi.  914-15. 


until  It  could  be  reinstated  in  Missouri ;  another  jour- 
nal, the  Laiter-day  Saints  Messenger  and  Advocate, 
was  also  established  at  Kirtland,  and  a  mission  or- 
ganized for  Canada/^ 

The  work  of  proselyting  continued  east  and  west 
without  abatement  through  the  year  1834.  Two  by 
two  and  singly  the  elders  went  forth :  Lyman  John- 
son and  Milton  Holmes  to  Canada,  also  Zebedee  Col- 
trin  and  Henry  Harriman;  John  S.  Carter  and  Jesse 
Smith  should  go  eastward  together,  also  James  Dur- 
fee  and  Edward  Marvin.  Elders  Oliver  Granger, 
Martin  Harris,  and  Brigham  Young  preferred  to 
travel  alone.  To  redeem  the  farm  on  which  stood 
the  house  of  the  Lord,  elders  Orson  Hyde  and  Orson 
Pratt  were  sent  east  to  solicit  funds.  The  movements 
of  many  others  of  the  brethren  are  given.  Parley 
Pratt  and  Lyman  Wight  were  instructed  not  to  return 
to  Missouri  until  men  were  organized  into  companies  of 

*^  *  Concerning  our  means  of  dififiising  the  principles  we  profess,  we  have 
used  the  art  of  printing  ahnost  from  the  beginning  of  our  work.  At  Inde- 
pendence, Missouri,  in  1832-3-4,  two  volumes  of  the  Evening  and  Morning 
Star  were  issued  by  William  W.  Phelps  and  Oliver  Cowdery.  This  was  a 
monthly  octavo  of  16  pages,  devoted  to  the  faith  and  doctrines  of  the  church, 
and  was  continued  from  Independence  from  June  1832  until  July  1833,  when 
its  publication  was  transferred  to  Kirtland,  Ohio,  from  whence  it  was  con- 
tinued until  September  1834,  when  it  gave  place  to  the  Latter-day  Saints'  Mes- 
senger and  Advocate,  which  continued  to  cheer  the  persecuted  saints  until 
August  1837,  when  there  appeared  in  its  columns  a  prospectus  for  a  new 
paper  to  be  published  at  Kirtland,  called  the  Elders'  Journal  of  the  Church 
of  Latter-day  Saints,  also  a  monthly,  the  first  number  of  which  bore  date 
October  1837.  The  gathering  of  the  people  from  Kirtland  to  Far  West  in 
Missouri  transferred  the  publication  of  the  journal  also  to  that  place,  from 
whence  it  issued  until  stopped  by  the  persecution  and  extermination  of  the 
saints  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  1838  from  the  state  of  Missouri.  The  first 
number  of  the  Millennial  Star  was  issued  at  Liverpool  in  May  1840,  at  first  a 
monthly,  then  fortnightly,  and  for  many  years  a  weekly,  with  at  one  time  a 
circulation  of  22,000  copies,  edited  and  published  variously  by  elders  appointed 
and  sent  to  edit  the  paper,  manage  the  emigration,  and  preside  over  the 
work  generally  in  the  European  countries.  This  work  is  still  issued  weekly, 
and  greatly  aids  the  cause  in  Europe.  The  Skandinaviens'  Sfjerne  has  been 
published  in  Copenhagen  nearly  thirty  years  in  the  Danish  language,  edited 
by  those  who  hav^e  from  time  to  time  presided  over  the  Scandinavian  missions. 
The  first  number  was  issued  in  1851,  and  is  well  supported,  being  a  great  aid 
in  the  missionary  service  in  northern  Europe.  For  several  years  a  periodical 
entitled  the  Udgorn  Seioii  was  published  at  Merthyr  Tydfil,  and  was  contin- 
ued until  the  number  of  saints  in  the  Welsh  mission  was  so  reduced  by  emi- 
gration as  to  render  its  further  publication  impracticable.'  Richards'  Bibli- 
ography of  Utah,  MS.,  7-9. 


ten,  twenty,  fifty,  or  one  hundred.  Thereupon  these 
and  others  went  out  in  various  directions  to  raise 
men  and  means  for  a  religio-miUtary  expedition  to 
Missouri.  There  were  churches  now  in  every  direc- 
tion, and  the  brethren  were  scattered  over  a  broad 

Several  appeals  for  redress  were  made  by  the 
saints  at  Independence  to  the  governor  of  Missouri, 
and  to  the  president  of  the  United  States.  The 
president  said  it  was  a  matter  for  the  governor  to 
regulate,  and  the  governor  did  not  see  what  could  be 
done  except  through  the  courts.  A  court  of  inquiry 
was  instituted,  which  decided,  but  to  little  purpose, 
that  there  was  no  insurrection  on  the  5th  of  Novem- 
ber, 1833,  and  therefore  the  arms  taken  by  the  militia 
from  the  Mormons  on  that  occasion  must  be  restored 
to  them.^  "And  now  a  commandment  I  give  unto 
you  concerning  Zion,  that  you  shall  no  longer  be 
bound  as  an  united  order  to  your  brethren  of  Zion, 
only  in  this  wise;  after  you  are  organized  you  shall 
be  called  the  united  order  of  this  stake  of  Zion,  the  city 
of  Shinehah,*^  and  your  brethren,  after  they  are  or- 
ganized, shall  be  called  the  united  order  of  the  city  of 

On  the  7th  of  May,  1834,  a  military  company  was 
organized  at  Kirtland  under  the  name  of  Zion's  camp, 
consisting  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  brethren,  mostly 
young  men,  elders,  priests,  teachers,  and  deacons,  witli 

^  'About  this  time  a  court  of  inquiry  held  at  Liberty  for  the  purpose  of 
investigating  the  action  of  Col  Pitcher,  in  connection  with  the  expulsion  of 
the  saints  from  Jackson  co. ,  found  suflScient  evidence  against  that  officer  to 
result  in  his  being  placed  in  arrest  for  trial  by  court-martial.  The  plant  of 
the  printing-office  was  given  by  the  citizens  to  Davis  &  Kelly,  who  removed 
it  to  Liberty,  wliere  they  commenced  the  publication  of  a  weekly  paper  called 
the  Missouri  Enquirer, '  '  The  citizens  also  paid  §300  on  the  $1,000  note  given 
by  the  elders  to  their  lawyers,  thus  acknowledging  their  action  had  been 
wrong.'  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  9G1.  '  The  governor  also  ordered  them  to  re- 
store our  arms  which  they  had  taken  from  us,  but  they  never  were  restored.' 
PrcUfs  Persecution,  52.  See  also  Tayl  !er^s  Mormons,  xliii.-xlvi. ;  Deseret  A^eio.% 
Dec.  27,  1851,  and  June  30,  18G9;  Utah  Tracts,  no.  4,  56-G4;  Millennial  Star, 
XXV.  535-G,  550-2;  Gu7misou's  Mormons,  104-14;  Ferris'  Utah  and  Mormons, 

**  They  'called  their  Kirtland  colony  Shinahar.'  Gunnison's  Mormons,  167. 

^^y^  0?  T!^::-    ^  '4<^\ 



F.  G.  Williams  paymaster  and  Zerubbabel  Snow  com- 
missary general.  They  had  twenty  wagons  loaded 
with  arms  and  effects,  and  next  day  set  out  for  Mis- 
souri, President  Smith  joining  them,  leaving  Rigdon 
and  Cowdery  to  look  after  matters  in  Ohio.  They 
passed  through  Ohio,  Indiana,  and  Illinois,  reaching 
Missouri ^*^  in  June,  Pratt  and  others  still  continuing 

^° '  They  were  trying  times,  requiring  the  combined  wisdom  of  the  prophet 
and  his  head  men .  . .  But  the  prophet  more  readily  discovered  the  now  advan- 
tages that  would  ultimately  accrue  to  his  cause  by  a  little  perseverance.  He 
well  knew  that  the  laws  could  not  continue  to  be  violated  in  our  country  for 
any  length  of  time,  and  that  he  and  his  followers  would,  in  the  end,  be  the 
greatest  gainers  by  the  cry  of  persecution  which  they  could  raise ...  A  revela- 
tion was  printed  in  the  form  of  a  handbill.  It  was  taken  up  by  all  their 
priests  and  carried  to  all  their  congregations,  some  of  which  were  actually  sold 
for  one  dollar  per  copy.  Preparations  immediately  began  to  be  made  for  a 
crusade  to  their  holy  land  to  drive  out  the  infidels  . .  Old  muskets,  rifles,  pis- 
tols, rusty  swords,  and  butcher  knives  were  soon  put  in  a  state  of  repair  and 
scoured  up.  Some  were  borrowed  and  some  were  bought,  on  a  credit  if  possi- 
ble, and  others  were  manufactured  by  their  own  mechanics. .  .About  the  first 
of  ^lay  the  grand  army  of  fanatics  commenced  its  march  in  small  detachments 
from  the  diScrent  places  of  concentration.  On  the  3d  the  prophet,  with  a  life 
guard  of  r^bout  80  men,  the  elite  of  his  army,  left  his  quarters  in  Kirtland 
with  a  few  baggage  wagons,  containing  their  arms,  ammunition,  stores,  etc. 
.  .  .On  arriving  at  Salt  Creek,  Illinois,  they  were  joined  by  Lyman  Wight 
and  Hyrum  Smith,  brother  of  the  prophet,  with  a  reenforcement  of  twenty 
men,  v/hich  they  had  picked  up  on  the  way.  Here  the  grand  army,  which 
being  fully  completed,  encamped  for  the  space  of  three  days.  The  whole 
number  was  now  estimated  at  220,  rank  and  file.  During  their  stay  here  the 
troops  were  kept  under  a  constant  drill  of  manual  exercise  with  guns  and 
swords,  and  their  arms  put  in  a  state  of  repair;  the  prophet  became  very  ex- 
pert V.  ith  a  sword,  and  felt  himself  equal  to  his  prototype  Coriantumr.  He 
had  the  best  sword  in  the  army;  probably  a  true  model  of  Laban's,  if  not  the 
identical  one  itself,  an  elegant  brace  of  pistols,  which  were  purchased  on  a 
credit  of  six  months,  a  rifle,  and  four  horses.  Wight  was  appointed  second 
in  command,  or  fighting  general,  who,  together  with  the  prophet,  had  an  ar- 
mor-bearer appointed,  selected  from  among  the  most  expert  tacticians,  whose 
duty  it  was  to  be  in  constant  attendance  upon  their  masters  with  their  arms.' 
Howe\'i  M or  monism  Unveiled^  147-59.  *  Cholera  broke  out  in  his  camp  on 
the  24th  of  June,  and  Joseph  attempted  to  cure  it  by  laying  on  of  hands  and 
prayer.  .  .Joseph  lost  thirteen  of  his  band  by  the  ravages  of  the  disease. . . 
He  arrived  in  Clay  co.  on  the  2d,  and  started  back  for  Kirtland  on  the  9th.  . . 
Short  as  was  the  time  he  stayed,  he  did  not  depart  without  organizing  and 
encouraging  the  main  body. .  .and  establishing  the  community  in  Clay  co.  on 
a  better  footing  than  when  he  arrived. '  Macka;fs  The  Mormons,  85.  Churclies 
were  visited  in  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  and  the  New  England  Statos,  about 
100  recruits  obtained,  and  50  more  in  the  vicinity  of  Kirtland.  The  iirst  de- 
tachment, about  100  strong,  left  Kirtland  May  5th,  and  by  ^he  next  Sunday 
about  CO  more  had  joined,  part  from  Ohio  and  part  from  the  east.  The  body 
was  organized  in  companies  of  tens,  each  being  furnished  with  camp  equipage. 
Messes  for  cooking  purposes  were  formed,  and  guards  mounted  at  night. 
Deseret  News,  Oct.  19,  1860.  These  men  were  well  armed.  A  detachment  of 
twenty  men  had  preceded  them  as  an  advanced  guard.  liem^fs  Journey,  i. 
297.  They  were  divided  into  companies  of  12,  consisting  of  2  cooks,  2  lire- 
men,  2  tent«makers,  2  watermen,  one  runner  or  scout,  one  commissary,  and  2 


their  efforts  en  route  as  recruiting  officers.  It  was 
an  army  of  the  Lord;  they  would  not  be  known  as 
Mormons,  which  was  a  name  they  hated;  moreover, 
they  would  be  incognito;  and  the  better  to  accom- 
plish all  these  purposes,  three  days  before  they  started, 
Sidney  Rigdon  proposed  in  conference  that  the  name 
by  which  hereafter  they  would  call  themselves  should 
be  The  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints, 
which  proposal  was  adopted. ^^     On  the  way  the  breth- 

wagoners.  20  wagons  accompanied  them,  and  they  had  fire-arms  and  all  sorts 
of  munitions  of  war  of  the  most  portable  kind  for  self-defence.  Smucker^s  Hist. 
Mor.y  95;  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  1074.  On  June  3d,  when  in  camp  on  the 
Illinois  Eiver,  Smith  had  a  mound  opened  and  took  out  a  skeleton,  between 
whose  ribs  an  arrow  was  sticking.  A  revelation  followed,  in  which  the  prophet 
v/as  informed  that  the  bones  were  those  of  a  white  Lamanite,  a  warrior  named 
Zelph,  who  served  under  the  great  prophet  Omandagus.  Times  and  Seasons, 
vi.  1076;  Smacker's  Hist.  Mar.,  95-6;  Remy's  Journey,  i.  297;  Ferris'  Utah 
and  the  Mormons,  83-4.  June  4th  to  6th  was  occupied  in  crossing  the  Mis- 
sissippi, there  being  but  one  boat.  The  company  now  consisted  of  205  men 
and  25  wagons,  with  2  or  3  horses  each.  The  company  camped  on  Rush 
Creek,  Clay  co.,  on  June  23d,  and  on  the  night  of  the  '24th  the  cholera  broke 
out  among  them,  causing  several  deaths.  On  the  25th  Smith  broke  up  his 
command,  and  the  men  were  scattered  among  their  neighbors.  Times  and 
Seasons,  vi.  1076,  1088, 1 105-6;  Deseret  News,  Oct.  19,  1864.  Up  to  June  22d, 
Smith  had  travelled  incognito,  apparently  fearing  assassination.  Times  and 
Seasons,  vi.  1 104.  A  list  of  the  members  of  Zion's  camp  will  be  found  in  Deseret 
News,  Oct.  19,  1864,  and  those  living  in  1876  in  Id.,  Apr.  26,  1876.  Smith 
disbanded  his  forces  in  obedience  to  a  revelation.  Doctrine  and  Covenants, 
345-9.  As  the  prophet  approached  Missouri  he  selected  a  body-guard  of  20 
men,  appointing  his  brother  Hyrum  as  theii  captain,  and  another  brother, 
George,  his  armor-bearer.  He  also  appointed  a  general,  who  daily  inspected  the 
army  and  drilled  them.  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor. ,  99.  On  April  10,  1834,  the  presi- 
dent was  again  petitioned  from  Liberty,  Mo.  (a  petition  had  been  sent  on  in 
October  1833) ;  the  persecutions  were  recounted,  it  was  related  that  an  unavail- 
ing appeal  had  been  made  to  the  state  executive,  and  it  was  asked  that  they 
be  restored  to  the  lauds  in  Jackson  co.  they  had  purchased  from  the  U.  S. 
For  text  of  correspondence,  etc.,  see  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  1041-2,  1056-9, 
1071-8,  1088-92,  1103,  1107-9,  1120-4.  On  the  march  Pratt  still  acted  as 
recruiting  ofl&cer,  and  visited  the  churches  in  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  and 
Missouri,  obtaining  men  and  money  which  he  forwarded  to  the  main  body 
from  time  to  time.  Pratt's  Autohlog.,  122-3.  The  band  finally  numbered  205 
in  all.  Utah  Pioneers,  33d  Anniversary,  17.  The  march  to  Clay  co..  Mo., 
occupied  40  days,  9  of  which  were  spent  in  camp.  During  the  existence  of 
the  body  2  deserted  because  they  could  not  fight  the  mob,  and  one  left  with- 
out a  discharge;  the  rest  remained  faithful.  Deseret  News,  Oct.  19,  1864. 
Further  details  of  the  march  will  be  found  in  Mackay's  Moi-mons,  80-5; 
Kidder's  Mormonism,  111-16;  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  156-63.  Camp- 
bell and  others  who  threatened  to  attack  Smith  were  drowned  by  the  up- 
setting of  a  boat  whilst  attempting  to  cross  the  Missouri.  Campbell's  vow, 
and  what  became  of  it.  Smacker's  Hist.  Mor.,  100.  When  the  prophet  re- 
turned to  Kirtland,  in  August,  the  council  met  and  proceeded  to  investigate 
charges  against  Smith  and  others  on  this  march.  Deseret  News,  Nov.  15  and 
29,  1851. 

"^  "J'he  society  never  styled  themselves  Mormons;  it  is  a  name  popularly  at- 
tached to  them.     The  true  name  is  Latter-day  Saints.  Pratt's  Persecution,  21. 


ren  learned  of  the  outrages  which  had  again  occurred 
in  Jackson  county. 

Just  before  his  arrival  in  Clay  county,  Missouri,  a 
committee  of  citizens  waited  on  President  Smith  and 
proposed  the  purchase  of  the  lands  in  Jackson  county 
from  which  the  Mormons  had  been  driven.  The  offer 
was  dechned,  the  president  and  council  making  the 
following  proposal  in  return:  Let  each  side  choose 
six  men,  and  let  the  twelve  determine  the  amount  of 
damaofes  due  to  the  Mormons,  and  also  the  value  of 
the  possessions  of  all  those  who  do  not  wish  to  live 
near  them  in  peace,  and  the  money  shall  be  paid  with- 
m  a  year.     The  offer  was  not  accepted.^- 

On  the  3d  of  July  a  high  council  of  twelve  was  or- 
ganized by  the  head  of  the  church,  with  David  Whit- 
mer  as  president  and  W.  W.  Phelps  and  John  Whitmer 
as  assistant  presidents.  The  twelve  were:  Simeon 
Carter,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Wm  E.  McLellan,  Calvin 
Beebe,  Levi  Jackman,  Solomon  Hancock,  Christian 
Whitmer,  Newel  Knight,  Orson  Pratt,  Lyman  Wight, 
Thomas  B.  Marsh,  and  John  Murdock.  Later  Phelps 
became  president  of  the  church  in  Missouri.  In  com- 
pany with  his  brother  Hyrum,  F.  G.  Williams,  and 
W.  E.  McLellan,  President  Joseph  returned  to  Kirt- 
land,  arriving  about  the  1st  of  August. 

^'  Now^,  that  the  world  may  know^  that  our  faith  in  the 
work  and  word  of  the  Lord  is  firm  and  unshaken,  and 
to  shew  all  nations,  kindreds,  tongues,  and  peoples  that 
our  object  is  good,  for  the  good  of  all,  we  come  before 
the  great  family  of  mankind  for  peace,  and  ask  their 
hospitality  and  assurance  for  our  comfort,  and  the  pres- 

Hyde,  Mormonism,  202,  stcates  that  the  sect  was  first  called  The  Church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  by  Sidney  Rigdon  at  a  convention  at  Kirt- 
land  May  4,  1834.     See  chap,  iii.,  note  22. 

^^  When  the  camp  arrived  near  Salt  River,  Orson  Hyde  and  Parley  P.  Pratt 
■were  despatched  to  Jefiferson  City  to  request  military  aid  from  Gov.  Dunk- 
lin, in  repossessing  the  saints  of  tlieir  lands  in  Jackson  co.,  which  aid  was 
refused.  Pratt's  Autobior/. ,  123-4.  Upon  the  approach  of  Smith  and  his  party 
the  people  of  Jackson  co.  held  a  meeting  and  sent  a  committee  to  Smith  with 
proposals  to  buy  all  the  Mormon  property  in  the  county.  The  offer  was  de- 
clined, and  the  Mormons  in  turn  offered  to  buy  out  the  '  Missourians.  See 
correspondence  in  Howe's  Mormonism,  1G4-76. 


ervation  of  our  persons  and  property,  and  solicit  their 
charity  for  the  great  cause  of  God.  We  are  well  aware 
that  many  slanderous  reports  and  ridiculous  stories 
are  in  circulation  against  our  religion  and  society ;  but 
as  w^ise  men  will  hear  both  sides  and  then  judge,  we 
sincerely  hope  and  trust  that  the  still  small  voice  of 
truth  will  be  heard,  and  our  great  revelations  read  and 
candidly  compared  with  the  prophecies  of  the  bible, 
that  the  great  cause  of  our  redeemer  may  be  supported 
by  a  liberal  share  of  public  opinion,  as  well  as  the  un- 
seen power  of  God.  The  faith  and  religion  of  the 
latter-day  saints  are  founded  upon  the  old  scriptures, 
the  book  of  Mormon,  and  direct  revelation  from  God.'* 
Thus  far  have  I  given  the  History  of  Joseph  Smith, 
in  substance  as  written  by  himself  in  his  journal,^^  and 

^  The  most  complete  history  of  the  early  Mormon  church  is  the  Journal 
of  Joseph  Smith,  extracts  from  which  were  made  by  himself,  so  as  to  form  a 
consecutive  narrative,  under  title  of  History  of  Joseph  Smith,  and  published  in 
Times  and  Seasons,  beginning  with  vol.  iii.  no.  10,  March  15,  1842,  and 
ending  Feb.  15,  1846,  after  the  prophet's  death.  The  narrative  would  fdl  a 
good-sized  12mo  volume.  It  is  composed  largely  of  revelations,  which,  save 
la  the  one  point  of  commandment  which  it  was  the  purpose  specially  to  give, 
are  all  quite  similar.  Publication  of  the  Times  and  Season>i  was  begun  at 
Commerce,  afterward  called  Nauvoo,  Illinois,  Nov.  1839,  and  issued  monthly. 
The  number  for  May  1840  was  dated  Nauvoo.  Later  it  was  published  semi- 
monthly, and  was  so  continued  till  Feb.  1846.  It  is  filled  with  church  pro- 
ceedings, movements  of  officers,  correspondence  of  missionaries,  history,  and 
general  information,  with  some  poetry.  To  write  a  complete  history  of  the 
Mormons  down  to  1846  without  these  volumes  would  not  be  possible.  The 
names  of  E.  Ilobinson  and  D.  C.  Smith  first  appear  as  publishers,  then  Robin- 
son alone,  then  D.  C.  Smith,  then  E.  Robinson  and  G.  Hills,  next  Joseph  Smith, 
and  finally  John  Taylor.  The  organ  of  that  branch  of  the  church  %vhich  re- 
mained in  Iowa  was  the  Frontier  Guardian,  published  by  Orson  Hyde  at 
Potawatamie,  or  Kanesville,  1849-52,  and  of  the  church  in  Utah  the  Deseret 
News,  which  was  first  issued  at  Salt  Lake  City  in  June  1850. 

'At  the  organization  of  this  church,  the  Lord  commanded  Joseph  the 
prophet  to  keep  a  record  of  his  doings  in  the  great  and  important  work  that 
he  was  commencing  to  perform.  It  thus  became  a  duty  imperative.  After 
John  Whitmer  and  others  had  purloined  the  records  in  1838,  the  persecution 
and  expulsion  from  Missouri  soon  followed.  When  again  located,  now  in 
Nauvoo,  Illinois,  and  steamboat  loads  of  emigrants  were  arriving  from  Eng- 
land via  New  Orleans,  the  sound  thereof  awakened  an  interest  in  the  coun- 
try that  led  Hon.  John  Wentwc^th,  of  Chicago,  to  write  to  the  prophet, 
Joseph  Smith,  making  inquiries  £ibout  the  rise,  progress,  persecution,  and 
faith  of  the  Latter-day  Saints,  the  origin  of  this  work,  the  Book  of  Mormon, 
the  plates  from  which  the  record  was  translated,  etc. ;  and  it  is  the  answer  to 
this  letter  contained  in  Times  and  Seasons^  March  1,  1842,  that  precedes 
or  prefaces  the  present  history  of  Joseph  Smith,  which  is  the  history  of  the 
Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  This  request  of  Mr  Went- 
worth's  seemed  to  forcibly  remind  the  prophet  of  the  importance  of  having 
the  history  of  his  wonderful  work  restored  to  such  a  condition  that  correct 


printed  in  the  Times  and  Seasons,  which  ends  here. 
It  is  taken  up  in  the  Millennial  Star,  in  diary  form, 
beginning  with  volume  xv.  and  continuing  to  the  day 
of  his  death. 

inforination  could  be  given  to  editors,  authors,  publishers,  and  any  or  all 
classes  of  inquirers  that  might  apply,  and  he  undertook  with  his  clerks,  re- 
corder, and  all  available  aid  from  private  journals,  correspondence,  and  his 
own  indelible  memory,  and  made  it  a  labor  to  get  his  own  history,  which  was 
indeed  that  of  the  church  in  all  the  stages  of  its  growth,  while  he  remained 
with  his  people,  compiled  and  written  up  to  date,  which  with  his  own  cur- 
rent journal  enabled  the  historian  to  complete  the  history  to  the  time  of  his 
assassination,  with  the  utmost  fidelity  to  facts  as  they  occurred.  Our  method 
of  verification,  after  compilation  and  rough  draft,  was  to  read  the  same  be- 
fore a  session  of  the  council,  composed  of  the  First  Presidency  and  Twelve 
Apostles,  and  there  scan  everything  under  consideration. '  Richards'  Bibliog- 
raphy of  Utah,  MS.,  2-6. 




President  Smith  at  Kirtland — First  Quorum  of  Twelve  Apostles — The 
KiRTLAND  Temple  Completed — Kirtland  Safety  Society  Bank — In 
ZioN  Again — The  Saints  in  Missouri — Apostasy— Zeal  and  Indis- 
cretion— Military  Organization — The  War  Opens — Depredations 
ON  Both  Sides — Movements  of  Atchison,  Parks,  and  Doniphan— 
Attitude  of  Boggs — Wight  and  Gilliam — Death  of  Patten — Danite 
Organization — Order  Lodge — Haun  Mill  Tragedy — Mobs  and 
Militia — The  Tables  Turned — Boggs'  Exterminating  Order— Lucas 
AND  Clark  at  Far  West — Surrender  of  the  Mormons — Prisoners — 
Petitions  and  Memorials— Expulsion — Gathering  at  Quincy-^ 

Meanwhile,  although  the  frontier  of  Zion  was  re- 
ceiving such  large  accessions,  the  main  body  of  the 
church  was  still  at  Kirtland,  where  President  Smith 
remained  for  some  time. 

On  the  14th  of  February,  1835,  twelve  apostles 
were  chosen  at  Kirtland,  Brigham  Young,  Orson 
Hyde,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball  being  of  the  number; 
likewise  a  little  later  Parley  P.  Pratt.  Thence,  the 
following  summer,  they  took  their  departure  for  the 
east,  holding  conferences  and  ordaining  and  instruct- 
ing elders  in  the  churches  throughout  New  York  and 
New  England,  and  the  organization  of  the  first  quorum 
of  seventies  was  begun.  Classes  for  instruction,  and 
a  school  of  prophets  were  commenced,  and  Sidney 
Rigdon  delivered  six  lectures  on  faith,  of  which  Joseph 
Smith   was   author.^     Preaching   on  the  steps  of  a 

^They  were  printed  and  bound  in  Doctrine  and  Covenants.  See  Hyde's 
Mormonismy  202;  Bemy*8  Journey^  504;  PralVs  Autobiography,  139.  Mather, 
in  LippincoU's  Mag.,  Aug.  1880,  states  that  the  twelve  apostles  started  in 



Campbellite  church  at  Mentor,  Parley  P.  Pratt  ^vas 
mobbed  midst  music  and  rotten  eggs. 

The  temple  at  Kirtland  being  finished,  was  dedicated 
on  the  27th  of  March,  1836,  and  on  the  3d  of  April 
Joseph  and  Oliver  had  interviews  with  the  messiah, 
Moses,  Elias,  and  EHjah,  and  received  from  them 
the  several  keys  of  priesthood,  which  insured  to  their 
possessors  power  unliniited  in  things  temporal  and 
spiritual  for  the  accomplishment  of  the  labors  assigned 
by  them  for  him  to  perform.^  The  building  of  this 
structure  by  a  few  hundred  persons,  who,  during  tho 
period  between  1832  and  1836,  contributed  voluntarily 
of  their  money,  material,  or  labor,  the  women  knitting 
and  spinning  and  making  garments  for  the  men  who 
worked  on  the  temple,  was  regarded  with  wonder 
throughout  all  northern  Ohio.  It  was  60  by  80  feet, 
occupied  a  commanding  position,  and  cost  $40,000. 

During  its  erection  the  saints  incurred  heavy  debts 
for  material  and  labor.  They  bought  farms  at  high 
prices,  making  part  payments,  and  afterward  forfeit- 
ing   them.      They    engaged    in    mercantile    pursuits, 

^  'A  square  mile  was  laid  out  in  half -acre  lots,  and  a  number  of  farms 
were  bought,  the  church  farm  being  half  a  mile  down  one  of  the  most  beauti- 
ful valleys  which  it  is  possible  to  conceive  in  a  range  of  country  so  uniformly 
level.'  Mather,  in  LippmcoWs  Mag.,  Aug.  1880.  In  May  1833  it  was  revealed 
that  building  should  begin.  Two  houses  55  by  65  feet  each  were  ordered, 
one  for  the  presidency,  the  other  for  printing.  Hyrum  Smith  and  two  others 
vere  presented  with  lots,  and  directions  were  sent  to  the  faithful  to  subscribe 
money  to  aid  in  building  a  temple  at  Kirtland.  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  769-70. 
Before  its  completion,  private  assemblies  were  held  at  the  houses  of  the  faith- 
ful, frequently  at  Smith's.  When  partly  finished,  schools  were  opened  in 
several  of  the  apartments.  It  was  begun  in  June  1833,  and  dedicated  March 
27,  1830.  A  brief  description  of  the  building,  arrangement  of  interior,  etc., 
and  a  full  account  of  the  dedication  and  ordinary  services  are  given  in  Tul- 
lidge's  Women,  76,  80-95,  99-101.  Daniel  Tyler,  in  Juvenile  Instructor,  xiv. 
283;  Bv^ch,  Gesch.  der  Morm.,  74;  Kidder's  Mormonism,  124-6.  Probably  but 
little  work  was  done  on  it  in  1833,  for  about  the  front  entrances  the  gilded 
inscription,*  Built  by  the  church  of  Jesus  Christ,  1834,'  still  shines  bright  as 
ever.  Salt  Lake  Herald,  June  6,  1877.  See  also  Smith's  account  in  Times 
and  Seasons,  vi.  708-11,  723-6,  and  Eemy's  Journey,  i.  302-4.  For  cuts 
of  building,  see  Young's  Bist.  of  the  Seventies,  8;  Juvenile  Instructor,  xiv.  283; 
Pratt's  Autohiog. ,  140.  When  nearly  finished  there  was  a  debt  on  the  building 
of  from  $15,000  to  $20,000.  Kidder's  Mormonism,  124-6.  Most  of  the  work- 
men were  dependent  upon  their  labor  for  their  daily  food,  which  often  con- 
sisted of  corn  meal  alone,  and  that  had  been  donated.  Juvenile  Instructor,  283. 
Writing  in  1880,  Mather  says:  'The  residences  of  Smith  and  Rig  lou  are  al- 
most under  the  eaves  of  the  temple,  and  the  theological  sem  nary  is  now  occu- 
pied by  the  methodists  for  a  church. '  Lippincott's  Mug. ,  Aug.  1880. 


buying  merchandise  in  New  York  and  elsewhere  in 
excess  of  their  abiHty  to  pay.  They  built  a  steam- 
mill,  which  proved  a  source  of  loss,  and  started  a 
bank,  but  were  unable  to  obtain  a  charter;  they  is- 
sued bills  without  a  charter,  however,  in  consequence 
of  which  they  could  not  collect  the  money  loaned, 
and  after  a  brief  struggle,  and  during  a  period  of 
great  apostasy,  the  bank  failed.  It  was  called  the 
Kirtland  Safety  Society  Bank,  of  which  Rigdon  was 
president  and  Smith  cashier.  All  this  time,  writes 
Corrill,  *^they  sufiered  pride  to  arise  in  their  hearts, 
and  became  desirous  of  fine  houses  and  fine  clothes, 
and  indulged  too  much  in  these  things,  supposing  for 
a  few  months  that  they  were  very  rich."  Upon  the 
failure  of  the  bank  in  1838,  Smith  and  Rigdon  went 
to  Missouri,  leaving  the  business  in  the  hands  of  others 
to  wind  up.^ 

'  '  They  also  suflFered  jealousies  to  arise  among  them,  and  several  persona 
dissented  from  the  church,  and  accused  the  leaders  of  the  church  with  bad 
management,  selfishness,  etc. . .  .On  the  other  hand,  the  leaders  of  the  church 
accused  the  dissenters  with  dishonesty,  want  of  faith  and  righteousness, . . . 
and  this  strife  or  opposition  arose  to  a  great  height, .  . .  until  Smith  and  liig- 
don  were  obliged  to  leave  Kirtland.'  Corrill,  in  Kidder'' s  Mormonism,  126-7. 
'Subsequently  they  had  a  revelation,'  another  says,  'commanding  them  to 
establish  a  bank,  which  should  swallow  up  all  other  banks.  This  was  soon 
got  into  operation  on  a  pretended  capital  of  four  millions  of  dollars,  made  up 
of  real  estate  round  about  the  temple.'  John  Hyde,  Mormonism,  201,  says 
that  the  bank,  a  store,  and  mill  were  started  in  Aug.  1831.  Before  me  is 
one  of  their  bills,,  dated  Jan.  17,  1837,  paj-able  to  C.  Scott,  or  bearer. 
Mather  says,  LippincoWs  Mag.,  Aug.  1880:  'Richard  Hilliard,  a  leading 
merchant  of  Cleveland,  received  their  bills  for  a  few  days,  and  then  took 
possession  of  all  their  available  assets.  They  were  also  in  debt  for  their 
farms,  and  for  goods  bought  in  New  York.  The  bubble  burst,  and  many  in 
the  vicinity  of  Kirtland  were  among  the  sufferers.  Smith  and  Rigdon  fled 
to  Far  West,  after  having  been  tarred  and  feathered  for  their  peculiar  the- 
ories of  finance.'  'Chauncey  G.  Webb  (father  of  Ann  Eliza  Young)  assisted 
in  founding  this  bank,  giving  Smith  all  he  possessed  outside  of  his  house  and 
shop  toward  completing  the  amount  necessary  for  a  capital  on  which  to  start 
the  new  enterprise.  With  the  failure  of  the  bank  Webb  lost  everything.' 
Young^s  Wife,  No.  19,  33,  40-41;  see  account  of  formation  of  bank  in  Ben- 
nett's Mormonism,  135-6.  'Smith  had  a  sort  of  bank  issue  on  what  was  then 
called  the  wild-cat  principle.  His  circulating  medium  had  no  redeeming 
basis,  and  was  worthless  in  the  hands  of  the  people.'  Tucker'' s  Mormonism, 
154-5.  '  Smith  had  a  revelation  from  the  Lord,  to  the  effect  that  his  bank 
would  be  a  pattern  of  all  the  banks  in  the  United  States,  that  it  would 
speedily  break,  and  that  all  the  rest  would  follow  the  example.  The  bank 
was  closed  the  same  day.'  HalVs  Mormonism,  19.  The  bank  failed  in  Nov. 
1837.  liemy's  Journey,  i.  504;  Busch,  Gesch.  der  Morm.,  84.  'By  means  of 
great  activity  and  an  actual  capital  of  about  $5,000,  they  succeeded  in  set- 
ting afloat  from  $50,000  to  $100,000.  The  concern  was  closed  up  after 
Hist.  Utah.    8 


All  endowment  meeting,  or  solemn  assembly,  held 
in  1836  in  the  temple  at  Kirtland,  is  thus  described 
by  William  Harris:  "It  was  given  out  that  those  who 
were  in  attendance  at  that  meeting  should  receive  an 
endowment,  or  blessing,  similar  to  that  experienced 
by  the  disciples  of  Christ  on  the  day  of  pentecost. 

flourishing  3  or  4  weeks.'  Kidder's  Mormonism,  128.  The  building  is  now 
occupied  by  a  private  family.  Salt  Lake  S.  W.  Herald,  June  6,  1877. 
*In  order  to  pay  the  debt  on  the  temple,  they  concluded  to  try  mercantile 
business,  and  ran  in  debt  in  New  York  and  elsewhere  some  $30,000  for 
goods,  and  shortly  after,  $50,000  or  $60,000  more.  In  consequence  of  their 
ignorance  of  business  and  extravagance,  the  scheme  proved  a  failure. '  Kid- 
der\'<  Mormonism,  126,  128;  Smueker's  Hist.  3Ior.,  76.  'Gilbert  and  Whit- 
ney's store  is  still  used  for  original  purposes.'  Salt  Lake  Herald,  June  6,  1877. 
•A  poorly  furnished  country  store,  where  commerce  looks  starvation  in  the 
face.'  Id.,  Nov.  17,  1877.  'Smith's  store  was  seized  and  goods  sold  in  Nov. 
1839.'  Hyde's  Mor7nonism,  203;  Bennett'' s  Mormonism,  135.  They  also  spent 
some  thousands  of  dollars  in  building  a  steam-mill,  which  never  profited 
them  anything.  Kidder's  Alormonism.,  126.  'The  skeleton  of  a  superannu- 
ated engine  and  its  contrivances  half  buried  in  a  heap  of  ashes — the  shed  that 
covered  it  having  recently  burned  to  the  ground — marks  the  spot  where  stood 
the  ashery  and  its  successor,  the  Mormon  saw-mill,  at  the  foot  of  Temple 
hill.'  Salt  Lake  Herald,  Nov.  17,  1877.  Heber  C.  Kimball,  who  went  to 
Nauvoo  in  1839,  built  a  pottery  at  Kirtland,  the  ruins  of  which  were  to  be 
seen  in  1877.  Ihid.  'After  the  temple  was  dedicated,  the  Kirtland  high 
school  was  taught  in  the  attic  story  by  H.  M.  Hawes,  prof,  of  Greek  and 
Latin.  There  were  from  130  to  140  students,  divided  into  three  depart- 
ments— the  classic,  w^here  only  languages  were  taught;  the  English,  where 
mathematics,  common  arithmetic,  geography,  English  grammar,  and  read- 
ing and  writing  were  taught;  and  the  juvenile  department.  The  last  two 
departments  were  vmder  assistant  instructors.  The  school  was  begun  in  Nov. 
1830.'  Tidlidge's  Women,  99.  'On  the  3d  floor  are  a  succession  of  small 
rooms  containing  crippled  benches,  blackboards,  ruined  walls,  and  other 
paraphernalia,  which  indicated  that  at  some  period  of  the  temple's  histoiy 
this  part  had  been  used  as  a  primary  school.'  Salt  Lake  S.  W.  Herald,  June 
6,  1877.  A  Hebrew  professorship  is  also  mentioned.  Remy's  Journey,  i.  504. 
'Immediately  after  the  closing  of  the  bank,  and  before  the  news  of  its  fail- 
ure had  time  to  spread.  Smith  with  some  4  or  5  terriers  (understrappers  in 
the  x)riesthood)  went  to  Toronto,  Canada,  where  he  preached,  whilst  his  fol- 
lowers circulated  the  worthless  notes  of  the  defunct  bank.  Brigham  Young 
also  succeeded  in  spreading  about  $10,000  of  the  paper  through  several 
states. '  HalVs  Mormonism^  19-20.  '  In  January  1838  Smith  and  Rigdon,  being 
at  Kirtland  together,  were  both  arrested  on  charges  of  swindling  in  connec- 
tion with  their  worthless  paper  bank,' etc.  'The  prisoners,  however,  es- 
caped from  the  sheriff  in  the  night  and  made  their  way  on  horseback  to  Mis- 
souri. '  Tucker's  Mormonism,  155-6.  Smith  and  Rigdon  ran  away  on  the  night 
of  Jan.  12,  1838.  Hyde's  Mormonism,  203,  'A  new  year  dawned  upon  the 
church  at  Kirtland,'  writes  Smith,  'in  all  the  bitterness  of  the  spirit  of 
apostate  mobocracy,  which  continued  to  rage  and  grow  hotter  and  hotter, 
until  Elder  Rigdon  and  myself  were  obliged  to  flee  from  its  deadly  influence, 
as  did  the  apostles  and  prophets  of  old,  and  as  Jesus  said,  "When  they  per- 
secute you  in  one  city,  flee  ye  to  another;"  and  on  the  evening  of  the  12th  of 
January,  about  ten  o'clock,  we  left  Kirtland  on  horseback  to  escape  mob 
violence,  which  was  about  to  burst  upon  us,  under  the  color  of  legal  process 
to  cover  their  hellish  designs  and  save  themselves  from  the  just  judgment  of 
the  law.' 


When  the  day  arrived  great  numbers  convened  from 
the  different  churches  in  the  country.  They  spent' 
the  day  in  fasting  and  prayer,  and  in  washing  and 
perfuming  their  bodies;  they  also  washed  their  feet, 
and  anointed  their  heads  with  what  they  called  holy 
oil,  and  pronounced  blessings.  In  the  evening  they 
met  for  the  endowment.  The  fast  was  then  broken/' 
Midsummer  of  1837  saw  Parley  P.  Pratt  in  New 
York  city,  where  he  printed  the  first  edition  of  his  Voice 
of  Warning y^  and  where  he  labored  with  great  earnest^ 
ness,  at  first  under  many  discouragements,  later  with 
signal  success.  After  that  he  went  once  more  to 
Missouri.  Others  were  going  in  the  same  direction 
from  Kirtland  and  elsewhere  during  the  entire  period- 
bet  ween  1831  and  1838.  The  Messenger  and  Advocate > 
having  been  discontinued,  the  Elders  Journal  was 
started  by  Joseph  Smith  in  Kirtland  in  October 

After  the  emeutes  which  occurred  in  Jackson  county 
in  the  autumn  of  1833,  as  before  related,  the  saints, 
escaped  as  best  they  were  able  to  Clay  county,  where 
they  were  kindly  received.  Some  took  up  their  abode 
in  Lafayette  and  Van  Buren  counties,  and  a  few  in 
Ray  and  Clinton  counties.^  For  their  lands,  stock, 
furniture,  buildings,  and  other  property  destroyed  in 
Jackson  county,  they  received  little  or  no  compensa- 
tion; on  the  contrary,  some  who  went  back  for  their 
effects  were  caught  and  beaten.®     Nevertheless,  there 

*  It  consisted  of  4,000  copies.  The  author  states  that  *  it  has  since  been 
published  and  republished  in  America  and  Europe,  till  some  40,000  or  50,000 
copies  have  not  been  sufficient  to  supply  the  demand.'  Pratt's  Autobiography^ 

*Most  of  these  fled  into  Clay  co.,  where  they  were  received  with  some 
degree  of  kindness,  and  encamped  on  the  banks  of  the  Missouri.  Those  who 
went  into  Van  Buren  and  Lafayette  counties  were  soon  expelled,  and  had  to 
move.  Pratt^s  Persecution,  51;  Mackay^s  Mormons,  78;  Times  and  Seasons^ 
\'i.  913.  The  Missouri  River  bends  to  the  east  as  it  enters  the  state,  and  runs 
in  a  generally  east  direction  through  the  western  counties.  Jackson  co.  ia 
immediately  south  of  Clay — the  river  being  the  dividing  line — and  Van 
Buren  lies  next  south  of  Jackson.  All  west  of  the  state  line  was  Indian  ter- 
ritory, as  I  have  said.     See  map,  p.  121  this  vol. 

•  The  Jackson  co.  exiles  being  in  a  destitute  condition,  a  conference  was 


were  three  years  of  comparative  rest  for  the  people  of 
God,  the  effect  of  which  soon  appeared  in  Zion's 

The  roen  of  Missouri  were  quite  proud  of  what  they 
had  done;  they  were  satisfied  on  the  whole  with  the 
results,  and  though  their  influence  was  still  felt,  no 
further  violence  was  offered  till  the  summer  of  1836. 
Then  the  spirit  of  mobocracy  again  appeared.  The 
Jackson-county  boys  had  served  themselves  well; 
why  should  they  not  help  their  neighbors?  So  they 
crossed  the  river,  in  small  squads  at  first,  and  began 
to  stir  up  enmity,  often  insulting  and  plundering  their 
victims,  until  the  people  of  Clay  county,  fearing 
actions  yet  worse,  held  a  meeting,  and  advised  the 
saints  to  seek  another  home.^ 

For  their  unrelenting  hostility  toward  the  latter- 
day  saints,  for  the  services  rendered  to  their  country 
in  defying  its  laws  and  encouraging  the  outrages  upon 
citizens  at  Independence  and  elsewhere  during  the 
first  Mormon  troubles  in  Missouri,  Boggs  was  made 
governor  of  that  state,  Lucas  major-general,  and 
Wilson  brigadier-general.^  After  his  election,  as  be- 
fore, Boggs  did  not  hesitate  to  let  it  be  known  that 

held  at  P.  P.  Pratt's  house  in  Clay  co.  (some  time  during  the  winter  of  1833- 
4 — date  not  given),  at  which  it  was  resolved  to  appeal  to  Smith,  at  Kirtland, 
for  aid  and  counsel;  and  P.  P.  Pratt  and  Lyman  Wight,  having  volunteered 
their  services,  were  despatched  with  the  message.  Starting  from  Liberty  on 
Feb.  1,  1834,  on  horseback,  but  penniless,  on  a  journey  of  from  1,000  to  1,500 
miles,  through  a  country  but  partially  settled,  they  arrived  at  their  destina- 
tion early  in  the  spring  with  plenty  of  money  received  from  friends  along  their 
route.  Pratt's  Autobiog.,  114-16;  Utah  Pioneers,  33d  Aniversary,  17;  Home's 
Migrations,  MS.,  3;  Young's  Woman's  Experiences,  MS.,  2. 

^  'From  threats,  public  meetings  were  called,  resolutions  were  passed,  ven- 
geance and  destruction  were  threatened,  and  affairs  again  assumed  a  fearful 
attitude.'  Cor.  Joseph  Smith,  etc.,  5.  See  also  Greene's  Facts,  12.  *  A  meet- 
ing of  the  citizens  was  held  at  Liberty  on  the  29th  of  June,  1836,  in  which 
these  matters  were  taken  into  consideration.  The  Mormons  were  reminded 
of  the  circumstances  under  which  they  were  received,  and  requested  to  leave, 
time  being  given  them  to  harvest  their  crops  and  dispose  of  their  property. 
Fortunately  for  all  concerned,  the  saints. .  .agreed  to  leave  on  the  terms  pro- 

Eosed,  denying  strenuously  that  they  had  ever  tampered  with  the  slaves,  or 
ad  any  idea  of  exciting  an  Indian  war.'  Ferris''  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  82-3. 
These  officers  'all  very  readily  received  their  commissions  from  their  ac- 
complice. Gov.  Boggs;  and  thus  corruption,  rebellion,  and  conspiracy  had 
epread  on  every  side,  being  fostered  and  encouraged  by  a  large  majority  of 
the  state;  and  thus  treason  became  general.'  Pratt's  Persecution,  65-6. 


any  reports  of  misconduct,  however  exaggerated,  would, 
if  possible,  be  accepted  as  reliable.  Such  reports  wero 
accordingly  circulated,  and  without  much  regard  to 
truth.  Right  or  wrong,  law  or  no  law,  and  whether 
in  accord  with  the  letter  or  spirit  of  the  constitution 
or  government  of  the  United  States  or  not,  the  peo- 
ple of  Missouri  had  determined  that  they  would  go 
any  length  before  they  would  allow  the  saints  to 
obtain  political  ascendency  in  that  quarter.  It  was 
well  understood  that  war  on  the  Mormons,  war  on 
their  civil,  political,  and  religious  rights,  nay,  on  their 
presence  as  members  of  the  commonwealth,  or  if  need 
be  on  their  lives,  was  part  of  the  policy  of  the  admin- 

Thereupon  the  Mormons  petitioned  the  legislature 
to  assign  them  a  place  of  residence,  and  the  thinly 
populated  region  afterward  known  as  Caldwell  county 
was  designated.  Moving  there,  they  bought  the  claims 
of  most  of  the  inhabitants,  and  entered  several  sections 
of  government  lands.  Almost  every  member  of  the 
society  thus  became  a  landholder,  some  having  eighty 
acres,  and  some  forty.  A  town  was  laid  out,  called 
Far  West,  which  was  made  the  county  seat;  they  were 
allowed  to  organize  the  government  of  the  county,  and 
to  appoint  from  among  their  own  people  the  officers.* 
Again  they  found  peace  for  a  season,  during  which 
their  numbers  increased,  while  settlements  were  made 
in  Daviess  county  and  elsewhere.^^  Those  in  Daviess 
county  were  on  terms  of  amity  with  their  gentile  neigh- 
bors. Wiorht  was  there,  and  when  Smith  and  Riofdon 
arrived  from  the  east  they  laid  out  a  town  named  Diah- 
man,"  which  soon  rivalled  Gallatin,  and  gradually  the 

^John  Hyde,  Mormonism,  203,  says  that  on  their  arrival  in  Missouri, 
Smith  and  Rigdon  began  *  to  scatter  the  saints  in  order  to  obtain  political 
ascendency  in  other  counties. ' 

^''Of  the  officers  then  appointed,  two  of  the  judges,  thirteen  magistrates, 
all  the  military  officers,  and  the  county  clerk  were  Mormons.  '  These  steps 
were  taken,  be  it  carefully  observed,  by  the  advice  of  the  state  legislature, 
and  the  officers  were  appointed  in  the  manner  directed  by  law.'  Greene's 
Facts,  IS.  The  gentiles  murmur  because  of  their  being  under  Mormon  rule. 
Hyde's  Mormonism,  203. 

"  *  Smith  gave  it  the  name  of  Adamondiamon,  which  he  said  was  formerly 


people  of  Daviess,  like  the  rest,  began  to  war  upon 
the  Mormons. ^^ 

To  add  to  the  ever-thickening  troubles  of  the 
prophet,  a  schism  broke  out  in  the  church  about  this 
time,  and  there  were  apostates  and  deserters,  some 
because  of  disappointed  ambition,  and  some  from  shame 
of  what  they  now  regarded  as  a  delusion,  but  all  carry- 
ing away  with  them  vindictive  feelings  toward  their 
former  associates,  whom  they  did  not  hesitate  to  de- 
nounce as  liars,  thieves,  counterfeiters,  and  everything 
that  is  vile.  Among  these  were  Joseph's  old  friends 
Martin  Harris,  Oliver  Cowdery,  and  David  Whitmer, 
the  three  witnesses  to  the  book  of  Mormon;  Orson 
Hyde,  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  and  W.  W.  Phelps  also 

fiven  to  a  certain  valley  where  Adam,  previous  to  his  death,  called  his  chil- 
ren  together  and  blessed  them. '  CorrilVs  Bripf  History,  in  Kidder^s  Mormon- 
ism,  131.  'The  earth  was  divided,' says  Mr  Richards,  'all  the  land  being 
together  and  all  the  water.  Adam  dwelt  there  with  his  people  for  some  time 
previous  to  his  death.  Adam  constructed  an  altar  there,  and  it  was  there 
that  he  bestowed  his  final  blessings  upon  his  descendants. '  The  place  was 
also  called  Adam-On-Diahman,  Adara-on-di-ahman,  and  again  Diahman.  The 
second  of  these  names  appears  to  have  been  the  one  in  use  among  the  saints. 
After  the  foundations  of  the  temple  at  Far  West  were  relaid,  between  mid- 
night of  the  25th  and  dawn  of  the  26th  of  April,  1839,  the  quorum  sang  the 
song  which  they  called  Adam-on-di-ahman.  Tullidge's  Life  of  Brigham 

^^  They  were  afraid  the  Mormons  would  'rule  the  county,  and  they  did 
not  like  to  live  under  the  laws  and  administration  of  Jo  Smith.'  Ibid. 

^^The  first  three  were  themselves  accused  of  counterfeiting  coin,  and  de- 
faming Smith's  character;  and  others  charged  Smith  with  'being  accessory  to 
several  murders  and  many  thefts,  and  of  designing  to  rule  that  part  of  the 
state  of  Missouri,  and  eventually  the  whole  republic'  Hyde's  Mormonism, 
204;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  86.  'At  Independence,  Rigdon  publicly 
charged  Oliver  Cowdery  and  David  Whitmer  with  being  connected  with  a 
gang  of  counterfeiters,  etc.  Cowdery  was  aftervi-ard  arraigned  before  the 
church,  and  found  guilty  of  "disgracing  the  church  by  being  connected  with 
the  bogus  business,  as  common  report  says.'"  Tucker's  Origin  and  Prog. 
Mor.,  158-9.  ' Brother  Turley  could  not  be  surpassed  at  "bogiis."'  A  press 
was  prepared,  and  the  money,  composed  of  zinc,  glass,  etc.,  coated  with  sil- 
ver, was  executed  in  the  best  style.  Imitations  both  of  gold  and  silver  were 
in  general  circulation  and  very  difficult  to  detect.  In  fact,  for  a  time,  scarcely 
any  other  circulating  medium  was  to  be  found  among  them.'  When  leaving 
Illinois  for  Council  Bluffs,  Hall  carried  in  his  wagon  for  some  distance  on  the 
way  a  bogus  press,  which  was  afterwards  sold  on  credit  in  Missouri,  but  the 
seller  never  got  his  money,  being  afraid  to  go  for  it.  llaIVs  Mor.,  20-1. 
Hall,  who  was  a  Mormon  from  1840  to  1847,  mentions  this  counterfeiting  in 
connection  with  the  Kirtland  bank  swindle,  but  does  not  state  when  the  work 
was  begun.  It  may  have  originated  in  Kirtland,  but  probably  was  not  car- 
ried on  to  any  great  extent  before  the  migration  to  Illinois.  Tliese  rambling 
»nd  general  charges  should  be  received  with  every  allowance.     '  From  some 


At  Far  West  on  the  4th  of  July,  1838,  assemble 
from  the  surrounding  districts  thousands  of  the  saints, 
to  lay  the  corner-stone  of  a  temple  of  God,  and  to  de- 
clare their  riorhts  as  citizens  of  the  commonwealth  to 
safety  and  protection,  as  promised  by  the  constitution. 
They  are  hated  and  despised,  though  they  break  not 
the  laws  of  God;  they  are  hunted  down  and  killed, 
though  they  break  not  the  laws  of  the  land.  To 
others  their  faith  is  odious,  their  words  are  odious, 
their  persons  and  their  actions  are  altogether  detest- 
able. They  are  not  idlers,  or  drunkards,  or  thieves, 
or  murderers;  they  are  diligent  in  business  as  well 
as  fervent  in  spirit,  yet  they  are  devils;  they  worship 
what  they  choose  and  in  their  own  way,  like  the  dis- 
senters in  Germany,  the  quakers  in  Pennsylvania,  and 
the  pilgrims  from  England,  yet  their  spiritual  father  is 
Satan.  And  now,  though  thus  marked  for  painful 
oppression  by  their  fellow-citizens,  they  come  together 
on  the  birthday  of  the  nation  to  raise  the  banner  of 
tbe  nation,  and  under  it  to  declare  their  solemn  pre- 
rogative to  the  enjoyment  of  life,  liberty,  and  the 
pursuit  of  happiness,  to  the  maintainance  of  which 
they  stand  ready  to  pledge  their  lives,  their  fortunes, 
and  their  sacred  honor.  This  they  do.  They  raise 
the  pole  of  liberty;  they  unfold  the  banner  of  liberty; 
they  register  their  vows.  Is  it  all  in  irony?  Is  it  all 
a  mockery?  Or  is  it  the  displeasure  of  omnipotence, 
which  is  now  displayed  because  of  the  rank  injustice 
wrought  by  the  sons  of  belial  under  this  sacred  em- 
blem? God  knoweth.  We  know  only  that  out  of 
heaven  comes  fire,  blasting  the  offering  of  the  saints  !^* 

distant  bank,'  continued  Hall,  'they  wonld  buy  quantities  of  its  unsigned 
bank  notes,  which  they  took  home,  and  after  having  them  signed  by  com- 
petent artists,  placed  in  circulation.  In  procuring  these  bills,  no  persons  met. 
The  package  would  be  left  by  a  window  of  the  bank,  with  a  pane  out,  and 
the  package  taken  and  its  price  left  by  the  purchaser. ' 

^**Inaday  or  two  after  these  transactions,  the  thunder  rolled  in  awful 
majesty  over  the  city  «.f  Far  West,  and  the  arrows  of  lightning  fell  from  the 
clouds,  and  shivered  the  liberty  pole  from  top  to  bottom;  thus  manifesting  to 
many  that  there  was  an  end  to  liberty  and  law  in  that  state,  and  that  our 
little  city  strove  in  vain  to  maintain  the  liberties  of  a  country  which  was  ruled 
by  wickedness  and  rebellion.'   Pratt's  Persecution,  57. 


Sidney  Rigdon  delivered  the  oration  on  this  occa- 
sion; and  being  an  American  citizen,  and  one  of  the 
founders  of  an  American  rehgion,  it  was  perhaps  nat- 
ural for  him  to  indulge  in  a  little  Fourth-of-July  ora- 
tory; it  was  natural,  but  under  the  circumstances  it 
was  exceedingly  impolitic.  *^We  take  God  to  wit- 
ness," cries  Sidney,  *'  and  the  holy  angels  to  witness 
this  day,  that  we  warn  all  men,  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ,  to  come  on  us  ho  more  forever.  The  man  or 
the  set  of  men  who  attempt  it,  do  it  at  the  expense  of 
their  lives ;  and  that  mob  that  comes  on  us  to  disturb 
us,  there  shall  be  between  us  and  them  a  war  of  ex- 
termination, for  we  will  follow  them  till  the  last  drop 
of  their  blood  is  spilled,  or  else  they  will  have  to  exter- 
minate us;  for  we  will  carry  the  war  to  their  own 
houses,  and  their  own  families,  and  one  party  or  the 
other  shall  be  utterly  destroyed." 

On  the  8th  of  July  there  was  a  revelation  on  tithing. 
Early  in  August  a  conference  was  held  at  Diahman, 
and  a  military  company,  called  the  Host  of  Israel, 
was  organized  after  the  manner  of  the  priesthood,  in- 
cluding all  males  of  eighteen  years  and  over.  There 
were  captains  of  ten,  of  fifty,  and  of  a  hundred;  the 
organization  included  the  entire  military  force  of  the 
church,  as  had  the  Kirtland  army  previously  a  part 

At  length  the  storm  burst.  The  state  election  of 
1838  was  held  in  Daviess  county  at  the  town  of  Gal- 
latin on  the  6th  of  August.  Soon  after  the  polls 
were  opened,  William  Peniston,  candidate  for  the  leg- 
islature, mounted  a  barrel  and  began  to  speak,  attack- 
ing the  Mormons  with  degrading  epithets,  calling 
them  horse-thieves  and  robbers,  and  swearing  they 
should  not  vote  in  that  county.  Samuel  Brown,  a 
Mormon,  who  stood  by,  pronounced  the  charges  un- 
true, and  said  that  for  one  he  should  vote.  Im- 
mediately Brown  was  struck  by  one  Weldin,  whose 
arm,  in  attempting  to  repeat  the  blow,  was  caught  by 

1*  'Every  man  obeyed  the  call.'  Lee's  Mormonism,  57. 



another  Mormon,  named  Durfee.  Thereupon  eight 
or  ten  men,  with  clubs  and  stones,  fell  upon  Durfee, 
whose  friends  rallied  to  his  assistance,  and  the  fight 
became  general,  but  with  indecisive  results.  The 
Mormons  voted,  however,  and  the  rest  of  the  day 
passed  quietly. 

The  War  in  Missoubi. 

On  the  next  day  two  or  three  of  Peniston's  party, 
in  order  it  was  said  to  stir  up  the  saints  to  violence, 
rode  over  to  Far  West,  one  after   another,  and  re- 


ported  a  battle  as  having  been  fought  at  Gallatin,  in 
which  several  of  the  fraternity  were  killed.  Consider- 
able excitement  followed  the  announcement,  and  sev- 
eral parties  went  to  Diahman  to  learn  the  truth  of 
the  matter.  Ascertaining  the  facts,  and  being  desir- 
ous of  preventing  further  trouble,  one  of  the  brethren 
went  to  the  magistrate,  Adam  Black,  and  proposed 
bonds  on  both  sides  to  keep  the  peace.  The  proposition 
was  accepted,  Joseph  Smith  and  Lyman  Wight  sign- 
ing for  the  Mormons,  and  Black  for  the  gentiles. 
The  Mormons  then  returned  to  Far  West;  but  the 
people  of  Daviess  county,  not  approving  the  ac- 
tion of  the  magistrate,  disputed  Black's  right  to  bind 
them;  whereupon,  to  appease  them.  Black  went  to 
the  circuit  judge  and  obtained  a  writ  for  the  arrest 
of  Smith  and  Wight  on  a  charge  of  having  forced  him, 
by  threats  of  violence,  to  sign  the  agreem  en  t.  Brought 
before  Judge  King  at  Gallatin,  Smith  and  Wight 
were  released  on  their  own  recognizances. 

Nevertheless  the  excitement  increased.  In  Daviess 
and  adjacent  counties,  three  hundred  gentiles  met  and 
armed.  The  Mormons  say  that  the  gentiles  made 
prisoners,  and  shot  and  stole  cattle,  and  the  gentiles 
say  that  the  Mormons  did  the  same.^^  Finally  affairs 
became  so  alarming  that  Major-General  Atchison  con- 
cluded to  call  out  the  militia  of  Ray  and  Clay  coun- 
ties, under  command  of  generals  Doniphan  and  Parks, 
the  latter  being  stationed  in  Daviess  county.^"  Their 
purposes  in  that  quarter  being  thus  defeated,  the  men 
of  Missouri  threw  themselves  on  a  small  settlement  of 
saints  at  Dewitt,  where  they  were  joined  by  a  party 
with  a  six-pounder  from  Jackson  county.     Setting  fire 

^''In  Daviess  county  the  saints  killed  between  100  and  200  hogs  and  a 
number  of  cattle,  took  at  least  forty  or  fifty  stands  of  honey,  and  at  the  same 
time  destroyed  several  fields  of  com.  The  word  was  out  that  the  Lord  had 
consecrated  through  the  bishop  the  spoils  unto  his  host.  Harris^  Mormonism 
Portrayed,  30-1. 

*^'One  thousand  men  were  then  ordered  into  service  under  the  command 
of  Major-General  Atchison  and  brigadier-generals  Parks  and  Doniphan. 
These  marched  to  Daviess  co.,  and  remained  in  service  thirty  days.  But 
judging  from  the  result,  they  had  no  intention  of  coming  in  contact  with  the 
mob,  but  only  to  make  a  show  of  defending  one  neighborhood  while  the  mob 
was  allowed  to  attack  another.'  Pratt's  Autobiography,  191. 


to  the  houses,  they  drove  off  the  inmates  and  destroyed 
their  property.  General  Parks  then  moved  his  troops 
to  Dewitt,  but  found  the  mob  too  many  for  him.  They 
openly  defied  him,  would  make  no  compromise,  and 
swore  *'they  would  drive  the  Mormons  from  Daviess 
to  Caldwell,  and  from  Caldwell  to  hell."  General 
Atchison  then  went  to  Dewitt  and  told  the  Mormons 
that  his  men  were  so  disaffected^^  that  they  had  better 
apply  for  protection  to  Governor  Boggs.  This  official 
returned  answer  that,  as  they  had  brought  the  war 
upon  themselves,  they  must  fight  their  own  battles, 
and  not  look  to  him  for  help.  Thereupon  they  aban- 
doned the  place,  and  fled  to  Far  West. 

In  order  to  intercept  the  mob  General  Doniphan 
entered  Daviess  county  with  two  hundred  men,  and 
thence  proceeded  to  Far  West,  where  he  camped  for 
the  night.  In  consultation  with  the  civil  and  military 
officers  of  the  place,  who,  though  Mormons,  were 
nevertheless  commissioned  by  the  state,  Doniphan 
advised  them  to  arm  and  march  to  Daviess  county 
and  defend  their  brethren  there.  Acting  on  this  ad- 
vice, all  armed,  some  going  to  Daviess  county  and 
some  remaining  at  Far  West.^^  The  former  were  met 
by  Parks,  who  inquired  of  them  all  particulars. 
Shortly  afterward  some  families  came  in  from  beyond 
Grand  River,  who  stated  that  they  had  been  driven 
away  and  their  houses  burned  by  a  party  under  C. 
Gilliam. ^^  Parks  then  ordered  Colonel  Wight,  who 
held  a  commission  under  him  as  commander  of  the 

1^*  At  length  the  general  (Atchison)  informed  the  citizens  that  his  forces 
were  so  small,  and  many  of  them  so  much  in  favor  of  the  insurrectionists, 
that  it  was  useless  to  look  any  longer  to  them  for  protection . . .  After  the 
evacuation  of  Dewitt,  when  our  citizens  were  officially  notified  that  they  must 
protect  themselves, . . .  they  assembled  in  Far  West  to  the  number  of  one 
thousand  men,  or  thereabout,  and  resolved  to  defend  their  rights  to  the  last.* 
Pratt'' s  Autobiography,  192-3. 

'"The  Mormons  in  Caldwell  were  the  regular  state  militia  for  that  county, 
and  were  at  the  time  acting  under  the  legal  authorities  of  the  county.'  Greene's 
Facts,  20. 

2^  'A  noted  company  of  banditti,  under  the  command  of  Cornelius  Gilliam, 
who  had  long  infested  our  borders  and  been  notorious  for  their  murders  and 
daring  robberies,  and  who  painted  themselves  as  Indian  warriors,  came 
pouring  in  from  the  west  to  strengthen  the  camp  of  the  enemy.'  Pratt's  Att- 
tohiography,  202. 


Mormon  militia,  to  disperse  the  party,  which  was 
done,  and  the  cannon  in  their  possession  seized,  with- 
out firing  a  shot.  Spreading  into  other  counties,  Gil- 
liam's men  raised  everywhere  the  cry  that  the  Mor- 
mons were  killing  people  and  burning  property. 

Soon  afterward  the  Mormon  militia  returned  from 
Daviess  county  to  Far  West,  where  they  learned  that  a 
large  force  under  Sanauel  Bogart,  a  methodist  clergy- 
man, was  plundering  and  burning  houses  south  of 
that  point,  in  Ray  county,  and  had  taken  three  men 
prisoners,  one  only  of  whom  was  a  Mormon.  Elias 
Higbee,  county  judge,  ordered  the  Mormon  militia 
under  Captain  Patten "^^  to  retake  the  prisoners.  In 
passing  through  a  wood  Patten  came  without  know- 
ing it  upon  the  encampment  of  Bogart,  whose  guard 
fired  without  warning,  killing  one  of  Patten's  men. 
Patten  then  attacked,  routing  Bogart's  force,  but  not 
preventing  the  shooting  of  the  Mormon  prisoner, 
though  he  afterward  recovered.  In  the  charge  one 
man  was  killed,  and  Patten  and  one  other  were  mor- 
tally wounded.    The  company  captured  forty  wagons.^^ 

About  this  time  arose  the  mysterious  and  much 
dreaded  band  that  finally  took  the  name  of  Danites, 
or  sons  of  Dan,  concerning  which  so  much  has  been 
said  while  so  little  is  known,  some  of  the  Mormons 
even  denying  its  existence.  But  of  this  there  is  no 
question.  Says  Burton:  "The  Danite  band,  a  name 
of  fear  in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  is  said  by  anti- 
Mormons  to  consist  of  men  between  the  ages  of  sev- 
enteen and  forty-nine.  They  were  originally  termed 
Daughters  of  Gideon,  Destroying  Angels — the  gentiles 
say  devils — and,  finally.  Sons  of  Dan,  or  Danites,  from 
one  of  whom  was  prophesied  he  should  be  a  serpent  in 
the  path.     They  were  organized  about  1837  under  D. 

2^  Pratt,  Persecution,  68,  says  that  the  detachment  was  under  the  com- 
mand of  Captain  Durphey,  aided  by  Patten. 

"^'^ '  The  enemy  had  left  their  horses,  saddles,  camp,  and  baggage  in  the  con- 
fusion of  their  flight,  which  fell  into  our  hands. '  Pratfn  Persecution,  72.  '  We 
delivered  the  horses  and  spoils  of  the  enemy  to  Col.  Hincide,  the  command- 
ing officer  of  the  regiment.'  Id.,  74. 


W.  Patten,  popularly  called  Captain  Fearnot,  for  the 
purpose  of  dealing  as  avengers  of  blood  with  gentiles; 
in  fact,  they  formed  a  kind  of  death  society,  despera- 
does, thugs,  hashshashiyun — in  plain  English,  assas- 
sins in  the  name  of  the  Lord.  The  Mormons  declare 
categorically  the  whole  and  every  particular  to  be  the 
calumnious  invention  of  the  impostor  and  arch  apos- 
tate, Mr  John  C.  Bennett."^ 

John  Hyde,  a  seceder,  states  that  the  Danite  band, 
or  the  United  Brothers  of  Gideon,  was  organized  on 
the  4th  of  July,  1838,  and  w^as  placed  under  the  com- 
mand of  the  apostle  David  Patten,  w^ho  for  the  pur- 
pose assumed  the  name  of  Captain  Fearnot.^* 

^'^  John  Corrill  says  that  some  time  in  June  a  secret  society  was  formed  of 
a  few  individuals  who  should  be  agreed  in  all  things,  and  stand  by  each  other, 
right  or  wrong,  under  all  circumstances.  Next  to  God  was  the  first  presi- 
dency; and  they  bound  themselves  by  the  most  solemn  covenants  before  the 
almighty  that  the  presidency  should  be  obeyed.  'Who  started  this  society 
I  know  not,'  writes  Corrill;  'but  Doctor  Samson  Arvard  was  the  most  promi- 
nent leader  and  instructor,  and  was  assisted  by  others.  The  first  presidency 
did  not  seem  to  have  much  to  do  with  it, .  ,  .but  I  thought  they  stood  as  wire- 
workers  behind  the  curtain.'  'Arvard  was  very  forward  and  indefatigable  in 
accomplishing  their  purposes,  for  he  devoted  his  whole  talents  to  it,  and  spared 
no  pains;  and,  I  thought,  was  as  grand  a  villain  as  his  wit  and  ability  would  ad- 
mit of . .  .  They  ran  into  awful  extremes, '  seeming  to  think  that  they  were  called 
upon  to  execu  te  the  j  udgments  of  God  on  all  their  enemies.  '  Dr  Ai  vard  received 
orders  from  Smith,  Rigdon,  and  company  to  destroy  the  paper  containing  the 
constitution  of  the  Danite  society,  as,  if  it  should  be  discovered,  it  would  be 
considered  treasonable.  He  did  not,  however,  obey  the  orders,  but  after  he 
was  made  prisoner  he  handed  it  to  General  Clark.'  Kidder^s  Mormonism,  143. 
The  constitution  is  published  in  Bennett's  Mormonism  Exposed,  265.  'The 
oath  by  which  the  Danites  were  bound  in  Missouri  was  altered  in  a  secret 
council  of  the  inquisition  at  Nauvoo  so  as  to  read:  "In  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ,  the  Son  of  God,  I  do  solemnly  obligate  myself  ever  to  regard  the 
prophet  and  first  presidency  of  the  church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-Day 
Saints,  as  the  supreme  head  of  the  church  on  earth,  and  to  obey  them  in  all 
things  the  same  as  the  supreme  God;  that  I  will  stand  by  my  brethren  in 
danger  or  difficulty,  and  will  uphold  the  presidency,  right  or  wrong;  and  that 
I  will  ever  conceal,  and  never  reveal,  the  secret  purposes  of  this  society, 
called  the  Daughter  of  Zion.  Should  I  ever  do  the  same,  I  hold  my  life  as 
the  forfeiture,  in  a  caldron  of  boiling  oil.'"  Id.,  267.  The  origin  of  the  name 
Daughter  of  Zion  may  be  found  in  Micah  iv.  13. 

"^^  Hyde's  Mormonism,  104.  In  Id.,  104-5,  Hyde  writes  as  follows:  'When 
the  citizens  of  Carroll  and  Daviess  counties,  Mo. ,  began  to  threaten  the  Mormons 
with  expulsion  in  1S38,  a  death  society  was  organized  under  the  direction  of 
Sidney  Kigdon,  and  with  the  sanction  of  Smith.  Its  first  captain  was  Captain 
Feamot,  alias  David  Patten,  an  apostle.  Its  object  was  the  punishment  of  the 
obnoxious.  Some  time  elapsed  before  finding  a  suitable  name.  They  desired 
one  that  should  seem  to  combine  spiritual  authority  with  a  suitable  sound. 
Micah  iv.  1 3,  furnished  the  first  name.  '  'Arise  and  thresh,  O  daughter  of  Zion ! 
for  1  will  make  thy  horn  iron,  and  thy  hoofs  brass;  and  thou  shall  beat  in 
pieces  many  people;  and  I  will  consecrate  their  gain  unto  the  Lord,  and 
their  substance  unto  the  Lord  of  the  whole  earth."    This  furnished  them  with 


It  is  the  opinion  of  some  that  the  Danite  band,  or 
Destroying  Angels  as  again  they  are  called,  was  or- 
ganized at  the  recommendation  of  the  governor  of  Mis- 
souri as  a  means  of  self-defence  against  persecutions 
in  that  state.^^  Thomas  B.  Marsh,  late  president  of 
the  twelve  apostles,  and  president  of  the  church  at 
Far  West,  but  now  a  dissenter,  having  ^'abandoned 
the  faith  of  the  Mormons  from  a  conviction  of  their 
immorality  and  impiety,"  testifies  that  in  October, 
1838,  they  "had  a  meeting  at  Far  West,  at  which  they 
appointed  a  company  of  twelve,  by  the  name  of  the 
Destruction  Company,  for  the  purpose  of  burning  and 
destroying.  "^^ 

The  apostate  Bennett  gives  a  number  of  names  by 
which  the  same  society,  or  divisions  of  it,  were  known, 
such  as  Daughter  of  Zion,  Big  Fan,^^  **  inasmuch  as  it 
fanned  out  the  chaff  from  the  wheat,"  Brother  of 
Gideon,  Destructive,  Flying  Angel.  The  explana- 
tion of  Joseph,  the  prophet,  was  that  one  Doctor 
Sampson  Arvard,  who  after  being  a  short  time  in  the 
church,  in  order  to  add  to  his  importance  and  influence 
secretly  initiated  the  order  of  Danites,  and  held  meet- 

a  pretext;  it  accurately  described  their  intentions,  and  they  called  themselves 
the  Daughters  of  Zion.  Some  ridicule  was  made  at  these  bearded  and  bloody 
daughters,  and  the  name  did  not  sit  easily.  Destroying  Angels  came  next; 
the  Big  Fan  of  the  thresher  that  should  thoroughly  purge  the  floor  was  tried 
and  dropped.  Genesis,  xlix.  17,  furnished  the  name  that  they  finally  assumed. 
The  verse  is  quite  significant:  "  Dan  shall  be  a  serpent  by  the  way,  an  adder  in 
the  path,  that  biteth  the  horse's  heels,  so  that  his  rider  shall  fall  backward." 
The  sons  of  Dan  was  the  style  they  adopted;  and  many  have  been  the  times 
that  they  have  been  adders  in  the  path,  and  many  a  man  has  fallen  backward, 
and  has  been  seen  no  more.' 

25  See  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  108. 

2^  '  The  members  of  this  order  were  placed  under  the  most  sacred  obliga- 
tions that  language  could  invent. .  .to  stand  by  each  other  unto  death, . .  .to 
sustain,  protect,  defend,  and  obey  the  leaders  of  the  church  under  any  and 
all  circumstances  unto  death.'  To  divulge  a  Danite  secret  was  death.  There 
were  signs  and  tokens,  the  refusal  to  respect  which  was  death.  'This  sign 
or  token  of  distress  is  made  by  placing  the  right  hand  on  the  right  side  of  the 
face,  with  the  points  of  the  fingers  upwards,  shoving  the  hand  upwards  until 
the  ear  is  snug  up  between  the  thumb  and  forefinger.'  Lee^s  Mormonism,  57-8. 

^'  'The  society  was  instituted  for  the  purpose  of  driving  out  from  the 
holy  land,  their  earthly  paradise,  in  Missouri,  all  apostates  or  dissenters . . . 
They  make  no  scruple  whatever  to  commit  perjury,  when  deemed  requisite 
for  the  welfare  of  their  church. .  .The  number  of  Danites  is  now,  1842,  about 
2,000  or  2,500.  From  the  elite  of  the  Danites,  or  Daughters  of  Zion,  twelve 
men  are  selected,  who  are  called  Destructives,  or  Destroying  Angels,  or  Fly- 
ing Angels.*  Mormonism  Exposed,  265-9. 


ings  organizing  his  men  into  companies  of  tens  and 
fifties,  with  captains.  Then  he  called  the  officers 
together  and  told  them  that  they  were  to  go  forth 
and  spoil  the  gentiles;  but  they  rejected  the  proposal, 
and  Arvard  was  cut  off  from  the  church.  All  the 
present  leaders  of  the  Mormon  church  deny  emphat- 
ically the  existence  of  any  such  band  or  society  as  a 
part  of  or  having  anything  to  do  with  their  organiza- 

^^ 'It  was  intended  to  enable  him,' Smith,  *more  effectually  to  execute 
his  clandestine  purposes.'  "'Milking  the  gentiles"  is  a  kind  of  veraacular 
term  of  the  Mormons,  and  signifies  the  obtaining  of  money  or  property  from 
those  who  are  not  members  of  the  Mormon  church.'  Id.,  272-8.  'In  an  ex- 
amination before  Judge  King,  Samuel  (Samson?)  Arvard  testified  that  the 
first  object  of  the  Danit«  band  was  to  drive  from  the  county  of  Caldwell  all 
those  who  dissented  from  the  Mormon  church,  in  which  they  succeeded  admir- 
ably . . .  The  prophet  Joseph  Smith,  Jr,  together  with  his  two  counsellors  Hyrum 
Smith  and  Sidney  Rigdon,  were  considered  the  supreme  head  of  the  church, 
and  the  Danite  band  felt  themselves  as  much  bound  to  obey  them  as  to  obey 
the  supreme  God.'  John  Corrill  swore:  'I  think  the  original  object  of  the 
Danite  band  was  to  operate  on  the  dissenters;  but  afterwards  it  grew  into  a 
system  to  carry  out  the  designs  of  the  presidency,  and  if  it  was  neces- 
sary, to  use  physical  force  to  uphold  the  kingdom  of  God.'  John  Cleminson 
said:  'Whoever  opposed  the  presidency  in  what  they  said  or  desired  done 
should  be  expelled  the  county  or  have  their  lives  taken. '  Wm  W.  Phelps, 
for  a  season  an  apostate,  testified:  'If  any  person  spoke  against  the  presi- 
dency they  would  hand  him  over  to  the  hands  of  the  Brothers  of  Gideon.' 
'The  object  of  the  meeting  seemed  to  be  to  make  persons  confess  and  repent 
of  their  sins  to  God  and  the  presidency.'  *  Wight  asked  Smith,  Jr,  twice  if 
it  had  come  to  the  point  now  to  resist  the  laws.  Smith  replied  the  time  had 
come  when  he  should  resist  all  law.'  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  92-3. 
Arvard  'swore  false  concerning  a  constitution,  as  he  said,  that  was  introduced 
among  the  Danites,  and  made  many  other  lying  statements  in  connection 
therewith.'  Mem.  to  Leg.,  in  Greene's  Facts,  32-3.  Says  John  Corrill  in  his 
Brief  History,  'A  company,  called  the  Fur  Company,  was  raised  for  the  pur- 
pose of  procuring  provisions,  for  pressing  teams,  and  even  men  sometimes, 
into  the  army  in  Caldwell.'  Reed  Peck  testified  that  small  companies  were 
sent  out  on  various  plundering  expeditions;  that  he  'saw  one  of  these  com- 
panies on  its  return.  It  was  called  a  fur  company.  Some  had  one  thing, 
some  another;  one  had  a  feather-bed;  another  some  spun  yam,  etc.  This  fur 
they  were  to  take  to  the  bishop's  store,  where  it  was  to  be  deposited,  and  if 
they  failed  to  do  this  it  would  be  considered  stealing.'  Kidder's  Mormonism., 
147-8.  Affidavit  of  the  city  council,  Nauvoo:  'We  do  further  testify  that 
there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  Danite  society  in  this  city,  nor  any  combination 
other  than  the  Masonic  of  which  we  have  any  knowledge.'  Signed  by  Wil- 
son Law,  John  Taylor,  Wilford  Woodruff,  and  10  others.  Millennial  Star,  xix. 
614.  References  to  authorities  speaking  of  the  Danites:  Machay's  The  Mor- 
mons, 89-90,  116;  Lee's  Mormonism,  57-8,  156-60;  Olshausen,  Gesch.  d.  Morm., 
48;  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  89;  Beadle's  Life  in  Utah,  389-90;  Burton's 
City  of  the  Saints,  359;  Smucker'a  Hist.  Mor.,  108-9;  Young's  Wife  No.  19, 
47-8,  268;  Busch,  Gesch.  der  Morm.,  87;  MarsJiall's  Through  Am.,  215-16; 
J{yde's  Mormonism,  104-5;  Bennett's  Mormonism  Exposed,  263-72;  Miller's 
First  Families,  64-5;  Hickman's  Brigham's  Destroying  Angel;  Hall's  Mormon- 
ism, 94-5;  E.  M.  Webb,  in  Utah  County  Sketches,  MS.,  49-50,  the  last  named 
referring  to  the  rules  and  principles  of  the  order  of  Enoch. 


Meanwhile  was  being  matured  the  bloody  tragedy 
which  occurred  on  the  30th  of  October  near  Haun's^^ 
mill,  on  Shoal  creek,  about  twenty  miles  below  Far 
West.  Besides  the  Mormons  living  there,  were  a  num- 
ber of  emigrants  awaiting  the  cessation  of  hostilities 
before  proceeding  on  their  journey.  It  had  been 
agreed  between  the  Mormons  and  Missourians  of  that 
locality  that  they  would  not  molest  each  other,  but 
live  together  in  peace.  But  the  men  of  Caldwell  and 
Daviess  counties  would  not  have  it  so.  Suddenly 
and  without  warning,  on  the  day  above  mentioned, 
mounted  and  to  the  number  of  two  hundred  and  fortv, 
they  fell  upon  the  fated  settlement.  While  the  men 
were  at  their  work  out  of  doors,  the  women  in  the 
house,  and  the  children  playing  about  the  yards,  the 
crack  of  a  hundred  rifles  was  heard,  and  before  the 
firing  ceased,  eighteen  of  these  unoffending  people 
were  stretched  dead  upon  the  ground,  while  many 
more  were  wounded.  I  will  not  enter  upon  the  sick- 
ening details,  which  are  copious  and  fully  proven; 
suffice  it  to  say,  that  never  in  savage  or  other  war- 
fare was  there  perpetrated  an  act  more  dastardly  and 
brutal.^^  Indeed,  it  was  openly  avowed  by  the  men 
of  Missouri  that  it  was  no  worse  to  shoot  a  Mormon 
than  to  shoot  an  Indian,  and  killing  Indians  was  no 
worse  than  killing  wild  beasts. 

A  somewhat  singular  turn  affairs  take  at  this  junc- 
ture. It  appears  that  Boggs,  governor,  and  sworn 
enemy  of  the  saints,  does  not  like  the  way  the  war  is 
going  on.  Here  are  his  own  soldiers  fighting  his  own 
voters,  the  state  forces  killing  the  men  who  have  put 

"^^  Spelled  also  Hahn,  Hohn,  Hawn. 

^° '  Immediately  after  this,  there  came  into  the  city  a  messenger  from 
Haun's  mill,  bringing  the  intelligence  of  an  awful  massacre  of  the  people 
who  were  residing  in  that  place,  and  that  a  force  of  two  or  three  hundred, 
detached  from  the  main  body  of  the  army,  under  the  superior  command  of 
Col.  Ashley,  but  under  the  immediate  command  of  Capt.  Nehemiah  Compstock, 
who,  the  day  previous,  had  promised  them  peace  and  protection,  but  on  re- 
ceiving a  copy  of  the  governor's  order  to  exterminate  or  to  expel,  from  the 
hands  of  Col.  Ashley,  he  returned  upon  them  the  following  day,  and  surprised 
and  massacred  the  whole  population,  and  then  came  on  to  the  town  of  Far 
West,  and  entered  into  conjunction  with  the  main  body  of  the  army.' 
Mackay'a  The  Mormons^  88-9. 


him  in  office !  This  will  not  do.  There  is  bad  blun- 
dering somewhere.  It  is  the  Mormons  only  that  are 
to  be  killed  and  driven  off,  and  not  the  free  and  loyal 
American  Boggs  voters.  Ho,  there!  Let  the  state 
arms  be  turned  against  these  damned  saints  I  On 
what  pretext?  Any.  Say  that  they  are  robbing,  and 
burning,  and  killing  right  and  left,  and  that  they  swear 
they  will  never  stop  until  they  have  the  country. 
Easy  enough.  No  doubt  they  do  kill  and  burn; 
the  men  of  Missouri  are  killing  them  and  burning; 
why  should  they  not  retaliate?  No  doubt  there  are 
thieves  and  bad  men  among  them,  who  take  advan- 
tage of  the  time  to  practise  their  vile  calling.  No 
doubt  there  are  violent  men  among  them,  who  swear 
roundly  at  those  who  are  hunting  them  to  death,  who 
swear  that  they  will  drive  them  off  their  lands  and 
kill  them  if  they  can.  But  this  does  not  make  insur- 
rectionists and  traitors  of  the  whole  society.  No 
matter;  down  with  the  Mormons  I  And  so  Boggs,  the 
governor,  seats  himself  and  coolly  writes  off  to  his 
generals  to  drive  out  or  exterminate  the  vermin.^^ 

^^  Several  of  them  write  to  Boggs:  'There  is  no  crime,  from  treason  down 
to  petit  larceny,  but  these  people,  or  a  majority  of  them,  have  been  guilty  of; 
all,  too,  under  the  counsel  of  Joseph  Smith,  Jr,  the  prophet.  They  have  com- 
mitted treason,  murder,  arson,  burglary,  robbery,  larceny,  and  perjury. 
They  have  societies  formed  under  the  most  binding  covenants  in  form,  and 
the  most  horrid  oaths,  to  circumvent  the  laws  and  put  them  at  defiance;  and 
to  plunder  and  burn  and  murder,  and  divide  the  spoils  for  the  use  of  the 
church,'  Tucker^ s  Mormonism,  164. 

And  thus  Boggs  makes  answer,  Oct.  27th:  '  Since  the  order  of  the  morn- 
ing to  you  directing  you  to  cause  four  hundred  mounted  men  to  be  raised 
within  your  division,  I  have  received  by  Amos  Rees,  Esq.,  and  Wiley  E.  Will- 
iams, Esq. ,  one  of  my  aids,  information  of  the  most  appalling  character,  which 
changes  entirely  the  face  of  things,  and  places  the  Mormons  in  the  attitude  of 
an  open  and  avowed  defiance  of  the  laws,  and  of  having  made  open  war  upon 
the  people  of  this  state.  Your  orders  are  therefore  to  hasten  your  operations, 
and  endeavor  to  reach  Richmond  in  B^y  county,  with  all  possible  speed. 
The  Mormons  must  be  treated  as  enemies,  and  must  be  exterminated  or  driven 
from  the  state  if  necessary,  for  the  public  good.  Their  outrages  are  beyond 
all  description.  If  you  can  increase  your  force,  you  are  authorized  to  do  so 
to  any  extent  you  may  think  necessary.  I  have  just  issued  orders  to  Maj.- 
Gen.  WoUock  of  Marion  county  to  raise  500  men,  and  to  march  them  to  tne 
northern  part  of  Daviess,  and  there  unite  with  Gen.  Doniphan  of  Clay,  who 
has  been  ordered  with  500  men  to  proceed  to  the  same  point  for  the  purpose 
of  intercepting  the  retreat  of  the  Mormons  to  the  north.  They  have  been 
directed  to  communicate  with  you  by  express.  You  can  also  communicate 
with  them  if  you  find  it  necessary.  Instead,  therefore,  of  proceeding  as  at 
first  directed,  to  reinstate  the  citizens  of  Daviess  in  their  homes,  you  will  pro- 
Hisx.  Utah.    9 


Thus  it  appears  that  the  Missouri  state  militia,  called 
out  in  the  first  instance  to  assist  the  Mormon  state 
militia  in  quelling  a  Missouri  mob,  finally  joins  the  mob 
ao-ainst  the  Mormon  militia.  In  none  of  their  acts 
had  the  saints  placed  themselves  in  an  attitude  of  un- 
lawful opposition  to  the  state  authorities;  on  the  other 
hand,  they  were  doing  all  in  their  power  to  defend 
themselves  and  support  law  and  order,  save  in  the 
matter  of  retaliation. 

The  first  the  saints  of  Caldwell  county  know  of  the 
new  tactics  is  the  appearance,  within  half  a  mile  of 
Far  West/^  of  three  thousand  armed  men,  under  Gen- 
eral Lucas,  generals  Wilson  and  Doniphan  being  pres- 
ent, and  General  Clark  with  another  army  being  a  few 
days'  march  distant.  General  Lucas  states  that  the 
main  business  there  is  to  obtain  possession  of  three  in- 
dividuals, whom  he  names,  two  of  them  not  Mormons; 
and  for  the  rest  he  has  only  to  inform  the  saints  that 
it  is  his  painful  duty  either  wholly  to  drive  them  from 
the  state  or  to  exterminate  them.^^  Gilliam  and  his 
comrades,  who  as  disguised  Indians  and  white  men 
had  been  fighting  the  Mormons,  now  that  the  state  es- 
pouses their  cause,  join  Lucas.^*  General  Atchison 
was  at  Richmond,  in  Ray  county,  when  the  gover- 
nor's exterminating  order  was  issued.  "I  will  have 
nothing  to  do  with  so  infamous  a  proceeding,"  he  said, 
and  immediately  resigned. 

ceed  immediately  to  Richmond  and  there  operate  against  the  Mormons.  Brig.- 
Gen.  Parks  of  Ray  has  been  ordered  to  have  400  men  of  his  brigade  in  readi- 
ness to  join  you  at  Richmond.  The  whole  force  will  be  placed  under  your 

^^  'The  governor's  orders  and  these  military  movements  were  kept  an  entire 
secret  from  the  citizens  of  Caldwell  and  Daviess . . .  even  the  mail  was  with- 
held from  Far  West.'  Pratt's  Autobiography,  200. 

^^ '  This  letter  of  the  governor's  was  extremely  unguarded,  and  seems  to 
have  been  too  literally  construed. .  .Making  all  due  allowance  for  the  exas- 
perated state  of  the  public  mind,  these  threats  of  extermination  sound  a  lit- 
tle too  savage  in  Anglo-Saxon  ears. .  .But  they  were  impolitic,  because  they 
gave  plausibility  to  the  idea  that  the  saints  were  the  victims  of  a  cruel  and 
unrelenting  religious  persecution,  and  furnished  them  with  one  of  the  surest 
means  of  future  success.'  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  90-1. 

^*  'About  the  time  that  Lucas  came  out  to  Far  West,  Smith  assembled  the 
Mormon  troops,  and  said  that  for  every  one  they  lacked  in  number  of  those 
who  came  out  among  them,  the  Lord  would  send  angels,  who  would  fight  for 
them,  and  they  should  be  victorious.'  Kidder's  Mormonism,  143. 


The  day  following  his  arrival  General  Lucas  orders 
George  M.  Hinckle,  colonel  commanding  the  Mormon 
militia,  to  bring  before  him  Joseph  Smith,  junior, 
Hyrum  Smith,  Lyman  Wight,  Sidney  Kigdon,  Parley 
P.  Pratt,  Caleb  Baldwin,  and  Alexander  McPae^ 
which  is  done,  though  not  without  charge  of  fraud  and 
treachery  on  the  part  of  Hinckle.  A  court-martial 
is  immediately  held;  the  prisoners  are  all  condemned, 
and  sentenced  to  be  shot  next  morning  at  eight  o'clock. 
"In  the  name  of  humanity  I  protest  against  any 
such  cold-blooded  murder,"  says  General  Doniphan 
who  further  threatens  to  withdraw  his  men  if  such 
a  course  is  persisted  in;  whereupon  the  sentence  i? 
not  executed.  All  the  Mormon  troops  in  Far  West, 
however,  are  required  to  give  up  their  arms  and  con- 
sider themselves  prisoners  of  war.^  They  are  furthei 
required  to  execute  a  deed  of  trust  pledging  all 
Mormon  property  to  the  payment  of  the  entire  cos<i 
of  the  war,  and  to  give  a  promise  to  leave  the  state 
before  the  coming  spring. 

Thus  in  the  name  of  law  and  justice  the  Mormon 
soldiery,  whose  chief  crime  it  would  seem  was  that,  in 
common  with  the  rest  of  the  militia,  they  had  assisted 

'^  They  were  *  confined  to  the  limits  of  the  town  for  about  a  week.'  During 
this  time  much  property  was  destroyed,  and  women  abused.  The  number  of 
arms  taken  was  630,  besides  swords  and  pistols,  worth  between  ^12,000  and 
$15,000.  Mem.  to  Leg.^  in  Greene's  Facts,  15.  'General  Lucas  demanded  the 
Caldwell  militia  to  give  up  their  arms,  which  was  done  to  the  number  of  up- 
ward of  500,  the  rest  of  the  troops  having  fled  during  the  night.  After  the 
troops  had  surrendered,  the  city  of  Far  West  was  surrounded  by  the  robbers, 
and  all  the  men  detained  as  prisoners,  none  being  permitted  to  pass  out  ol 
the  city,  although  their  families  were  starving  for  want  of  sustenance.' 
Pratfs  Persecution,  84.  *We  detennined  not  to  resist  anything  in  the  shape 
of  authority,  however  tyrannical  or  unconstitutional  might  be  the  proceed- 
ings against  us.  With  this  request  (to  surrender  ourselves  as  prisoners),  we 
readily  complied  as  soon  as  we  were  assured  by  the  pledge  of  the  honor  of 
the  principal  officers  that  our  lives  should  be  safe. .  .We  were  marched  into 
camp,  surrounded  by  thousands  of  savage-looking  beings,  m&jiy  of  whom 
were  painted  like  Indian  warriors.  These  all  set  up  a  constant  yell,  like  so 
many  blood-hounds  let  loose  on  their  prey. .  .A  hint  was  given  us  that  the 
general  officers  held  a  secret  council ...  in  which  we  were  all  sentenced  to  be 
shot.'  Pratfs  Persecution,  80-2.  'If  the  vision  of  the  infernal  regions  could 
Suddenly  open  to  the  mind,  with  thousands  of  malicious  fiends,  all  clamoring, 
exulting,  deriding,  blaspheming,  mocking,  railing,  raging,  and  foaming  like 
k  troubled  sea,  then  could  some  idea  be  formed  of  the  hell  which  we  had  en- 
tered.' PratCs  Autobiography,  204.  See  Young^s  Woman's  Experience,  MS.; 
liorne's  Migrations,  MS. 


the  state  in  putting  down  a  mob,  were  forced  at  the 
point  of  the  bayonet  to  sign  an  obligation,  binding 
not  only  themselves  but  the  civilians  within  their 
settlements  to  defray  the  entire  expense  of  the  war. 
This  proceeding  was  sufficiently  peculiar;  but,  as  a 
climax  to  their  conduct,  some  of  the  officers  and  men 
laid  hands  on  the  Mormons'  property  wherever  they 
could  find  it,  taking  no, thought  of  payment. 

General  Clark  ^^  now  comes  forward,  and  entering 
the  town  of  Far  West,  collects  the  saints  in  the  pub- 
lic square,  reads  them  a  lecture,^^  and  selecting  fifty 
of  their  number,  thrusts  them  into  prison.  Next  day 
forty-six  of  the  fifty  are  taken  to  Richmond,^^  and 
after    a  fortnight's  confinement   half  are  liberated,^^ 

^^  Pratt  says  that  Clark  has  been  commended  by  some  writers  for  his 
heroic,  merciful,  and  prudent  conduct  toward  the  Mormons,  but  that  the 
truth  is  that  he  openly  avowed  his  approval  of  all  the  proceedings  of  Gen. 
Lucas,  and  said  that  he  should  not  alter  his  decrees.    Autobiography,  221 S. 

2'  It  runs  as  follows:  'Gentlemen,  You  whose  names  are  not  attached  to 
this  list  of  names  will  now  have  the  privilege  of  going  to  your  fields  to  ob- 
tain corn  for  your  families,  wood,  etc.  Those  that  are  now  taken  will  go 
from  thence  to  prison,  to  be  tried,  and  receive  the  due  demerit  of  their  crimes, 
but  you  are  now  at  liberty,  all  but  such  as  charges  may  be  hereafter  preferred 
against.  It  now  devolves  upon  you  to  fulfil  the  treaty  that  you  have  entered 
into,  the  leading  items  of  which  I  now  lay  before  you.  The  first  of  these  you 
have  already  complied  with,  which  is,  that  you  deliver  up  your  leading  men 
to  be  tried  according  to  law.  Second,  that  you  deliver  up  your  arms;  this 
has  been  attended  to.  The  third  is,  that  you  sign  over  your  property  to  de- 
fray the  expenses  of  the  war;  this  you  have  also  done.  Another  thing  yet  re- 
mains for  you  to  comply  with,  that  is,  that  you  leave  this  state  forthwith, 
and  whatever  your  feelings  concerning  this  affair,  whatever  your  innocence, 
it  is  nothing  to  me.  Gen.  Lucas,  who  is  equal  in  authority  with  me,  has 
made  this  treaty  with  you.  I  am  determined  to  see  it  executed.  The  orders 
of  the  governor  to  me  were,  that  you  should  be  exterminated,  and  not  al- 
lowed to  continue  in  the  state,  and  had  your  leaders  not  been  given  up  and 
the  treaty  complied  with  before  this,  you  and  your  families  would  have  been 
destroyed,  and  your  houses  in  ashes. ' 

^^  Pratt  says  in  his  Autobiography,  p.  210,  that  a  revelation  to  Joseph  Smith 
buoyed  up  their  spirits  continually  during  their  captivity.  'As  we  arose  and 
commenced  our  march  on  the  morning  of  the  3d  of  November,  Joseph  Smith 
spoke  to  me  and  the  other  prisoners  in  a  low  but  cheerful  and  confidential 
tone;  said  he,  "Be  of  good  cheer,  brethren;  the  word  of  the  Lord  came  to  me 
last  night  that  our  lives  should  be  given  us,  and  that  whatever  we  may  suffer 
during  this  captivity,  not  one  of  our  lives  should  be  taken.'"  'When  we  ar- 
rived in  Richmond  as  prisoners  there  were  some  fifty  others,  mostly  heads 
of  families,  who  had  been  marched  from  Caldwell  on  foot,  distance  thirty 
miles,  and  were  now  penned  up  in  a  cold,  open,  unfinished  court-house,  in 
which  situation  they  remained  for  some  weeks,  while  their  families  were 
suffering  severe  privations.'   Id.,  227. 

2*  A  court  of  inquiry  was  instituted  at  Richmond  before  Judge  Austin 
A.  King,  lasting  from  the  11th  to  2Sth  of  November.  Pratt  says:  'The  judga 
could  not  be  prevailed  on  to  examine  the  conduct  of  the  murderers  and  rob- 


most  of  the  remainder  being  set  free  a  week  later  on 
giving  bail.  Lucas  *^  then  retires  with  his  troops, 
leaving  the  country  to  be  ravaged  by  armed  squads 
that  burn  houses,  insult  women,  and  drive  off  stock 
ad  lihitum.^^  The  faint  pretext  of  justice  on  the  part 
of  the  state,  attending  forced  sales  and  forced  settle- 
ments, might  as  well  have  been  dispensed  with,  as 
it  was  but  a  cloak  to  cover  official  iniquity.'*^ 

bers  who  had  desolated  our  society,  nor  would  he  receive  testimony  except 
against  us. .  .The  judge  in  open  court,  while  addressing  a  witness,  proclaimed 
that  if  the  members  of  the  church  remained  on  their  lands  to  put  in  another 
crop  they  should  be  destroyed  indiscriminately,  and  their  bones  be  left  to 
bleach  on  the  plains  without  a  burial . .  .  Mr  Doniphan,  attorney  for  the 
defence,  and  since  famed  as  a  general  in  the  Mexican  war,  finally  advised  the 
prisoners  to  oflfer  no  defence;  "for,"  said  he,  "though  a  legion  of  angels  from 
the  opening  heavens  should  declare  your  innocence,  the  court  and  populace 
have  decreed  your  destruction.". .  .Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith,  Sidney  Rig- 
don,  Lyman  Wight,  Caleb  Baldwin,  and  Alexander  McRay  were  committed 
to  the  jail  of  Clay  co.  on  charge  of  treason;  and  Morris  Phelps,  Lyman  Gibbs, 
Darwin  Chase,  Norman  Shearer,  and  myself  were  committed  to  the  jail  of 
Richmond,  Ray  co.,  for  the  alleged  crime  of  murder,  said  to  be  committed  in 
the  act  of  dispersing  the  bandit  Bogart  and  his  gang. '  Id. ,  230-3. 

*°  Ingloriously  conspicuous  in  the  Missouri  persecutions  were  generals 
Clark,  Wilson,  and  Lucas,  Colonel  Price,  Captain  Bogart,  and  Cornelius  Gil- 
liam, 'whose  zeal  in  the  cause  of  oppression  and  injustice,  '  says  Smith,  'was 
unequalled,  and  whose  delight  has  been  to  rob,  murder,  and  spread  devasta- 
tion among  the  saints . . .  All  the  threats,  murders,  and  robberies  which  these 
officers  have  been  guilty  of  are  entirely  ignored  by  the  executive  of  the  state, 
who  to  hide  his  own  iniquity  must  of  course  shield  and  protect  those  whom 
he  employed  to  carry  into  effect  his  murderous  purposes.'  Times  and  Sea- 
sons, i.  7. 

*^  Pages  of  evidence,  both  Mormon  and  anti-Mormon,  might  be  given,  and 
can  indeed  at  any  time  be  produced,  to  prove  the  commission  of  innumerable 
wrongs  and  revolting  atrocities  on  the  part  of  the  people  of  Missouri,  while 
abetted  therein  by  state  forces,  commanded  by  state  officers,  and  all  under 
guidance  of  the  state  governor. 

*'^  There  is  abundance  of  testimony  from  disinterested  sources,  even  from 
the  opposers  of  Mormonism  themselves,  to  prove  the  persecution  on  the  part 
of  the  people  of  Missouri  unjust  and  outrageous.  I  will  quote  only  three  from 
many  similar  comments  that  have  been  made  on  this  subject,  and  all,  be  it  re- 
membered, emanating  from  the  open  and  avowed  enemies  of  this  religion. 

Says  Prof.  Turner  of  Illinois  college:  'Who  began  the  quarrel?  Was  it 
the  Mormons?  Is  it  not  notorious,  on  the  contrary,  that  they  were  hunted 
like  wild  beasts,  from  county  to  county,  before  they  made  any  desperate  re- 
sistance? Did  they  ever,  as  a  body,  refuse  obedience  to  the  laws,  when 
called  upon  to  do  so,  until  driven  to  desperation  by  repeated  threats  and 
assaults  from  the  mob  ?  Did  the  state  ever  make  one  decent  effort  to  defend 
them  as  fellow-citizens  in  their  rights,  or  to  redress  their  wrongs?  Let  the 
conduct  of  its  governors,  attorneys,  and  the  fate  of  their  final  petitions  an- 
swer. Have  any  who  plundered  and  openly  massacred  the  Mormons  ever 
been  brought  to  the  punishment  due  to  their  crimes?  Let  the  boasting  mur- 
derers of  begging  and  helpless  infancy  answer.  Has  the  state  ever  remuner- 
ated even  those  known  to  be  innocent,  for  the  loss  of  either  their  property  or 
their  arms?  Did  either  the  pulpit  or  the  press  through  the  state  yaise  a  note 
of  remonstrance  or  alarm?    Let  the  clergymen  who  abetted  and  the  editors 


It  did  not  seem  possible  to  a  community  convicted  of 
no  crime,  and  living  in  the  nineteenth  century,  under 
the  flag  of  the  world's  foremost  republic,  that  such  fla- 
grant wrongs  as  the  Boggs  exterminating  order,  and 
the  enforced  treaty  under  which  they  were  deprived  of 
their  property,  could  be  carried  into  effect.  They  ap- 
pealed, therefore,  to  the  legislature,^^  demanding  jus- 
tice. But  that  body  .was  too  much  with  the  peo- 
ple and  with  Boggs  to  think  of  justice.  To  make  a 
show  of  decency,  a  committee  was  appointed  and  sent 
to  Caldwell  and  Daviess  counties,  to  look  into  the 
matter,  but  of  course  did  nothing.  Another  was 
appointed  with  like  result.  Debates  continued  with 
more  or  less  show  of  interest  through  the  month  of 
December.  In  January,  1839,  the  Mormons  were 
plainly  told  that  they  need  expect  no  redress  at  the 
hand  of  the  legislature  or  other  body  of  Missouri. 

who  encouraged  the  mob  answer.'  Correspondence  Joseph  Smith,  2.  On  the 
16th  of  March,  1839,  the  editor  of  the  Quinct/  Argus  wrote  as  follows:  '  We 
have  no  language  sufficiently  strong  for  the  expression  of  our  indignation  and 
shame  at  the  recent  transaction  in  a  sister  state,  and  that  state  Missouri,  a 
st.n'^e  of  which  we  had  long  been  proud,  alike  for  her  men  and  history,  but 
now  so  fallen  that  we  could  wish  her  star  stricken  out  from  the  bright  con- 
stellation of  the  Union.  We  say  we  know  of  no  language  sufficiently  strong 
for  the  expression  of  our  shame  and  abhorrence  of  her  recent  conduct.  She 
has  written  her  own  character  in  letters  of  blood,  and  stained  it  by  acts  of 
merciless  cruelty  and  brutality  that  the  waters  of  ages  cannot  efface.  It  will 
be  observed  that  an  organized  mob,  aided  by  many  of  the  civil  and  military 
officers  of  Missouri,  with  Gov.  Boggs  at  their  head,  have  been  the  prominent 
actors  in  this  business,  incited,  too,  it  appears,  against  the  Mormons  by  polit- 
ical hatred,  and  by  the  additional  motives  of  plunder  and  revenge.  They 
have  but  too  well  put  in  execution  their  threats  of  extermination  and  expul- 
sion, and  fully  wreaked  their  vengeance  on  a  body  of  industrious  and  enter- 
prising men  who  had  never  wronged  nor  wished  to  wrong  them,  but  on  the 
contrary  had  ever  comported  themselves  as  good  and  honest  citizens,  living 
under  the  same  laws,  and  having  the  same  right  with  themselves  to  the  sacred 
immunities  of  life,  liberty,  and  property.'  'By  enlightened  people  the  Mor- 
mons were  regarded  as  the  victims  of  misguided  vengeance  in  Missouri.  The 
ruffianly  violence  they  encountered  at  the  hands  of  lawless  mobs,  in  several 
instances  eventuating  in  deliberate  murder,  finds  no  extenuation  in  any  alleged 
provocation.  The  due  process  of  law  might  have  afforded  adequate  redress 
for  the  criminalities  of  which  they  should  be  found  guilty  on  legal  trial. 
Such  was  the  view  of  the  subject  rightly  taken  by  the  people  of  Illinois  and 
of  the  world,  though  it  may  have  been  wrongfully  applied  in  favor  of  the 
cause  of  the  persecuted.'  Tucker's  Mormonism,  166. 

*^  A  memorial  was  sent  to  the  legislature  of  Missouri,  dated  Far  West, 
Dec.  10,  1838,  setting  forth  these  facts,  and  praying  that  the  governor's 
novel,  unlawful,  tyrannical,  and  oppressive  order  be  rescinded.  It  was 
signed  by  Edward  Partridge,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  John  Taylor,  Theodore 
Turley,  Brigham  Young,  Isaac  Morley,  George  W.  Harris,  John  Murdock, 
John  M.  Burk. 


There  was  no  help  for  them;  they  must  leave  the 
state  or  be  killed;  of  this  they  were  assured  on  all 
sides,  publicly  and  privately. 

And  now  begins  another  painful  march — painful  in 
the  thought  of  it,  painful  in  the  telling  of  it.  It  is 
midwinter;  whither  can  they  go,  and  how?  They 
have  homes,  but  they  may  not  enjoy  them;  land 
which  they  have  bought,  houses  which  they  have 
built,  and  barns  and  cattle  and  food,  but  hereabout 
they  are  hunted  to  death.  Is  it  Russia  or  Tar- 
tary  or  Hindostan,  that  people  are  thus  forced  to  fly 
for  opinion's  sake?  True,  the  people  of  the  United 
States  do  not  like  such  opinions;  they  do  not  like  a 
religious  sect  that  votes  solid,  or  a  class  of  men  whom 
they  look  upon  as  fools  and  fanatics  talking  about 
taking  the  country,  claimed  as  theirs  by  divine  right; 
but  in  any  event  this  was  no  way  to  settle  the  diffi- 
culty. Here  are  men  who  have  been  stripped  in  a 
moment  of  the  results  of  years  of  toil — all  that  they 
have  in  the  world  gone;  here  are  women  weighed 
down  with  work  and  care,  some  whose  husbands  are 
in  prison,  and  who  are  thus  left  to  bear  the  heavy 
burden  of  this  infliction  alone;  here  are  little  chil- 
dren, some  comfortably  clad,  others  obliged  to  en- 
counter the  wind  and  frozen  ground  with  bare  heads 
and  bleeding  feet. 

Whither  can  they  go  ?  There  is  a  small  following 
of  the  prophet  at  Quincy,  Illinois;  some  propose  to 
go  there,  some  start  for  other  places.  But  what 
if  they  are  not  welcome  at  Quincy,  and  what  can 
they  do  with  such  a  multitude?  There  is  no  help 
for  it,  however,  no  other  spot  where  the  outcasts 
can  hope  for  refuge  at  the  moment.  Some  have 
horses  and  cattle  and  wagons;  some  have  none. 
Some  have  tents  and  bedding;  some  have  none.  But 
the  start  is  made,  and  the  march  is  slowly  to  the 
eastward.     In  the  months  of  February  and  March^* 

**  «0n  the  20th  of  April,  1839,  the  last  of  the  society  departed  from  Far 
West.     Thus  had  a  whole  people,  variously  estimated  at  from  ten  to  fifteen 



over  one  hundred  and  thirty  families  are  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Mississippi  unable  to  cross  the  river, 
which  is  full  of  floating  ice.  There  they  wait  and 
suffer;  they  scour  the  country  for  food  and  clothing 
for  the  destitute;  many  sicken  and  die. 

Finally  they  reach  Quincy,  and  are  kindly  received. 
Not  only  the  saints  but  others  are  there  who  have 
liuman  hearts  and  human  sympathies.  Indeed,  upon 
the  expulsion  of  the  Mormons   from  Missouri  the 

Settlements  in  Illinois. 

people  of  Illinois  took  a  stand  in  their  favor.  The 
citizens  of  Quincy,  in  particular,  offered  their  warmest 
sympathy  and  aid,  on  the  ground  of  humanity.  A  select 
committee,  appointed  to  ascertain  the  facts  in  the  case, 
reported,  on  the  27th  of  February,  1839,  "that  the 

thousand  souls,  been  driven  from  houses  and  lands  and  reduced  to  poverty, 
and  had  removed  to  another  state,  during  one  short  winter  and  part  of  a 
spring.     The  sacrifice  of  property  was  immense.'  Pratt's  Autobiography,  245. 


strangers  recently  arrived  here  from  the  state  of  Mis- 
souri, known  by  the  name  of  latter-day  saints,  are 
entitled  to  our  sympathy  and  kindest  regard."  The 
working-men  of  the  town  should  be  informed  '*that 
these  people  have  no  design  to  lower  the  wages  of 
the  laboring  class,  but  to  procure  something  to  save 
them  from  starving."  Finally  it  was  resolved:  "That 
we  recommend  to  all  the  citizens  of  Quincy,  in  all 
their  intercourse  with  the  strangers,  that  they  use 
and  observe  a  becoming  decorum  and  delicacy,  and 
be  particularly  careful  not  to  indulge  in  any  conver- 
sation or  expressions  calculated  to  wound  their  feel- 
ings, or  in  any  way  to  reflect  upon  those  who,  by 
every  law  of  humanity,  are  entitled  to  our  sympathy 
and  commiseration."*^ 

How  in  regard  to  neighboring  states  ?  In  case  the 
people  of  Illinois  soon  tire  of  them,  what  will  they 
then  do?  From  Commerce,  Isaac  Galland  writes  to 
Robert  Lucas,  governor  of  Iowa,  asking  about  it. 
The  answer  is  such  as  one  would  expect  from  the 
average  American  citizen — neither  better  nor  worse. 
It  is  such,  however,  as  to  condemn  throughout  all 
time  the  conduct  of  the  people  of  Missouri. 


*5  Pratt's  Persecution  of  the  Saints,  185. 

*^  'On  my  return  to  this  city,'  writes  Lucas  from  the  executive  office  at 
Burlington,  Iowa,  'after  a  few  weeks'  absence  in  the  interior  of  the  terri- 
tory, I  received  your  letter  of  the  25th  ult.  [Feb.  1839],  in  which  you  give 
a  short  account  of  the  sufferings  of  the  people  called  Mormons,  and  ask  whether 
they  could  be  permitted  to  purchase  lands  and  settle  upon  them  in  the  terri- 
tory of  Iowa,  and  there  worship  Almighty  God  according  to  the  dictates  of 
their  own  consciences,  secure  from  oppression,  etc.  In  answer  to  your  inquiry, 
I  would  say  that  I  know  of  no  authority  that  can  constitutionally  deprive 
them  of  this  right.  They  are  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and  are  all 
entitled  to  all  the  rights  and  privileges  of  other  citizens.  The  2d  section 
of  the  4th  article  of  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  (which  all 
are  solemnly  bound  to  support)  declares  that  "the  citizens  of  each  state 
shall  be  entitled  to  all  the  privileges  and  immunities  of  citizens  in  the 
several  states;"  this  privilege  extends  in  full  force  to  the  territories  of  the 
United  States.  The  first  amendment  to  the  constitution  of  the  United  States 
declares  that  "congress  shall  make  no  law  respecting  an  establishment  of  re- 
ligion or  prohibiting  the  free  exercise  thereof. "  The  ordinances  of  congress 
of  the  13th  July,  1787,  for  the  government  of  the  territory  north-west  of  the 
river  Ohio,  secures  to  the  citizens  of  said  territory  and  the  citizens  of  the 
states  thereafter  to  be  formed  therein,  certain  privileges  which  were  by  the 
late  act  of  congress  organizing  the  territory  of  Iowa  extended  to  the  citizens 
of  this  territory.     The  first  fundamental  article  in  that  ordinance,  which  is 



During  these  trying  times  the  prophet  was  moving 
about  among  his  people,  doing  everything  in  his  power 
to  protect  and  encourage  them.  Late  in  Septem- 
ber he  was  in  the  southern  part  of  Caldwell  county, 
whence  in  October  he  passed  into  Carroll  county, 
where  he  soon  found  himself  hemmed  in  by  an  en- 
raged populace.  He  appealed  to  the  people,  he  ap- 
plied to  the  governor,  but  all  to  no  purpose.  After- 
ward he  went  to  Daviess  county,  and  then  back  to  Far 
West,  where  he  was  arrested  and  incarcerated  with 
the  others.     Shortly  afterward   the  prisoners,  now 

declared  to  be  forever  unalterable  except  by  common  consent,  reads  as  fol- 
lows, to  wit :  No  person  demeaning  himself  in  a  peaceable  and  orderly  man- 
ner shall  ever  be  molested  on  account  of  his  mode  of  worship  or  religious 
sentiments  in  said  territory.  These  principles  I  trust  will  ever  be  adhered 
to  in  the  territory  of  Iowa.  They  make  no  distinction  between  religious 
sects.  They  extend  equal  privileges  and  protection  to  all;  each  must  rest 
U|jon  its  own  merits  and  will  prosper  in  proportion  to  the  purity  of  its  prin- 
ciples, and  the  fruit  of  holiness  and  piety  produced  thereby.  With  regard  to 
the  peculiar  people  mentioned  in  your  letter,  I  know  but  little.  They  had  a 
community  in  the  northern  part  of  Ohio  for  several  years,  and  I  have  no  rec- 
ollection of  ever  having  heard  in  that  state  of  any  complaint  against  them  of 
violating  the  laws  of  the  country.  Their  religious  opinions  I  conceive  have 
nothing  to  do  with  our  political  transactions.  They  aro  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  and  are  entitled  to  the  same  political  rights  and  legal  protection  that 
other  citizens  are  entitled  to.  The  foregoing  are  briefly  my  views  on  the  sub- 
ject of  your  inquiries.' 

In  a  memorial  sent  to  Washington  in  the  autumn  of  1839,  it  was  claimed 
by  the  Mormons  that  their  property  destroyed  in  Jackson  co.  was  worth 
$120,000;  that  12,000  souls  were  banished;  that  they  purchased  and  improved 
lands  in  Clay  co.,  and  in  three  years  were  obliged  to  leave  there  with  heavy 
loss;  that  they  then  purchased  and  improved  lands  in  Daviess  and  Carroll 
counties;  that  for  the  most  part  these  counties  were  wild  and  uncultivated; 
that  they  had  converted  them  into  large  and  well  improved  farms,  well 
stocked,  which  were  rapidly  advancing  in  cultivation  and  wealth;  and  that 
they  were  finally  compelled  to  fly  from  these  counties.  In  a  petition  pre- 
sented by  Sidney  Eigdon  to  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  it  is  stated  that  '  Lil- 
burn  Boggs,  governor  of  the  state,  used  his  executive  influence  to  have  us  all 
massacred  or  driven  into  exile;  and  all  this  because  we  were  not  lawless  and 
disobedient.  For  if  the  laws  had  given  them  a  suflficient  guaranty  against 
the  evils  complained  of . . .  then  would  they  have  had  recourse  to  the  laws.  If 
we  had  been  transgressors  of  laws,  our  houses  would  not  have  been  rifled,  our 
women  ravished,  our  farms  desolated,  and  our  goods  and  chattels  destroyed, 
our  men  killed,  our  wives  and  children  driven  into  the  prairies,  and  made  to 
sufier  all  the  indignities  that  the  most  brutal  barbarity  could  inflict;  but 
would  only  have  had  to  sufier  that  which  the  laws  would  inflict,  which  were 
founded  in  justice,  framed  in  righteousness,  and  administered  in  humanity. , . 
Why,  then,  all  this  cruelty?  Answer :  because  the  people  had  violated  no  law; 
and  they  could  not  be  restrained  by  law,  nor  prevented  from  exercising  the 
rights  according  to  the  laws,  enjoyed,  and  had  a  right  to  be  protected  in,  in 
any  state  of  the  Union.'  Mr  Corrill  remarks:  'My  opinion  is,  that  if  the 
Mormons  had  been  let  alone  by  the  citizens,  they  would  have  divided  and 
subdivided,  so  as  to  have  completely  destroyed  themselves  and  their  power 
as  a  people  in  a  short  time. ' 

IN  PRISON.  139 

consisting  of  the  prophet  Joseph  Smith,  with  Sid- 
ney Rigdon,  Hyrum  Smith,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Lyman 
Wight,  Amasa  Lyman,  and  George  W.  Pobinson, 
were  removed  to  Independence;  why  they  did  not 
know,  but  because  it  was  the  hot-bod  of  mobocracy, 
they  said,  and  peradventure  they  might  luckily  be 
shot  or  hanged.  A  few  days  later  they  were  taken 
to  Pichmond  and  put  in  irons,  and  later  to  Liberty 
jail  in  Clay  county,  where  they  were  kept  confined 
for  four  months.  Habeas  corpus  was  tried,  and  many 
petitions  were  forwarded  to  the  authorities  on  their  be- 
half, but  all  to  no  purpose.  At  length  they  obtained  a 
hearing  in  the  courts,  with  a  change  of  venue  to 
Boone  county  where  they  were  still  to  be  incarcerated. 
Rigdon  had  been  previously  released  on  habeas  corpus, 
and  one  night,  when  the  guard  was  asleep.  Smith  and 
the  others  escaped  and  made  their  way  to  Quincy. 

*'I  was  in  their  hands  as  a  prisoner,"  says  Smith, 
"about  six  months;  but  notwithstanding  their  deter- 
mination to  destroy  me,  with  the  rest  of  my  brethren 
who  were  with  me,  and  although  at  three  different 
times  we  were  sentenced  to  be  shot  without  the  least 
shadow  of  law,  and  had  the  time  and  place  appointed 
for  that  purpose,  yet  through  the  mercy  of  God, 
in  answer  to  the  prayers  of  the  saints,  I  have  been 
preserved,  and  delivered  out  of  their  hands. "^'^ 

*''  In  1839  Carlin  was  governor  of  Illinois,  and  on  him  the  governor  of 
Missouri  made  a  formal  demand  for  the  surrender  to  the  authorities  of  Smith 
and  Rigdon,  but  little  attention  was  paid  to  it.  One  of  the  most  complete 
documents  extant  covering  this  period  is,  Facts  Relative  to  the  Expulsion  oj 
the  Mormons,  or  Latter-day  Saints,  from  the  State  of  Missouri  under  the  Ex- 
terminating Order.  By  John  P.  Greene,  an  authorized  representative  of  the 
Mormons  (Cincinnati,  1839).  The  work  consists  of  43  Svo  pages,  and  was 
written  for  the  purpose  of  showing  to  what  wrongs  the  Mormons  had  been 
subjected  at  the  hands  of  the  people  and  politicians  of  Missouri,  and  also 
to  obtain  contributions  for  the  destitute.  The  contents  are  laigely  documen- 
tary, and  if  we  allow  for  some  intensity  of  feeling,  bear  the  impress  of  truth. 

Pointing  in  the  same  direction  but  less  pretentious  and  less  important  is 
Correspondence  between  Joseph  Smith,  the  prophet,  and  Col.  John  Wentworth, 
editor  of  the  ^Chicago  Democrat,^  and  member  of  congress  from  Illinois;  General 
James  Arlington  Bennett,  of  Arlington  House,  Long  Island;  and  the  Honor- 
able John  G.  Calhoun,  Senator  from  South  Carolina,  in  which  is  given  a  sketch 
of  the  life  of  Joseph  Smith,  Rise  and  Progress  of  the  Church  of  Latter-day 
^'  and  their  persecution  by  the  state  of  Missouri;  with  the  peculiar  views 

<eph  Smith  in  relation  to  Political  and  Religious  matters  generally;  to 

.fh  is  added  a  concise  account  of  the  present  state  and  prospects  of  the  city  of 


Notwithstanding  their  enormous  losses,  and  the  ex- 
treme indigence  of  many,  the  saints  were  not  all  as 
destitute  of  credit  as  they  were  of  ready  means,  if 
we  may  judge  by  their  business  transacted  during 
the  year  1839.  Bishop  Knight  bought  for  the  church 
part  of  the  town  of  Keokuk,  Iowa,  situated  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  forty  miles  above  Quincy, 
Illinois.  He  also  purchased  the  whole  of  another 
town-site  called  Nashville,  six  miles  above  Keokuk. 
Four  miles  above  Nashville  was  a  settlement  called 
Montrose,  part  of  which  Knight  bought,  together 
with  thirty  thousand  acres  of  land.^^ 

Opposite  Montrose,  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi where  was  a  good   landing,  stood   a  village 

Nauvoo.  (New  York,  1844).  With  a  title-page  from  which  so  much  infor- 
mation is  to  be  derived,  we  must  not  expect  too  much  from  the  book  itself. 
A  portion  of  this  correspondence  was  published  in  the  Times  and  Seasons. 

Late  Persecution  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints.  Ten 
thousand  American  citizens  robbed,  plundered,  and  banished  ;  others  impris- 
oned, and  others  martyred  for  their  Religion.  With  a  sketch  of  their  Rise,  Prog- 
ress, and  Doctrine.  By  P.  P.  Pratt,  Minister  of  the  Gospel.  Written  in  prison 
(New  York,  1840).  This  is  a  16mo  vol.  of  215  pages,  most  of  which  is  devoted 
to  the  Missouri  persecutions,  with  but  little  other  history,  except  what  is  thrown 
in  incidentally.  An  appendix  of  37  pages  is  made  up  mostly  from  Greene's 
Facts.  Pratt  gives  a  graphic  account  of  his  life  in  prison,  and  of  the  means 
whereby,  with  the  cooperation  of  his  wife,  he  rescued  from  jail  the  manuscript 
of  this  book,  which  was  written  there.  After  mentioning  them,  he  says: 
*Thus,  kind  reader,  was  this  little  book  providentially,  and  I  may  say  mirac- 
ulously, preserved,  and  by  this  means  you  have  it  to  read.'  The  first  edition 
was  published  at  Detroit,  Michigan,  the  book  consisting  then  of  84  pages. 

Full  reference  for  the  persecutions  of  the  Mormons  in  Missouri,  1831-39. 
Memorial  to  Legislature  Mass.  in  1844,  against  such  conduct,  in  Times  and 
Seasons,  i.  17-20,  33-6,  49-56,  65-6,  81-6, 94,  97-104, 113-16, 128-34,  145-50, 
161-7,  177;  V.  614-19;  Pratt's  Persecution  of  the  Saints,  21-215;  Utah  Tracts^ 
no.  4,  56-64;  Pratt's  Autobiography,  190-237,  311-22,  336-40;  Smuclcer's  Hist. 
Mor.,  86;  Deseret  News,  Dec.  27,  1851,  Nov.  29  and  Dec.  27,  1851,  June 
30,  1869;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  106-14;  Tucker's  Origin  and  Prog.  Mor., 
160-6;  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  138-76;  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons, 
87-8,  90;  White's  Ten  Years  in  Or.,  144;  Taylder's  Mormon's  Own  Book,  xliii.- 
xlvi.;  Gunnison's  Mormons,  104-14;  Millennial  Star,  xx v.,  535-6,  550-2,  599- 
600,  614-16,  631;  Burnett's  Rec,  56;  Beadle's  Life  in  Utah,  60;  Lee's  Mor- 
monism, 55-96;  Tullidge's  Women,  116-74;  Richards'  Narrative,  MS.,  6-9; 
Young's  Wife  No.  19,  43-53;  Atlantic  Monthly,  Dec.  1869;  Stenhouse,  Les 
Mormons,  154-71;  Liberty  Tribune;  Margaret  Smoot's  Experiences  of  a  Mor- 
mon Wife,  MS.,  2-3:  Farnham's  Travels  Rocky  Mts.,  6;  Bertrand's  Mem. 
Mor.,  51;  Busch,  Gesch.  der  Alor.,  85-7,  90-7;  Juvenile  Instructor,  xv.  78; 
Kidder's  Alormonism,  133-5;  Iowa  Frontier  Guardian,  March  21, 1849;  Rabbi- 
son's  Growth  of  Towns,  MS.,  2-5. 

*^  '  Since  their  expulsion  from  Missouri  a  portion  of  them,  about  one  hun- 
dred families,  have  settled  in  Lee  county,  Iowa  Territory,  and  are  generally 
considered  industrious,  inoffensive,  and  worthy  citizens.'  Letter  from  Robert 
Lucas,  governor  of  Iowa,  to  A.  Ripley,  dated  Jan.  4,  1840, 


called  Commerce,  where  were  some  twenty  houses. 
This  was  purchased  by  the  saints,  with  the  lands  sur- 
rounding, and  a  town  laid  out  which  was  named 
Nauvoo,  ^^from  the  Hebrew,  which  signifies  fair,  very 
beautiful,  and  it  actually  fills  the  definition  of  the 
word;  for  nature  has  not  formed  a  parallel  on  the 
banks  of  the  Mississippi  from  New  Orleans  to  Ga- 
lena." The  post-office  there  was  first  called  Com- 
merce, after  the  Mormons  had  purchased  the  village, 
but  the  name  was  changed  to  that  of  Nauvoo  in  May, 
1840.*^  The  place  was  started  by  a  company  from  New 
York,  but  it  was  so  sickly  that  when  the  agent  for  the 
Mormons  came  they  were  glad  to  sell.  The  Mormons 
drained  it  and  made  the  place  comparatively  healthy. 
On  his  escape  from  prison,  Smith  visited  Commerce 
among  other  places,  and  seeing  at  once  the  advan- 
tages of  its  site,  determined  to  establish  there  the 
headquarters  of  the  church.  For  so  great  had  his 
power  now  become,  so  extensive  his  following,  that  he 
might  choose  any  spot  whereon  to  call  into  existence 
a  city,  had  but  to  point  his  finger  and  say  the  word 
to  transform  a  wilderness  into  a  garden.  During  the 
winter  of  1840  the  church  leaders  applied  to  the  leer- 
islature  of  Illinois  for  several  charters,  one  for  the 
city  of  Nauvoo,  one  for  agricultural  and  manufactur- 
ing purposes,  one  for  a  university,  and  one  for  a  mili- 
tary body  called  the  Nauvoo  Legion.  The  privileges 
asked  were  very  extensive,  but  were  readily  granted; 
for  the  two  great  political  parties  were  pretty  equal  in 
numbers  in  Illinois  at  this  time,  and  the  leaders  of 
the  party  in  office,  perceiving  what  a  political  power 
these  people  were,  determined  to  secure  them. 

** '  Nauvoo  was  one  of  the  names  of  one  of  the  numerous  petty  chiefs  in 
British  India.'  Ferris'  The  Mor.,  97.  *  Nauvoo  is  a  Hebrewword,  and  sig- 
nifies a  beautiful  habitation  for  man,  carrying  with  it  the  idea  of  rest;  it  is 
not,  however,  considered  by  the  Mormons  their  final  home,  but  a  resting 

J)lace  only;  for  they  only  intend  to  remain  there  until  they  have  gathered 
orce  sufficient  to  enable  them  to  conquer  Independence  in  Jackson  co. ,  Mis- 
souri, which  is  one  of  the  most  fertile,  pleasant,  and  desirable  countries  on 
the  face  of  the  earth,  possessing  a  soil  unsurpassed  in  any  region.  Indepen- 
dence they  consider  their  Zion,  and  there  they  intend  to  rear  their  great  tem- 
ple, the  comer-stone  of  which  is  already  laid.     There  is  to  be  the  great  gath- 


There  were  now  saints  everywhere,  all  over  the 
United  States,  particularly  throughout  the  western 
portion;  there  were  isolated  believers,  and  small  clus- 
ters, and  small  and  great  congregations.  There  were 
also  many  travelling  preachers,  men  full  of  the  holy 
ghost,  or  believing  themselves  so,  who  travelled 
without  purse  or  scrip,  whom  no  buffe tings,  insults, 
hunger,  or  blows  could  daunt,  who  feared  nothing 
that  man  could  do,  heaven's  door  being  always  open 
to  them.  See  now  the  effects  of  these  persecutions 
in  Missouri.  Twelve  thousand  were  driven  from 
their  homes  and  set  moving  by  Boggs  and  his  gen- 
erals; three  fourths  of  them  found  new  homes  at 
Quincy,  Nauvoo,  and  elsewhere;  but  three  thousand, 
who,  but  for  the  persecutions,  would  have  remained 
at  home  and  tilled  their  lands,  were  preaching  and 
proselyting,  making  new  converts  and  establishing 
new  churches  wherever  they  went.  One  of  their 
number,  William  Smith,  was  a  member  of  the  Illi- 
nois legislature.  In  the  very  midst  of  the  war  they 
were  preaching  in  Jackson  county,  among  their  old 
enemies  and  spoilers,  striving  with  all  their  souls  to 
win  back  their  Zion,  their  New  Jerusalem.  From 
New  York,  February  19,  1840,  Brigham  Young,  H. 
C.  Kimball,  Orson  Pratt,  and  Parley  P.  Pratt  indited 
a  letter  to  the  saints  at  Commerce,  speaking  of  the 
wonderful  progress  of  the  faith,  and  of  their  own  in- 
tended departure  for  England.  ^^ 

Thus,  despite  persecution,  the  saints  increased  in 
number  year  by  year.  Before  the  end  of  1840  there 
were  fifteen  thousand  souls  at  Nauvoo,  men,  women, 
and  children,  not  all  of  them  exiles  from  Missouri, 
but  from  every  quarter,  old  believers  and  new  con- 
verts from  different  parts  of  the  United  States,  from 
Canada,  and  from  Europe;  hither  came  they  to  the 
city  of  their  God,  to  the  mountain  of  his  holiness. 

ering  place  for  all  the  saints,  and  in  that  delightful  country  they  expect  to  find 
their  Eden,  and  build  the  New  Jerusalem. '  Bennett's  Mormonism  Exp. ,  192-3. 
&°See  J.  D.  Hunter's  letter  of  Dec.  26,  1839,  from  Jackson  county,  111.,  in 
Times  and  Seasons,  i.  59. 




The  City  of  Nauvoo — Its  Temple  and  University — The  Nauvoo  Le- 
gion—The Mormons  in  Illinois — Evil  Eeports— Revelation  on 
Polygamy— Its  Reception  and  Practice — The  Prophet  a  Candi- 
date FOR  THE  Presidency — The  'Nauvoo  Expositor' — Joseph  Ar- 
rested— Governor  Ford  and  his  Measures — Joseph  and  Hyrum 
Proceed  to  Carthage — Their  Imprisonment — The  Governor's 
Pledge — Assassination  of  the  Prophet  and  his  Brother — Char- 
acter of  Joseph  Smith — A  Panic  at  Carthage— Addresses  of  Rich- 
ards AND  Taylor — Peaceful  Attitude  of  the  Mormonsi 

To  the  saints  it  is  indeed  a  place  of  refuge,  the 
city  of  Nauvoo,  the  Holy  City,  the  City  of  Joseph.^ 
It  stands  on  rolling  land,  covering  a  bed  of  limestone 
yielding  excellent  building  material,  and  bordered  on 
three  sides  by  the  river  which  here  makes  a  majestic 
curve,  and  is  nearly  two  miles  in  width.  The  abo- 
rigines were  not  indifferent  to  the  advantages  of  the 
spot,  as  the  presence  of  their  mounds  testifies.  In 
area  it  is  three  miles  by  four.  The  city  is  regularly 
laid  out  in  streets  at  right  angles,  of  convenient  width, 
along  which  are  scattered  neat,  whitewashed  log  cabins, 
also  frame,  brick,  and  stone  houses,  with  grounds  and 
gardens.  It  is  incorporated  by  charter,^  and  contains 
the  best  institutions  of  the  latest  civilization;  in  the 

^  'Among  the  more  zealous  Mormons,  it  became  the  fashion  at  this  time 
(1845)  to  disuse  the  word  Nauvoo,  and  to  call  the  place  the  holy  city,  or  the 
city  of  Joseph.'  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  191. 

^  The  charter  granted  by  the  legislature  was  signed  by  Gov.  Carlin  Sept. 
16,  1840,  to  take  eflfect  Feb.  1,  1841.  *  So  artfully  framed  that  it  was  found 
that  the  state  government  was  practically  superseded  within  the  Mormon  cor- 
poration. Under  the  judicial  clause  its  courts  were  supreme.'  McBride  in 
International  Revieio,  Feb.  1882.  Charters  were  also  granted  to  the  university 
and  the  Nauvoo  legion.   Times  and  Seasons,  ii.  281. 



country  are  hundreds  of  tributary  farms  and  planta- 
tions. The  population  is  from  seven  to  fifteen  thou- 
sand, varying  with  the  ebb  and  flow  of  new  converts 
and  new  colonizations.^ 

Conspicuous  among  the  buildings,  and  chief  archi- 
tectural feature  of  the  holy  city,  is  the  temple,  glisten- 
ing in  white  limestone  upon  the  hill-top,  a  shrine  in 
the  western  wilderness  whereat  all  the  nations  of  the 
earth  may  w^orship,  w^hereat  all  the  people  may  in- 
quire of  God  and  receive  his  holy  oracles.*     Next  in 

'  The  blocks  contain  *  four  lots  of  eleven  by  twelve  rods  each,  making  all 
corner  lots .  , .  For  three  or  four  miles  upon  the  river,  and  about  the  same  dis- 
tance back  in  the  country,  Nauvoo  presents  a  city  of  gardens,  ornamented 
with  the  dwellings  of  those  who  have  made  a  covenant  by  sacrifice. .  .It  will 
be  no  more  than  probably  correct,  if  we  allow  the  city  to  contain  between 
700  and  800  houses,  with  a  population  of  14,000  or  15,000.'  Times  and  Sea- 
sons, iii.  936.  A  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Herald  is  a  little  wild  when 
he  writes  about  this  time:  'The  Mormons  number  in  Europe  and  America 
about  150,000,  and  are  constantly  pouring  into  Nauvoo  and  the  neighboring 
country.  There  are  probably  in  and  about  this  city  and  adjacent  territories 
not  far  from  30,000.'  Fifteen  thousand  in  1840  is  the  number  given  in 
Mackay^s  The  Mormons,  115,  as  I  mentioned  in  the  last  chapter.  A  corre- 
spondent's estimate  in  the  Times  and  Seasons,  in  1842,  was  for  tlie  city  7,000, 
and  for  the  immediate  surroundings  3,000.  Phelps,  in  The  Prophet,  estimates 
the  population  during  the  height  of  the  city's  prosperity  in  1844  at  14,000,  of 
whom  nine  tenths  were  Mormons.  Some  2000  houses  were  built  the  first  year. 
Joseph  Smith  in  Times  and  Seasons,  March  1842,  says:  'We  number  from  six 
to  eight  thousand  here,  besides  vast  numbers  in  the  county  around,  and  in 
almost  every  county  in  the  state.' 

*The  structure  was  83  by  128  feet,  and  60  feet  high.  The  stone  was  quar- 
ried within  city  limits.  There  was  an  upper  story  and  basement;  and  in  the 
latter  a  baptismal  font  wrought  after  the  manner  of  King  Solomon's  brazen 
sea.  A  huge  tank,  upon  whose  panels  were  painted  various  scenes,  and  ascent 
to  which  was  made  by  stairs,  was  upborne  by  twelve  oxen,  beautifully  carved, 
and  overlaid  with  gold.  '  The  two  great  stories, '  says  a  Mormon  eye- 
witness, 'each  have  two  pulpits,  one  at  each  end,  to  accommodate  the  Mel- 
chizedek  and  Aaronic  priesthoods,  graded  into  four  rising  seats,  the  first 
for  the  president  of  the  elders  and  his  two  counsellors,  the  second  for  the 
president  of  the  high  priesthood  and  his  two  counsellors,  and  the  third  for 
the  Melchizedek  president  and  his  two  counsellors,  and  the  fourth  for  the  presi- 
dent of  the  whole  church  and  his  two  counsellors.  There  are  thirty  hewn 
stone  pilasters  which  cost  about  $3,000  apiece.  The  base  is  a  crescent  new 
moon;  the  capitals,  near  50  feet  high;  the  sun,  with  a  human  face  in  bold  re- 
lief, about  two  and  a  half  feet  broad,  ornamented  with  rays  of  light  and 
waves,  surmounted  by  two  hands  holding  two  trumpets,'  All  was  crowned 
by  a  high  steeple  surmounted  with  angel  and  trumpet.  The  cost  was  nearly 
81,000,000,  and  was  met  by  tithes  contributed  by  some  in  money  or  produce, 
and  by  others  in  labor.  The  four  comer-stones  of  the  temple  were  laid  with 
much  ceremony  on  the  6th  of  April,  1841,  on  the  celebration  of  the  anniver- 
sary of  the  church.  Sidney  Kigdon  delivered  the  address,  and  upon  the 
placing  of  the  first  stone,  said:  *  May  the  persons  employed  in  the  erection  of 
this  house  be  preserved  from  all  harm  while  engaged  in  its  construction,  till  the 
whole  is  completed — in  the  name  of  the  father,  and  of  the  son,  and  of  the  holy 

NAUVOO.  '  145 

the  City  of  Joseph  in  prominence  and  importance  is 
the  house  of  Joseph,  hotel  and  residence,  called  the 
Nauvoo  House,^  which  is  to  the  material  man  as  the 

ghost;  even  so,  amen.'  Times  and  Seasons,  ii.  376.  A  revelation  was  published 
in  Jan.  1841.  *  Let  all  my  saints  come  from  afar,  and  send  ye  swift  messen- 
gers, yea,  chosen  messengers,  and  say  unto  them:  "  Come  ye  with  all  your  gold 
and  your  silver  and  your  precious  stones,  and  with  all  your  antiquities,  and  with 
all  who  have  knowledge  of  antiquities,  that  will  come,  may  come;  and  bring 
the  box-tree  and  the  fir-tree  and  the  pine-tree,  together  with  all  the  precious 
trees  of  the  earth,  and  with  iron  and  with  copper  and  with  brass  and  with 
zinc  and  with  all  your  precious  things  of  the  earth,  and  build  a  house  to  my 
name  for  the  most  high  to  dwell  therein.'"  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  132.  For 
reference  notes  on  temple:  minutes  of  conference,  relating  to  building  a 
church,  etc.,  see  Times  and  Seasons,  i.  185-7.  Laying  the  foundation  stone,  Id. , 
ii.  375-7,  380-2;  Maclay's  The  Mormons,  118-20;  SmucJcer's  Hist.  Mor.,  133. 
Laying  of  the  capstone.  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  926.  Progress  of  its  building. 
Id.,  iii.  775-6;  iv.  10-11;  The  Prophet,  in  Machaifs  The  Mormons,  189-91. 
Description  of  the  temple  with  cut,  Smucker^s  Mormons,  129;  Ferris'  The  Mor- 
mons, 137-9;  Pratt^s  Autobiography,  378;  without  cut,  Smucker^s  Mormons^ 
202-4;  Bertrand  Mem.  Morm.,  61;  Cincinnati  Times;  Deseret  Neivs,  March 
22, 1876;  church  claims,  Times  and  Seasons,  iii.  735-8;  767-9;  v.  618-20;  Kim- 
ball, in  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  972-3;  misappropriation  of  funds,  IlalVs  Mor- 
monism  Exposed,  7-8.  '  One  of  the  most  powerful  levers  which  he  had  in- 
vented for  moving  his  disciples  in  temple  building  was  the  doctrine  of  baptism 
for  the  dead...  which  baptism  must  be  performed  in  the  temple;  no  other 
place  would  give  it  the  requisite  efficacy.'  Ferris'  The  Mormons,  97-8.  'An- 
other mode  of  making  the  dimes  was  that  of  giving  the  blessiitg,  as  it  was  said, 
from  heaven.  This  was  the  sole  province  of  the  patriarch,  which  office,  till 
his  death,  was  exercised  by  Hiram  Smith.  No  blessing  could  be  obtained  for 
less  than  one  dollar;  but  he  frequently  received  for  this  service  twenty, 
thirty,  and  even  forty  dollars. '  HalVs  3Iormonism,  22. 

^It  was  ordered  by  revelation  given  to  Joseph  Smith,  Jan.  19,  1841,  that 
a  hotel  should  be  built  and  called  the  Nauvoo  House;  that  it  should  be 
erected  under  the  supervision  of  George  Miller,  Lyman  Wight,  John  Snider, 
and  Peter  Haws,  one  of  whom  should  be  president  of  a  joint-stock  company 
to  be  formed  for  the  purpose,  and  that  stock  subscriptions  should  be  for  not 
less  than  fifty  dollars  nor  more  than  fifteen  thousand  dollars  by  any  one 
man,  and  that  only  by  a  believer  in  the  book  of  Mormon.  Vinson  Knight, 
Hyrum  Smith,  Isaac  Galland,  William  Marks,  Henry  G.  Sherwood,  and  Will- 
iam Law  were  directed  by  name  to  take  stock.  'And  now  I  say  unto  you, 
as  pertaining  to  my  boarding-house,  which  I  have  commanded  you  to  build 
for  the  boarding  of  strangers,  let  it  be  built  unto  my  name,  and  let  my  name 
be  named  upon  it,  and  let  my  servant  Joseph  and  his  house  have  place  therein 
from  generation  to  generation.'  The  Nauvoo  House  Associaton  was  incor- 
porated Feb.  23,  1841,  by  Georgo  Miller,  Lyman  Wight,  John  Snider,  and 
Peter  Haws,  and  associates.  Copy  of  act  in  Bennett's  Hist.  Saints,  204-5. 
Plan  of  city,  with  cuts  of  temple,  baptismal  font,  and  Nauvoo  Legion, 
with  description,  in  Bennett's  Hist.  Saints,  188-91,  which,  is  quite  erroneous, 
the  building  being  then  not  completed.  I  have  taken  this  account  chiefly 
from  Phelps'  description  in  The  Prophet.  The  Nauvoo  House,  says  Bennett, 
'though  intended  chiefly  for  the  reception  and  entertainment  of  strangers 
and  travellers,  contains,  or  rather  when  completed  is  to  contain,  a  splendid 
suite  of  apartments  for  the  special  accommodation  of  the  prophet  Joe  Smith, 
and  heirs  and  descendants  forever.'  Cut  of  temple,  and  best  description  of 
Nauvoo  institutions,  in  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  115,  190-1.  The  Nauvoo 
House,  in  form  of  an  L,  had  a  frontage  on  two  streets  of  120  feet  each, 
by  a  depth  of  40  feet;  the  estimated  cost  was  $100,000.  Times  and  Seasons^ 
ii.  309.  Another  building  opened  in  Nov.  1843  was  the  Nauvoo  mansion.  ., 
Hist.  Utah.    10 


temple  to  the  spiritual  man.  Unfortunately  both  the 
one  and  the  other  are  destined  to  an  occupancy  and 
enjoyment  all  too  brief  in  view  of  the  vast  labor  be- 
stowed upon  them.  Besides  these  buildings  are  the 
Hall  of  Seventies,  in  which  is  a  library,  the  Masonic 
Hall,  and  Concert  Hall;  also  there  a  university  and 
other  institutions  are  established,  though  having  as 
yet  no  separate  edifices. 

The  president  of  the  university  and  professor  of 
mathematics  and  English  literature  is  James  Kelly, 
a  graduate  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  a  ripe 
scholar;  Orson  Pratt,  a  man  of  pure  mind  and  high  or- 
der of  ability,  who  without  early  education  and  amidst 
great  difficulties  had  to  achieve  learning  as  best  he 
could,  and  in  truth  has  achieved  it;  professor  of  lan- 
guages, Orson  Spencer,  graduate  of  Union  College 
and  the  Baptist  Theological  Seminary,  New  York; 
professor  of  church  history,  Sidney  Rigdon,  versed 
in  history,  belles-lettres,  and  oratory.  In  the  board 
of  regents  we  find  the  leading  men  of  the  church;^ 
connected  with  the  university  were  four  common- 
school  wards,  with  three  wardens  to  each. 

In  1840  all  the  male  members  of  the  church  be- 
tween the  ages  of  sixteen  and  fifty  were  enrolled  in 
a  military  organization  known  as  the  Nauvoo  Legion, 
which  eventually  numbered  some  four  thousand  men, 
and  constituted  part  of  the  state  militia.  It  was  di- 
vided into  two  cohorts,  and  then  into  regiments,  bat- 
talions, and  companies,  Lieutenant-general  Joseph 
Smith  being  commander-in-chief.^     The  organization 

^Chancellor,  John  C.  Bennett;  registrar,  William  Law;  regents,  Joseph 
Smith,  Sidney  Rigdon,  Hynim  Smith,  William  Marks,  Samuel  H.  Smith, 
Daniel  H.  Wells,  N.  K.  Whitney,  Charles  C.  Rich,  John  T.  Barnett,  Wilson 
Law,  John  P.  Greene,  Vinson  Knight,  Isaac  Gallarid,  Elias  Higbee,  Robert 
D.  Foster,  James  Adams,  Samuel  Bennett,  Ebenezer  Robinson,  John  Snider, 
George  Miller,  Lenos  M.  Knight,  John  Taylor,  Heber  C.  Kimball.  The 
tuition  fees  were  five  dollars  per  quarter,  payable  twice  each  quarter  in  ad- 

^  Among  his  generals  were  Robert  D.  Foster,  George  W.  Robinson,  Charles 
C.  Rich,  W.  P.  Lyon,  Davison  Hibbard,  Hirum  Kimball,  A.  P.  Rockwood; 
majors,  Willard  Richards,  Hosea  Stout;  colonels,  John  F.  Weld,  Orson  Pratt, 
Francis  M.  Higbee,  Carlos  Gove,  C.  L.  Higbee,  James  Sloan,  George  Schindle, 
Amasa  Lyman,  D.  B.  Smith,  George  Coulson,  Alexander  McRea,  J.  R.  Back- 


was  modelled  after  the  Roman  legion.  The  men  were 
well  disciplined,  brave,  and  efficient.  These  troops 
carried  their  name  to  Utah,  where  they  were  reor- 
ganized in  May  1857. 

Though  all  are  soldiers,  there  are  no  dandy  warriors 
in  their  midst.  Each  one  returns  after  drill  to  his 
occupation — to  his  farm,  factory,  or  merchandise. 
Among  other  workshops  are  a  porcelain  factory  es- 
tablished by  a  Staffordshire  company,  two  steam  saw- 
mills, a  steam  flouring-mill,  a  foundry,  and  a  tool- 
factory.  A  j  oint-stock  company  is  organized  under  the 
style  of  the  Nauvoo  Agricultural  and  Manufactur- 
ing Association.  Just  outside  the  city  is  a  commu- 
nity farm,  worked  by  the  poor  for  their  own  benefit; 
to  each  family  in  the  city  is  allotted  one  acre  of 
ground;  the  system  of  community  of  property  does 
not  obtain. 

Most  of  the  people  in  and  about  Nauvoo  are 
Mormons,  but  not  all.  The  population  is  made  up 
chiefly  from  the  farming  districts  of  the  United  States 
and  the  manufacturing  districts  of  England;  though 
uneducated,  unpolished,  and  superstitious,  they  are 
for  the  most  part  intelligent,  industrious,  competent, 
honest,  and  sincere.^     With  a  shrewd  head  to  direct, 

enstos,  L.  Wood  worth;  captains,  D.  B.  Huntington,  Samuel  Hicks,  Amos  Da- 
vis, Marcellus  Bates,  Charles  Allen,  L.  N.  Scovil,  W.  M.  Allred,  Justus  Morse, 
John  F.  Olney ,  Darwin  Chase,  C.  M.  Kreymyer,  and  others.  '  Col.  A.  P.  Rock- 
wood  was  drill-master.  Rockwood  was  then  a  captain,  but  was  afterward  pro- 
moted to  colonel  of  the  militia,  or  host  of  Israel.  I  was  then  fourth  corporal 
of  a  company.  The  people  were  regularly  drilled  and  taught  military  tactics, 
8o  that  they  would  be  ready  to  act  when  the  time  came  for  returning  to  Jackson 
county,  the  promised  land  of  our  inheritance.'  Lee^s  Mormonism^  112.  'Re- 
views were  held  from  time  to  time,  and  flags  presented,  and  Joseph  appeared 
on  all  those  occasions  with  a  splendid  staff,  in  all  the  pomp  and  circumstance 
of  a  full-blown  military  commander.'  Ferris'  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  100-1. 
'At  the  last  dress  parade  of  the  legion,  he  was  accompanied  in  the  field  by  a 
display  of  ten  of  his  spiritual  wives  or  concubines,  dressed  in  a  fine  uniform, 
and  mounted  on  elegant  white  horses.'  Tucker's  Mormonism,  170.  After  the 
force  reached  Utah  it  was  'regularly  drilled  by  competent  officers,  many  of 
whom  served  in  Mexico  with  the  Mormon  battalion  under  Gen.  W.  Scott. 
They  are  well  armed,  and  perfectly  fearless.'  Hyde's  Mormonism,  183.  See 
further  Times  and  Seasons,  ii.  321-2,  417-18,  435,  517;  iii.  654,  700-1,  718, 
733-4,  921;  Stenhouse's  Tell  It  All,  306;  Deseret  News,  April  15  and  July  1, 
1857,  July  6,  1859;  Gunnison's  Mormons,  133;  Smucher's  Hist.  Mor.,  149; 
Kidder's  Mormonism,  182-9. 

*Says  the  St  Louis  Atlas  of  September  1841:  The  people  of  Nauvoo  *have 


like  that  of  the  prophet,  a  wisdom  like  his  to  concen- 
trate, a  power  like  his  to  say  to  ten  thousand  men,  do 
this,  and  it  is  done,  with  plenty  of  cheap,  virgin  land, 
with  a  collective  knowledge  of  all  arts,  and  with  hab- 
its of  economy  and  industry,  it  were  a  wonder  if  they 
did  not  rapidly  accumulate  property,  and  some  of 
them  acquire  wealth.  This  they  do,  though  tithed 
by  the  church,  and  detested  by  the  gentiles,  and  they 
prosper  in  a  remarkable  degree.  Of  course,  in  po- 
litical, as  in  spiritual  and  pecuniary  affairs,  the  proph- 
et's word  is  law. 

"Nauvoo  is  the  best  place  in  the  world!"  exclaims 
an  enthusiastic  saint.  Nauvoo,  the  beautiful  indeed  I 
And  ''as  to  the  facilities,  tranquillities,  and  virtues  of 
the  city,  they  are  not  equalled  on  the  globe."  Here 
the  saints  find  rest.  ''No  vice  is  meant  to  be  toler- 
ated; no  grog-shops  allowed;  nor  would  we  have  any 
trouble,  if  it  were  not  for  our  lenity  in  suffering  the 
w^orld,^  as  I  shall  call  them,  to  come  in  and  trade,  and 

been  grossly  misunderstood  and  shamefully  libelled . . .  The  present  population 
is  between  eight  and  nine  thousand,  and  of  course  it  is  the  largest  town  in 
Illinois.  The  people  are  very  enterprising,  industrious,  and  thrifty.  They 
are  at  least  quite  as  honest  as  the  rest  of  us  in  this  part  of  the  world,  and 
probably  in  any  other.  Some  peculiarities  they  have,  no  doubt.  Their  relig- 
ion is  a  peculiar  one;  that  is,  neither  Buddhism,  nor  Mahometanisra,  nor 
Judaism,  nor  Christianity,  but  it  is  a  faith  which  they  say  encourages  no 
vice  nor  immorality,  nor  departure  from  established  laws  and  usages;  neither 
polygamy,  nor  promiscuous  intercourse,  nor  comniunity  of  property ...  Ar- 
dent spirits  as  a  drink  are  not  in  use  among  them. .  .Tobacco,  also,  is  a  weed 
which  they  seem  almost  universally  to  despise.  We  don't  know  but  that  the 
Mormons  ought  to  be  expatriated  for  refusing  to  drink  whiskey  and  chew 
tobacco;  but  we  hope  the  question  will  not  be  decided  hastily,  nor  until  their 
judges  have  slept  off  the  fumes  of  their  own  liquor  and  cigars.'  'They  have 
enclosed  large  farms  on  the  prairie  ground,  on  which  they  have  raised  corn, 
wheat,  hemp,  etc.,  and  all  this  they  have  accomplished  within  the  short 
space  of  four  years.  I  do  not  believe  there  is  another  people  in  existence 
who  could  have  made  such  improvements  in  the  same  length  of  time  under 
the  same  circumstances.  And  here  allow  me  to  remark,  that  there  are  some 
here  who  have  lately  emigrated  to  this  place,  who  have  built  themselves 
large  and  convenient  homes  in  the  town;  others  on  their  farms  on  the  prairie, 
who,  if  they  had  remained  at  home,  might  have  continued  to  live  in  rented 
houses  all  their  days,  and  never  once  have  entertained  the  idea  of  building 
one  for  themselves  at  their  own  expense.'  Smucher's  Ilormonism,  159. 

*  Gentiles  were  not  excluded  from  the  holy  city.  In  Bennett's  Hist.  Saints^ 
158,  is  given  an  ordinance,  dated  March  1,  1841,  running  as  follows:  'Beit 
ordained  by  the  city  council  of  the  city  of  Nauvoo,  that  the  catholics,  pres- 
byterians,  methodists,  baptists,  latter-day  saints,  quakers,  episcopalians, 
universalists,  imitarians,  mohammedans,  and  all  other  religious  sects  and  de- 
nominations whatever,  shall  have  toleration  and  equal  privileges  in  this  city; 


enjoy  our  society,  as  they  say."  "They  are  a  wonder- 
fully enterprising  people,"  writes  a  gentile.  "Peace 
and  harmony  reign  in  the  city.  The  drunkard  is 
scarcely  ever  seen,  as  in  other  cities,  neither  does  the 
^,wful  imprecation  or  profane  oath  strike  upon  your 
ear;  but  while  all  is  storm  and  tempest  and  confusion 
abroad  respecting  the  Mormons,  all  is  peace  and  har- 
mony at  home,"^*^ 

About  this  time  there  comes  to  Joseph  Smith  a 
somewhat  singular  individual  making  somewhat  singu- 
lar advances.  He  is  a  yankee  huckster  of  the  first 
class,  only  for  his  merchandise,  instead  of  patent 
clocks  and  wooden  nutmegs,  he  offers  for  sale  theol- 
ogy, medicine,  and  a  general  assortment  of  political 
and  military  wares.  The  thing  is  a  fraud,  and  be- 
fore long  he  openly  announces  himself  as  such.  As 
his  manhood  is  far  inferior  to  his  duplicity,  so  his 
name — the  Keverend  General  John  C.  Bennett,  M. 
D.,  U.  S.  A.,  president,  chancellor,  and  master  in 
chancery — as  we  may  observe,  is  subordinate  to  his 
titles.     He  has  ability,  he  has  brains  and  fingers ;  but 

and  should  any  person  be  guilty  of  ridiculing,  abusing,  or  otherwise  deprer 
ciating  another  in  consequence  of  his  religion,  etc.,  he  shall  be  fined  and 
imprisoned.'  On  the  17th  of  March,  1842,  the  Female  Relief  Society  of  Nau- 
voo  was  organized. 

1"  In  the  Salem  Advertiser  was  published  an  account  of  the  visit  to  Nauvoo 
in  1843  of  one  Newhall,  a  lecturer,  who  says:  'I  sought  in  vain  for  anything 
that  bore  the  marks  of  immorality,  but  was  both  astonished  and  higlily  pleased 
at  my  ill  success.  I  could  see  no  loungers  about  the  streets  nor  any  drunk- 
ards about  the  taverns.  I  did  not  meet  with  those  distorted  features  of  ruf- 
fians, or  with  the  ill-bred  and  impudent.  I  heard  not  an  oath  in  the  place,  I 
saw  not  a  gloomy  countenance;  all  were  cheerful,  polite,  and  industrious.' 
Smuch€r\<i Mormons,  154-5.  'The  mayor  of  Nauvoo  deserves  praise  for  the 
stand  he  has  taken  in  favor  of  temperance.  The  retailing  of  ardent  spirits  is 
not  permitted  within  the  bounds  of  the  corporation.'  Kidder's  Mormons,  189. 
For  city  ordinance  prohibiting  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors  in  less  quantity 
than  a  quart  except  as  a  physician's  prescription,  see  Bennett's  Hist.  Saints,  27. 
On  the  12th  of  Nov.  1841,  B.  Winchester  writes  from  Nauvoo:  'You  would 
be  astonished,  if  you  were  here,  at  the  vast  improvement  made  in  so  short  a 
space  of  time. .  .You  will  see  nothing  like  idleness,  but  will  hear  the  hum  of 
industry,  nay,  may  I  not  say  more,  the  voice  of  merriment.  ..Now  as  to  the 
morality  of  the  people  here: . .  .you  know  if  you  should  throw  cold  water  into 
melted  iron  the  scene  would  be  terrific,  because  the  contrast  would  be  so 
great;  so  it  is  with  the  saints:  if  a  small  portion  of  wickedness  happens  among 
them,  the  contrast  between  the  spirit  of  Christ  and  that  of  darkness  is  so 
great  that  it  makes  a  great  upstir  and  tremendous  excitement;  this  is  the  case 
here;  but  in  other  communities  the  same  amount  of  crime  would  hardly  be 


he  has  no  soul.  He  comes  to  Joseph  and  says, 
"Hail,  master!"  and  worships  him.  He  professes  all 
that  the  Mormons  profess,  and  more;  he  does  all 
that  the  Mormons  do,  and  more.  So  the  prophet 
ifiakes  him  general  of  his  legion,  mayor  of  the  city, 
chancellor  of  the  university,  not  to  mention  his  func- 
tions as  attorney,  doctor,  and  privy  counsellor.  All 
this  is  done  with  quick  despatch;  and  the  result 
is  that  the  great  man  soon  tires  of  his  greatness, 
•or  thinks  to  become  yet  greater  by  turning  rene- 
gade, and  writing  a  book  against  his  late  friends  and 

1^  Representative  of  a  class  of  anti-Mormon  literature,  not  altogether 
creditable  to  either  its  authors  or  supporters,  are  the  following: 

The  History  of  the  Saints;  or.  An  Expose  of  Joe  Smith  and  Mormonism. 
By  John  G.  Bennett.     (Boston,  1842.) 

The  Abominations  of  Mormonism  Exposed;  containing  many  Fads  and 
Doctrines  concerning  that  singular  people  during  seven  years^  membership  with 
them,  from  1840  to  1847.     By  William  Hall.     (Cincinnati,  1852.) 

Mormonism:  Its  Leaders  and  Designs.  By  John  Hyde,  Jun.,  formerly  a 
Mormon  elder  and  resident  of  Salt  Lake  City.     (New  York,  1857.) 

Mormonism  Unveiled;  or,  The  Life  and  Confessions  of  the  late  Mormon 
bishop,  John  D.  Lee;  Written  by  Himself;  Embracing  a  history  of  Mormonism 
from  its  inception  down  to  the  present  time,  with  an  exposition  of  the  secret  his- 
tory, signs,  symbols,  and  crimes  of  the  Mormon  Church;  also  the  true  history 
of  the  horrible  butchery  knovm  as  the  Mountain  Meadovj  Massacre.  (St  Louis, 

The  role  of  traitor  is  not  one  which  in  any  wise  brings  credit  to  the 
performer,  either  from  one  side  or  the  other.  However  great  the  service  he 
may  render  us,  we  cannot  but  feel  that  he  is  false-hearted  and  vile.  Many 
of  the  apostates,  though  they  may  not  have  written  books,  declare  that  they 
joined  the  sect  only  to  learn  their  secrets  and  then  expose  them.  These  are 
the  most  contemptible  of  all.  There  may  be  cases  where  a  young  or  inex- 
perienced person,  through  ignorance  or  susceptibility,  has  been  carried  away 
for  a  time  contrary  to  the  dictates  of  cooler  judgment;  but  the  statements  of 
such  persons  are  justly  regarded  with  more  or  less  suspicion.  Far  better  is 
it,  far  more  honest  and  praiseworthy,  for  him  who,  having  unwittingly  made 
a  mistake,  seeks  to  rectify  it,  to  go  his  way  and  say  nothing  about  it;  for  if 
he  talks  of  writing  a  book  for  the  good  of  others,  as  a  warning,  and  that 
they  may  avoid  his  errors,  few  will  believe  him.  *  If  he  has  proved  traitor 
once,'  they  say,  'he  will  deceive  again;  and  if  he  is  sincere,  we  cannot  more 
than  half  believe  him,  for  such  an  individual  is  never  sure  of  himself.'  John 
C.  Bennett,  general,  doctor,  methodist  preacher,  and  quack,  is  from  his  own 
showing  a  bad  man.  He  devotes  some  fifty  pages  to  the  vindication  of  his 
character,  which  would  not  be  necessary  were  he  honest;  other  fifty  are 
given  to  defaming  his  late  worshipful  patron  Joseph  Smith,  which  would 
never  have  been  written  were  he  true.  When  a  man  thrusts  in  your  face 
three-score  certificates  of  his  good  character,  each  signed  by  from  one  to  a 
dozen  persons,  you  may  know  that  he  is  a  very  great  rascal.  Nor  are  we 
disappointed  here.  This  author  is  a  charlatan,  pure  and  simple;  such  was 
he  when  he  joined  the  Mormons,  and  before  and  after.  We  may  credit  him 
fully  when  he  says,  *  I  never  believed  in  them  or  their  doctrines;'  although 
in  a  letter  to  Dr  Dyer,  dated  Nauvoo,  Jan.  20,  1842,  he  declares:  '  My  heart  is 


There  is  another  individual  of  similar  name,  and 
yet  more  similar   character,  James  Arlington   Ben- 

filled  with  indignation,  and  my  blood  boils  within  me,  when  I  contemplate 
the  vast  injustice  and  cruelty  which  Missouri  has  meted  out  to  the  great 
philanthropist  and  devout  Christian,  General  Joseph  Smith,  and  his  honesfc 
and  faithful  adherents. '  When,  however,  he  affects  patriotism  and  lofty  devo- 
tion to  the  welfare  of  his  fellow-men,  pretending  to  have  joined  the  society 
in  order  to  frustrate  'a  daring  and  colossal  scheme  of  rebellion  and  usurpa- 
tion throughout  the  north-western  states, ...  a  despotic  military  and  religious 
empire,  the  head  of  which,  as  emperor  and  pope,  was  to  be  Joseph  Smith,* 
we  know  that  the  writer  is  well  aware  that  it  is  all  nonsense.  Nor  do  we  be- 
lieve that  he  was  induced  to  print  his  book  *  by  a  desire  to  expose  the  enor- 
mous iniquities  which  have  been  perpetrated  by  one  of  the  grossest  and 
most  infamous  impostors  that  ever  appeared  upon  the  face  of  the  earth.* 
We  have  heard  and  are  still  hearing  so  much  of  that  kind  of  talk  from  some 
of  the  worst  men  in  the  community  that  it  is  becoming  somewhat  stale,  and 
if  the  general  really  does  not  know  better  than  this  why  he  wrote  his  book, 
perhaps  he  will  excuse  me  for  telling  him  that  it  was,  first,  for  notoriety;  sec- 
ond, for  money;  and  third,  in  order  to  make  people  think  him  a  better  and 
greater  man  than  he  is.  When  a  man's  ambition  is  pitched  so  low,  it  is 
a  pity  that  he  should  not  have  the  gratification  of  success.  Bravely,  then,  the 
general  proceeded  to  offer  himself  on  the  altar  of  his  country,  *to  overthrow 
the  impostor  and  expose  his  iniquity '  by  '  professing  himself  a  convert  to  his 
doctrines;'  for  *the  fruition  of  his  hopeful  project  would,  of  course,  have 
been  preceded  by  plunder,  devastation,  and  bloodshed,  and  by  all  the  count- 
less horrors  which  invariably  accompany  civil  war.'  We  are  still  more  im- 
Eressed  when  we  read:  'I  was  quite  aware  of  the  danger  I  ran' — that  of 
eing  kicked  out  of  some  back  door — 'but  none  of  these  things  deterred  me.* 
Without  wasting  more  time  and  space  upon  the  man,  we  are  well  enough  pre- 
pared to  place  a  proper  estimate  upon  his  statements,  particularly  w^hen  we 
take  into  account  that,  in  May  of  the  very  year  in  which  his  book  was  pub- 
lished, he  went  before  Alderman  Wells  and  made  affidavit  that  Joseph  Smith 
was  an  honest,  virtuous,  sincere,  high-minded,  and  patriotic  man.  He  says 
himself  that  he  solemnly  swore  to  be  true  to  the  Mormons  and  not  reveal 
their  secrets,  and  now  in  breaking  that  oath  he  has  the  audacity  to  ask  us  to 
regard  him  as  an  honest  and  truthful  man!  In  some  measure,  at  least,  the 
statements  of  such  men  as  this,  taken  up  by  the  press  and  people,  and  reiter- 
ated throughout  the  land,  have  given  the  latter-day  saints  a  worse  name 
than  they  deserve.  Some  of  his  charges  are  too  coarse  and  filthy  for  repe- 
tition. I  will  cite  a  few  specimens,  however,  to  show  how  far  mendacity  is 
sometimes  carried  in  this  direction. 

Joseph  Smith  is  a  'monster  who  is  using  the  power  he  possesses  to  gratify 
a  brutal  lust;'  *a  Giovanni  of  some  dozens  of  mistresses;'  'must  be  branded 
as  a  consummate  knave;'  one  'of  the  most  heaven-daring  liars  the  world  ever 
saw;'  'notoriously  profane;'  'gets  most  gloriously  drunk,'  etc.  In  the  most 
vulgar  and  licentious  language,  he  goes  on  to  describe  what  he  calls  the  '  Mor- 
mon seraglio,'  'the  female  inquisition,'  'Joe's  cloistered,  chambered,  and  cy- 
prian  maids.'  He  revels  in  all  the  wickedness  of  this  kind  during  past  ages 
which  he  can  make  up,  rolling  it  as  a  sweet  morsel  under  his  tongue,  finally 
affirming  that  *  the  holy  Joe  outdoes  them  all ! '  He  says  that  any  woman  be- 
longing to  the  society  who  lapses  from  virtue  is  condemned  to  a  life  of  se- 
cret prostitution,  the  most  trustworthy  members  of  the  church  having  knowl- 
edge of  it;  another  class  indulge  in  illicit  intercourse  by  special  permission  of 
the  prophet;  another  class  are  the  spiritual  wives.  All  this  is  said,  be  it  re- 
membered, within  two  or  three  months  of  the  time  he  made  oath  that  Smith 
was  one  of  the  best  and  purest  of  men.  Next  comes  an  expose  of  several  se- 
cret societies,  the  Danites,  Destroying  Angel,  etc.,  and  finally  a  list  of  mur- 
ders and  robberies  perpetrated  in  that  section  during  a  certain  time,  all  of 


nett,  also  called  general,  whom  Mackay,  Smucker, 
a  reviewer  in  the  Edinhurghj  and  others  have  mis- 

which  are  charged  to  these  agencies.  Sidney  Rigdon  is  praised  by  Bennett; 
so  much  the  worse  for  Sidney.  Doubtless  this  book  played  its  part  in  bring- 
ing about  the  assassination  of  Joseph  Smith.  Says  John  Taylor  of  John  C. 
Bennett:  'At  one  time  he  was  a  good  man,  but  fell  into  adultery,  and  was 
cut  off  from  the  church  for  his  iniquity;. .  .he  was  also  expelled  from  the  mu- 
nicipal coui't,  of  which  he  was  a  member. '  Public  Discussion,  5-6. 

William  Hall  was  an  old  gentleman  of  simple  mind  and  manners  when  he 
wrote  his  book;  he  appears  to  be  earnest  and  truthful.  As  he  says  of  the 
saints,  so  I  should  say  of  him:  he  meant  well,  but  he  should  beware  of  bad 
leaders.  Hall  was  not  a  great  man  in  the  church,  like  Bennett;  nevertheless, 
like  Bennett  he  wrote  a  book,  but  unlike  Bennett's,  his  book  reads  like  that 
of  an  honest  man,  although  it  is  full  of  bitter  accusations  against  the  Mor- 
mons. All  such  works  should  be  taken  with  some  degrees  of  allowance;  for 
when  a  person  begins  to  rail  against  any  people  or  individual,  he  is  apt  to  be 
carried  away  and  misrepresent,  intentionally  or  unintentionally.  The  period 
that  Hall's  experiences  cover  is  quite  an  important  one,  including  as  it  does  the 
Illinois  expulsion  and  the  exodus  to  Great  Salt  Lake. 

Quite  different  from  any  of  his  brother  apostates  is  John  Hyde,  Jr,  who 
cannot  by  right  be  placed  in  the  category  of  vulgar  ranter  or  hypocritical  re- 
former. I  regard  him  as  an  able  and  honest  man,  sober  and  sincere.  He 
does  not  denounce  the  sect  as  hypocrites.  'I  know  your  sincerity;  I  know 
also  your  delusion,'  he  writes.  He  does  not  even  denounce  all  the  leaders; 
even  to  Brigliam  Young,  whom  he  mercilessly  scourges,  he  gives  credit  for 
ability  and  sincerity.  'That  you  are  sincere  in  your  confidence  in  Joseph 
Smith,  and  in  your  own  pretensions,'  he  writes  to  him,  'I  believe  and  ac- 
knowledge; but  at  the  same  time,  that  you  are  leading  confiding  thousands 
to  misery  and  ruin  is  evident ...  I  admire  your  genius,  but  I  deplore  its  exercise. 
...  I  admire  the  industry  of  your  people,  their  notable  labors,  and  their  general 
sincerity;  but  I  deplore  their  delusion,  and  I  denounce  their  deceivers.'  His 
book  is  dedicated  'To  the  honest  believers  in  Mormonism,' and  he  says  to 
thcni:  'In  writing  the  following  work  I  was  not  actuated  by  the  base  design 
of  helping  to  malign  an  unpopular  people,  nor  by  the  unworthy  one  of  ad- 
nduisteiing  to  a  mere  idle  curiosity.'  John  Hyde  was  born  in  England,  in 
1833,  and  joined  the  Mormons  there  when  fifteen  years  of  age.  He  was  al- 
most immediately  ordained  a  priest  and  began  to  preach.  In  1851  he  was 
ordained  one  of  the  seventies,  an  office  of  equal  power  Sut  inferior  jurisdic- 
tion to  that  ot  one  of  the  twelve,  and  joined  John  Taylor  in  France.  With 
about  400  Mormon  converts  he  sailed  from  Liverpool  in  Feb.  1853,  visited  Nau- 
voo,  and  thence  crossed  the  plains  in  company  with  2,500  brethren  to  Salt  Lake 
City,  Avhere  he  married  and  began  teaching  school.  In  Feb.  1854  he  was  'in- 
itiated into  the  mysteries  of  the  Mormon  endowment, '  became  shaken  in  the 
faith,  and  the  following  year,  having  accepted  a  mission  to  the  Hawaiian  Isl- 
ands, he  threw  off  Mormonism  and  preached  and  wrote  against  it  instead  of 
for  it.  In  his  book  he  gives  a  description  of  Salt  Lake  City  in  1853-4,  a  chap- 
ter entitled  'Practical  Polygamy,' and  others  on  Mormon  Mysteries,  Educa- 
tion, Brigham  Young,  Book  of  Mormon,  Theoretical  Polygamy,  and  Sup- 
pression of  Mormonism.  Hyde's  book  would  be  quite  useful  were  he  not  so 
loose  about  his  dates;  it  would  appear  from  the  way  he  throws  statements 
together  that  in  the  absence  of  a  date  he  guessed  at  it. 

Still  another  style  of  book  is  that  of  John  D.  Lee,  purporting  to  have 
been  written  by  him,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact  written  for  the  most  part  by 
W.  W.  Bishop  while  Lee  was  in  prison  condemned  to  death.  The  work,  there- 
fore, though  the  story  of  a  Mormon,  and  of  one  who  under  the  circumstances 
could  not  be  expected  to  be  very  friendly,  is  not  by  a  Mormon.  The  book 
is  not  essentially  different  from  the  matter  published  in  the  newspapers  about 
the  time  of  Lee's  execution,  under  the  title  of  'Confessions.'    Lee  gives  the 


taken  for  the  original.     The   quality  of  impudence 
appears  as  fully  in  the  second  Bennett  as  in  the  first. ^^ 

As  I  have  before  observed,  the  misfortunes  of  the 
saints  by  no  means  dampened  their  ardor,  or  impov- 
erished them  as  a  society.  Some  lost  their  all;  in 
that  case  the  others  helped  them.     Old  scores  were 

story  of  his  life,  simply  and  honestly  enough;  to  this  is  added  an  account  of 
the  Mountain  Meadow  massacre,  and  of  the  arrest,  trial,  and  execution  of 
Lee.  He  was  a  native  of  Illinois,  bom  in  1812,  worked  hard  and  with  suc- 
cess while  a  young  man,  became  an  enthusiastic  Mormon  in  1837,  and  went 
to  Missouri.  With  everything  there  he  was  highly  delighted;  he  attended 
devoutly  all  the  services  of  the  church,  and  was  duly  promoted.  He  was 
with  his  people  at  Nauvoo,  migrated  with  them  to  Utah,  and  was  adopted 
by  Brigham  Young.  In  1877  he  was  executed  for  participation  in  the  Moun- 
tain Meadow  massacre,  excusing  himself  while  cursing  others. 

Mormonism  and  the  Mormons;  A  Historical  View  of  the  rise  and  progress 
of  the  sect  self-styled  Latter-day  Saints;  by  Daniel  P.  Kidder,  is  the  title 
of  a  16mo  vol.  of  342  pages,  published  in  New  York,  and  bearing  no  date, 
though  entered  for  copyright  in  the  year  1842.  Mr  Kidder  certainly  wrote 
a  book  on  short  acquaintance  with  the  subject;  as  he  says  up  to  Nov.  1840, 
he  knew  little  about  it.  On  the  13th  of  that  month  he  found  himself 
on  board  a  Mormon  steamboat  called  the  Fulton  City,  on  the  Mississippi  River, 
bound  for  Nauvoo.  Nearly  all  the  passengers  and  crew  were  Mormons. 
Desirous  of  knowing  more  of  them,  and  holding  to  the  maxim  that  by  teach- 
ing most  is  to  be  learned,  he  procured  copies  of  the  Book  of  Mormon,  Doc- 
trine and  Covenants,  Howe's  Mormonism  Unveiled,  and  CorrilVs  Brief  His- 
tory, and  seating  himself  before  them  made  his  book,  which  consists  chiefly 
of  extracts  from  the  above  sources  tied  together  with  occasional  remarks 
neither  startling  nor  original.  In  Nauvoo,  without  date,  but  probably  about 
1841,  were  published  two  chapters  of  nonsense  about  women  and  their  relations 
and  duties  to  men,  entitled.  An  Extract  from  a  Manuscript  entitled  The 
Peace-maker,  or  the  Doctrines  of  the  Millennium,  being  a  Treatise  on  Religion 
and  Jurisprudence,  or  a  New  System  of  Religion  and  Politics.  For  God,  my 
Country,  and  my  Rights.  By  Adney  Hay  Jacob,  an  Israelite,  and  a  Shepherd 
of  Israel.  Nauvoo,  III.  J.  Smith,  Printer.  In  a  preface  the  reader  is  told: 
*  The  author  of  this  work  is  not  a  Mormon,  although  it  is  printed  by  their  press. ' 

^2  In  a  letter  to  the  prophet  dated  October  24,  1843,  which  has  become 
quite  famous,  James  A.  Bennett  pretends  to  have  been  baptized  by  Brigham 
Young,  a  ceremony  that  he  alludes  to  as  *  a  glorious  frolic  in  the  clear  blue 
ocean'  with  'your  most  excellent  and  worthy  friend.  President  B.  Young.' 
'Nothing  of  this  kind,'  he  goes  on  to  say,  'would  in  the  least  attach  me  to 
your  person  or  cause.  I  am  capable  of  being  a  most  undeviating  friend, 
without  being  governed  by  the  smallest  religious  influence ...  I  say,  therefore, 
go  ahead,  you  have  my  good  wishes.  You  know  Mahomet  had  his  right-hand 
man,'  etc.  Smith  replied  at  length  in  a  religio-philosophic  strain.  More  has 
been  made  of  this  correspondence  than  it  deserves.  It  was  printed  in  Times 
and  Seasons,  iv.  371-3,  in  Cor.  between  Joseph  Smith. .  .Wentworth. .  .and 
. ,  .Calhoun,  as  well  as  in  Macka'i's  The  Mormons,  and  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor. 
See  also  Edinburgh  Review,  April  1854,  334.  Mackay  observes:  'Joseph's  re- 
ply to  this  singular  and  too  candid  epistle  was  quite  as  singular  and  infinitely 
more  amusing.  Joseph  was  too  cunning  a  man  to  accept,  in  plain  terms,  the 
rude  but  serviceable  ofler;  and  he  rebuked  the  vanity  and  presumption  of 
Mr  Bennett,  while,  dexterously  retaining  him  for  future  use.'  All  this 
would  have  some  signiQcance  if  Smith  had  been  in  the  least  deceived,  or 
had  the  writer  of  this  letter  and  the  original  rascal  been  one. 


cancelled,  old  debts  forgiven.^^  There  were  no  great 
riches  among  them;  yet  he  who  had  nothing  could 
not  be  called  poor  amid  such  surroundings.  Head 
over  all,  temporal  and  spiritual,  was  Joseph  Smith, 
not  only  prophet  and  president,  but  general  and 
mayor. ^*  He  had  now  approached  the  summit  of  his 
career,  and  for  a  brief  space  was  permitted  to  enjoy 
his  fame,  wealth,  and  power  in  some  degree  of  quiet. 
They  were  salutary  lessons  that  the  prophet  and 
his  people  had  received  in  Missouri,  and  for  a  time 
their  speech  and  manner  were  less  arrogant  than  of 
old.  But  soon  prosperity  was  far  greater  here  than 
ever  before,  and  as  with  Israel  of  old  the  chastise- 
ments of  the  Lord  were  soon  forgotten.  From  the 
moment  they  crossed  the  river  from  Missouri  into 
llHnois  their  position  as  men  and  members  of  the 
commonwealth  was  changed.  In  the  one  state  they 
were  regarded  as  fanatics,  dangerous  to  the  govern- 
ment and  to  the  people,  having  associated  assassins  to 
do  their  bidding,  and  holding  to  a  doctrine  of  divine 
inheritance  with  regard  to  all  that  country;  in  the 

"  'At  the  conference  in  April  1840,  the  prophet  delivered  a  lengthy  ad- 
dress upon  the  history  and  condition  of  the  saints.  He  reminded  the  breth- 
ren that  all  had  suffered  alike  for  the  sake  of  the  gospel.  The  rich  and  the 
Eoor  had  been  brought  to  a  common  level  by  persecution;  that  many  of  the 
rethren  were  owing  debts  that  they  had  been  forced  to  contract  in  order  to 
get  out  of  Missouri  alive.  He  considered  it  was  unchristian-like  for  the 
brethren  to  demand  the  payment  of  such  debts;  that  he  did  not  wish  to 
screen  any  one  from  the  just  payment  of  his  debts,  but  he  did  think  that  it 
would  be  for  the  glory  of  the  kingdom  if  the  people  would,  of  their  own  will, 
freely  forgive  each  other  for  all  their  existing  indebtedness,  one  to  the  other, 
then  renew  their  covenants  with  almisihty  God  and  with  each  other;  refrain 
from  evil,  and  live  their  religion;  by  this  means,  God's  holy  spirit  would  sup- 
port and  Ijless  the  people.  The  people  were  then  asked  if  they  were  in  favor 
of  thus  bringing  about  the  year  of  jubilee.  All  that  felt  so  inclined  were 
asked  to  make  it  known  by  raising  their  hands;  every  hand  in  the  audience 
was  raised.'  The  prophet  then  declared  all  debts  of  the  saints,  to  and  from 
each  other,  forgiven  and  cancelled.  He  then  gave  the  following  words  of 
advice  to  the  people:  *I  wish  you  all  to  know  that  because  you  were  justified 
in  taking  property  from  your  enemies  while  engaged  in  war  in  Missouri, 
which  was  needed  to  support  you,  there  is  now  a  different  condition  of  things 
existing.  We  are  no  longer  at  war,  and  you  must  stop  stealing.  When  the 
right  time  comes  we  will  go  in  force  and  take  the  whole  state  of  Missouri.  It 
belongs  to  us  as  an  inheritaace;  but  I  want  no  more  petty  stealing.'  i/ee'« 
Mormonism,  110-11. 

^*  Smith  was  first  mayor.     Feb.  1,  1841,  Bennett  was  elected  mayor  and 
80  continued  till  May  19,  1842,  when  Smith  again  assumed  the  office. 


other  they  were  esteemed  as  hard-working  and  thrifty 
American  citizens,  whose  votes,  to  the  party  in  power, 
were  worth  as  much  as  those  of  the  baptist  or  the 

Such  was  their  past  and  present  status  in  the  com- 
munity. They  were  now  treated,  poHtically  and 
socially,  with  consideration,  especially  by  politicians. 
Thomas  Carlin,  governor  of  Illinois,  was  their  friend, 
and  granted  them  all  the  privileges  they  asked;  Rob- 
ert Lucas,  governor  of  Iowa,  was  their  friend,  and 
promised  them  the  protection  due  to  every  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  of  whatsoever  religion,  creed, 
superstition,  fanaticism,  craze,  or  whatever  people 
might  choose  to  call  it. 

But  soon  there  came  a  governor,  named  Thomas 
Ford,  who  knew  not  Joseph.  He  was  a  well  meaning 
man  enough,  not  blood-thirsty  like  Boggs,  nor  strong 
and  cool-headed  like  Carlin,  nor  yet  a  man  of  positive 
action  and  opinion  like  Lucas;  still.  Ford  was  not  a 
bad  man,  and  if  the  saints  had  conducted  themselves 
according  to  the  wisdom  of  the  world,  they  might  in 
time,  perhaps,  have  overcome  the  prejudices  of  the 
people.  But  prosperity  seemed  as  fatal  to  them  as 
adversity  was  profitable.  All  the  best  of  heaven  and 
earth  was  now  theirs,  and  again  Jeshurun  waxed  fat 
and  kicked,  revelations  becoming  less  frequent  as  the 
cares  of  this  world,  the  lusts  of  the  flesh,  and  the 
pride  of  life  crept  in  among  the  people. 

The  city  charter  of  Nauvoo^^  allowed  the  enact- 
ment of  any  laws  not  in  conflict  with  those  of  the 
state  or  of  the  United  States,  and  particularly  that  a 
writ  of  habeas  corpus  might  be  issued  in  all  cases  aris- 
ing under  city  ordinance.    In  the  interpretation  of  this 

^^  Describing  Nauvoo  at  this  period,  Linforth  remarks:  *  Before  the  close 
of  1842  a  vast  improvement  had  takeu  place.  The  city,  which  then  extended 
3  or  4  miles  on  the  river,  and  about  the  same  distance  back,  had  been  regu- 
larly laid  off  into  blocks,  containing  4  lots  of  11  by  12  rods  each,  between  700 
and  800  houses  had  been  erected,  and  the  population  numbered  about  15,000. 
Two  Rteara-mills  and  2  printing-presses  existed,'  and  buildings  for  various 
manufactures  were  rapidly  going  up.  In  the  mean  time  the  temple  and 
Nauvoo  House  were  progressing.'  Route  from  Liverpool  to  G.  S.  L.  Valley,  02. 


provision  the  saints  allowed  themselves  rather  a  wide 
latitude,  even  assuming  authority  opposed  to  superior 
powers,  and  sometimes  questioning  the  validity  of  state 
documents  not  countersigned  by  the  mayor  of  Nauvoo. 
The  counties  surrounding  Hancock,  in  which  was  Nau- 
voo, were  fearful  of  the  prosperity  of  the  saints,  and  of 
their  political  influence;  there  were  angry  words  and 
bickerings  between  the  opposing  societies,  and  then 
blows.  The  old  Missouri  feud  was  kept  alive  by  suits 
instituted  against  Smith  and  others/^  An  attempt 
made  to  assassinate  Governor  Boggs  was,  of  course, 
charged  to  the  Mormons,  and  probably  with  truth. 
In  fact,  if  we  may  believe  their  enemies,  they  did  not 
deny  it.  Boggs  had  unlawfully  ordered  all  the  Mor- 
mons in  Missouri  killed  if  they  did  not  leave  the 
state:  why  had  not  they  the  same  right,  they  argued, 
to  break  the  law  and  kill  him?^^ 

Among  the  reports  circulated,  besides  those  of 
assassination  and  attempted  assassination,  the  follow- 
ing will  serve  as  specimens:  That  the  plan  of  Smith 

^^  When  on  his  return  from  Quincy,  to  which  place  he  had  accompanied 
Hyrum  Smith  and  William  Law,  who  were  on  a  mission  to  the  east,  Joseph 
was  arrested  the  5th  of  June,  1841,  on  a  warrant  from  Gov.  Carlin  to  deliver 
hhn  to  the  Missouri  state  authorities.  In  return,  Joseph  Smith  brought  suit 
against  J.  H.  Reynolds  and  H.  G.  Wilson  for  false  imprisonment.  This  as 
well  as  other  affairs  of  the  kind  kept  up  a  bitter  excitement. 

i^On  the  Cth  of  May,  1842,  Gov.  Boggs  was  fired  at  through  a  window, 
and  narrowly  escaped  being  killed.  The  crime  was  charged  to  O.  P.  Rock- 
well, '  with  the  connivance  and  under  the  instructions  of  Joseph  Smith. '  Hyde's 
Mormonism,  105,  206.  Boggs  swore  he  believed  Smith  a  party  to  the  at- 
tempted assassination,  and  instituted  legal  proceedings.  Machay's  The  Mor- 
mons, 139.  Bennett,  Hist.  Saints,  231-2,  labors  hard  to  prove  that  Smith 
wanted  Boggs  killed,  and  said  as  much,  which  it  seems  to  me  few  would  deny. 
Bennett  states  that  in  1841  Smith  prophesied  that  Boggs  would  die  by  violent 
hands  within  a  year.  *  In  the  spring  of  the  year  1842  Smith  offered  a  reward  of 
$500  to  any  mgn  who  would  secretly  assassinate  Gov.  Boggs. '  Joseph  O.  Boggs, 
brother  of  the  governor,  writes  Bennett,  Sept.  12,  1842,  'We  have  now  no 
doubt  of  the  guilt  of  Smith  and  Rockwell.'  Id.,  286.  Rockwell  was  arrested, 
discharged,  and  went  to  Utah.  'Brigham  has  had  him  into  the  pulpit,'  says 
Hyde,  '  to  address  the  meetings.'  We  read:  '  Grin  Porter  Rockwell,  the  ]\Ior- 
mon  confined  in  our  county  jail  some  time  since  for  the  attempted  assassination 
of  ex-govcrnor  Boggs,  was  indicted  by  our  last  grand  jury  for  escaping  from  the 
county  jail  some  weeks  since,  and  sent  to  Clay  county  for  trial.  Owing,  how- 
ever, to  some  informality  in  the  proceedings,  he  was  remanded  to  this  county 
again  for  trial.  There  was  not  sufficient  proof  adduced  against  him  to  justify 
an  indictment  for  shooting  at  ex-governor  Boggs;  and  the  grand  jury,  there- 
fore, did  not  indict  him  for  that  offence.'  Independent  Expositor;  Niks'  Regis- 
ter, Sept.  30,  1843. 


was  to  take  the  county,  then  the  state,  after  that  the 
United  States,  and  finally  the  whole  world;  that  any 
section  making  a  move  against  the  saints  should  be 
destroyed  by  the  Danites;  that  Smith  declared  his 
prophecies  superior  to  law,  and  threatened  that  if  not 
let  alone  he  would  prove  a  second  Mahomet,  and  send 
streams  of  blood  from  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the 

In  an  address  to  the  saints  at  Nauvoo,  September 
1,  1842,  Joseph  stated  that  on  account  of  the  enemies 
in  pursuit  of  him,  both  in  Missouri  and  in  Illinois,  he 
deemed  it  best  to  retire  for  a  time,  and  seek  safety.^^ 
He  ordered  his  debts  paid  as  they  fell  due,  his  prop- 
erty to  be  sold  if  necessary  to  meet  requirements, 
and  exhorted  all  officers  to  be  faithful  to  their  trust. 
"When  the  storm  is  past  I  will  return,"  he  said;  "and 
as  for  perils,  they  seem  small  things  to  me,  for  the 
envy  and  wrath  of  man  have  been  my  common  lot  all 
the  days  of  my  life."  And  again:  "Verily  thus  saith 
the  Lord,  let  the  work  of  my  temple,  and  all  the  works 
which  I  have  appointed  unto  you,  be  continued  and 
not  cease.  Let  all  the  records  be  had  in  order,  that 
they  may  be  put  in  the  archives  of  my  holy  temple. 
I  will  write  the  word  of  the  Lord  from  time  to  time 
and  send  it  to  you  by  mail.  I  now  close  my  letter  for 
the  present,  for  the  want  of  more  time,  for  the  enemy 
is  on  the  alert;  and  as  the  savior  said,  the  prince  of 
this  world  cometh,  but  he  hath  nothing  in  me." 

Five  days  later  the  prophet  sent  an  address  to  the 
saints,  mainly  touching  the  baptism  for  the  dead,  of 
which  more  hereafter.  "Now  what  do  we  hear  in  the 
gospel  which  we  have  received  ?  A  voice  of  gladness ! 
A  voice  of  mercy  from  heaven;  and  a  voice  of  truth 
out  of  the  earth,  glad  tidings  for  the  dead;  a  voice 
of  gladness  for  the  living  and  dead ;  glad  tidings  of 
great  j  oy .  And  again  what  do  we  hear  ?  Glad  tidings 
from  Cumorah!  Moroni,  an  angel  from  heaven,  de- 
claring the  fulfilment  of  the  prophets — the  book  to 
be  revealed.     A  voice  of  the  Lord  in  the  wilderness 


of  Fayette,  Seneca  county,  declaring  the  three  wit- 
nesses to  bear  record  of  the  book.  The  voice  of  Mi- 
chael on  the  banks  of  the  Susquehanna,  detecting  the 
devil  when  he  appeared  as  an  angel  of  light.  The 
voice  of  Peter,  James,  and  John  in  the  wilderness  be- 
tween Harmony,  Susquehanna  county,  and  Colesville, 
Boone  county,  on  the  Susquehanna  River,  declaring 
themselves  as  possessing  the  keys  of  the  kingdom, 
and  of  the  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times.  And 
again,  the  voice  of  God  in  the  chamber  of  old  Father 
Whitmer,  in  Fayette,  Seneca  county,  and  at  sundry 
times  and  in  divers  places,  through  all  the  travels 
and  tribulations  of  this  church  of  Jesus  Christ  of 
Latter-day  Saints." 

We  come  now  to  a  most  momentous  epoch  in  the 
history  of  the  church,  to  the  most  important  act  of 
the  prophet  during  the  entire  course  of  his  wonderful 
life,  to  the  act  of  all  others  pregnant  with  mighty 
results,  if  we  except  the  primary  proceedings  relative 
to  the  sacred  book  and  its  translation. 

Twenty  years  had  passed  since  the  plates  of  Mor- 
mon had  been  revealed  to  Joseph,  during  which  time 
he  had  suffered  divers  and  continued  persecution. 
He  and  his  followers  had  been  reviled  and  spit  upon 
from  the  beginning;  some  of  them  had  been  robbed, 
and  beaten,  hunted  down,  imprisoned,  and  slain. 
Yet  they  had  prospered;  the  church  had  rapidly 
increased,  and  its  members  were  blessed  with  plenty. 
Their  neighbors  spoke  much  evil  of  them  and  com- 
mitted many  violent  acts.  The  saints  were  exceed- 
ingly annoying;  they  voted  solid  and  claimed  the 
whole  world  as  theirs,  including  Jackson  county, 
Missouri;  they  were  wild  in  their  thoughts,  extrava- 
gant in  their  pretensions,  and  by  no  means  temperate 
in  the  use  of  their  tongues;  they  were  not  always 
prudent;  they  were  not  always  without  reproach. 

Just  how  far  certain  members  or  leaders  erred, 
bringing  evil  on  all,  it  is  impossible  at  this  day  to 


determine.  The  evidence  comes  to  us  in  the  form 
of  rumors,  general  assertions,  and  bold  statements 
from  the  mouths  of  men  filled  with  deadly  hate,  and 
cannot  be  altogether  trusted.  Some  of  these  have  said 
that  the  leaders  of  the  church,  finding  their  power 
over  the  minds  and  bodies  of  their  female  associ- 
ates so  greatly  increased,  so  rapidly  becoming  abso- 
lute, could  not  resist  temptation,  but  fell  into  grievous 
sins  like  Jeroboam  and  David,  and  were  thereby 
obliged  to  adopt  some  plan  either  to  cover  or  make 
right  their  conduct. 

It  was  easy  for  the  gentiles  to  make  such  a  charge 
appear  plausible,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  about 
this  time  the  doctrine  of  plurality  of  wives  as  prac- 
tised and  promulgated  in  the  scriptures  attracted 
much  attention.  Most  of  the  other  acts,  customs, 
and  ordinances  of  the  old  and  new  testaments  had 
been  adopted  in  common  with  those  contained  in  the 
book  of  Mormon  by  the  latter-day  church;  why 
should  not  this?  Wives  and  concubines  without  re- 
striction had  been  permitted  to  the  worthy  men  of 
old;  the  holy  scriptures  had  nowhere  condemned  the 
custom;  God  had  at  no  time  ordered  otherwise.  On 
the  contrary,  it  seemed  in  the  line  of  example  and 
duty;  it  seemed  necessary  to  make  the  holy  fabric 
symmetrical  and  complete.  True,  it  was  not  now  in 
vogue  with  either  Jews  or  Christians;  but  neither 
were  miracles  nor  special  revelations.  Surely,  if  God 
disapproved,  he  would  have  so  declared;  his  com- 
mands he  makes  clear;  particularly  acts  heinous  in  his 
sight  he  denounces  loudly  and  with  many  repetitions. 

Thus  argued  the  elders.  They  did  not  consider,  nor 
indeed  care  for,  the  fact  that,  viewed  from  the  stand- 
point of  intellectual  progress,  the  revival  of  polygamy, 
or  concubinage,  in  common  with  other  practices  of 
the  half-savage  Hebrews,  was  a  retrogression,  a  turn- 
ing back  toward  savagism.  They  found  it  sanctioned 
in  the  holy  book  in  use  by  the  most  civilized  nations 
of  the  earth,  and  they  felt  themselves  able  to  make 


it  appear  plausible.  If  any  had  the  right  to  adopt  part 
of  the  bible  as  their  rule  of  conduct,  accepting  it  all  as 
true,  they  claimed  the  right  to  adopt  the  whole  of  it 
for  their  rule  of  conduct  if  they  chose.  It  was  civil- 
ization, and  not  the  holy  scriptures,  that  forbad<? 
polygamy,  and  they  cared  very  little  comparatively 
for  civiHzation. 

Finally,  on  the  12th  of  July,  1843,  while  the  chief 
men  of  the  church  were  thinking  the  matter  over, 
though  saying  little  even  among  themselves,  it  is 
stated  that  there  came  to  Joseph  a  revelation,  the  last 
of  the  prophet's  revelations  of  which  there  is  any 

"Verily,  thus  saith  the  Lord  unto  you,  my  servant 
Joseph,  that  inasmuch  as  you  have  inquired  of  my 
hand  to  know  and  understand  wherein  I,  the  Lord, 
justified  my  servants  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob;  as 
also  Moses,  David,  and  Solomon,  my  servants,  as  touch- 
ing the  principles  and  doctrine  of  their  having  many 
wives  and  concubines:  Behold!  and  lo,  I  am  the  Lord 
thy  God,  and  will  answer  thee,  as  touching  this  matter. 

"Abraham  received  concubines,  and  they  bare  him 
children,  and  it  was  accounted  unto  him  for  righteous- 
ness, because  they  were  given  unto  him,  and  he  abode 
in  my  law;  as  Isaac  also,  and  Jacob,  did  none  other 
things  than  that  which  they  were  commanded. 
David  also  received  many  wives  and  concubines,  as 
also  Solomon,  and  Moses,  my  servant,  as  also  many 
others  of  my  servants,  from  the  beginning  of  creation 
until  this  time,  and  in  nothing  did  they  sin,  save  in 
those  things  which  they  received  not  of  me. 

"David's  wives  and  concubines  were  given  unto  him 
of  me  by  the  hand  of  Nathan,  my  servant,  and  others 
of  the  prophets  who  had  the  keys  of  this  power;  and 
in  none  of  these  things  did  he  sin  against  me,  save  in 
the  case  of  Uriah  and  his  wife;  and,  therefore,  he  hath 
fallen  from  his  exaltation,  and  received  his  portion; 
and  he  shall  not  inherit  them  out  of  the  world,  for  I 
gave  them  unto  another,  saith  the  Lord. 


"Verily,  I  say  unto  you,  a  commandment  I  give 
unto  mine  handmaid,  Emma  Smith,  your  wife,  whom 
I  have  given  unto  you,  that  she  stay  herself,  and  par- 
take not  of  that  which  I  commanded  you  to  offer  unto 
her;  for  I  did  it,  saith  the  Lord,  to  prove  you  all,  as 
I  did  Abraham,  and  that  I  might  require  an  offer- 
ing at  your  hand  by  convenant  and  sacrifice;  and  let 
mine  handmaid,  Emma  Smith,  receive  all  those  that 
have  been  given  unto  my  servant  Joseph,  and  who 
are  virtuous  and  pure  before  me. 

"And  I  command  mine  handmaid,  Emma  Smith,  to 
abide  and  cleave  unto  my  servant  Joseph,  and  to  none 
else.  And  again,  verily,  I  say,  let  mine  handmaid 
forgive  my  servant  Joseph  his  trespasses,  and  then 
shall  she  be  forgiven  her  trespasses,  wherein  she  hath 
trespassed  against  me ;  and  I,  the  Lord  thy  God,  will 
bless  her  and  multiply  her,  and  make  her  heart  to  re- 

"And  again,  as  pertaining  to  the  law  of  the  priest- 
hood: if  any  man  espouse  a  virgin,  and  desire  to  espouse 
another,  and  the  first  give  her  consent;  and  if  he 
espouse  the  second,  and  they  are  virgins,  and  have 
vowed  to  no  other  man,  then  he  is  justified;  he  can- 
not commit  adultery,  for  they  are  given  unto  him; 
for  he  cannot  commit  adultery  with  that  belonging 
unto  him,  and  to  none  else;  and  if  he  have  ten  virgins 
given  unto  him  by  this  law  he  cannot  commit  adultery, 
for  they  belong  to  him,  and  they  are  given  unto  him ; 
therefore  he  is  justified." 

It  is  said  that  as  early  as  1831  the  will  of  the  Lord 
in  this  respect  had  been  revealed  to  Joseph.  In 
translating  the  bible  he  had  come  upon  the  passages 
relating  to  plural  wives  and  concubines,  and  had  in- 
quired of  the  Lord  what  he  should  do.  He  was  told 
to  wait,  and  not  make  the  matter  public  then,  the  peo- 
ple not  yet  having  faith  to  receive  it.  It  was  one  of 
the  severest  trials  the  church  had  yet  been  called  upon 
to  undergo,  and  the  wisest  circumspection  was  neces- 
sary lest  Joseph  should  be  repudiated  by  his  followers 

Hist.  Utah.    11 


as  a  false  prophet.  So  he  approached  persons  singly, 
first  the  man  of  the  family  and  then  the  woman.  In 
1841  Joseph  began  to  take  to  himself  plural  wives, 
and  his  example  was  followed  by  some  of  the  others. 
Finally,  in  order  that  all  might  know  that  he  was  not 
acting  on  his  own  responsibility  alone,  the  revelation 
came,  sanctioning  and  enforcing  the  system.  This,  as 
I  have  given  it,  is  the  orthodox  and  authorized  ex- 
planation of  the  matter. 

Thus  came  to  the  saints  the  doctrine  of  polygamy, 
first  to  the  leaders  and  for  a  time  kept  secret,  and 
finally  to  the  whole  church,  as  one  of  its  most  prom- 
inent tenets."  For  years  it  was  known  only  to  a  few, 
and  it  was  not  formally  promulgated  until  after  the 
great  exodus,  when  the  church  had  become  well  es- 
tablished in  the  valleys  of  the  Yutas.^^ 

There  were  several  reasons  for  adopting  this  course. 
First,  the  hate  and  obloquy  which  would  be  engendered 
by  its  publication,  and  the  wide-spread  and  bitter  oppo- 
sition it  would  meet.  The  work  of  missionaries  in  the 
field  would  greatly  suffer.  Many  in  the  church  would 
oppose  it;  women  would  rebel,  while  their  sisters 
throughout  Christendom  would  hold  them  in  derision. 
It  was  all  so  new  and  strange.  Even  in  theory  it 
was  startling  enough;  but  put  it  in  practice,  and  who 
could  foretell  the  result?     The  very  foundations  of 

'^  John  Hyde  mentions  a  previous  revelation.  He  says  that  about  the 
year  1838  'Smith  pretended  to  obtain  a  revelation  from  God  authorizing  him 
to  practise  polygamy,  and  began  to  practise  it  accordingly. '  M or  monism,  203. 
See  also  Slater's  Mormonism,  84,  and  Deseret  News,  Oct.  22,  1879.  There  is 
no  truth  whatever  in  this  assertion.  And  yet  John  Hyde  is  regarded  as  pretty 
good  authority;  but  in  this  loose  way  thousands  of  false  statements  have 
been  made  regarding  the  secrets  of  the  saints. 

^*This  revelation  was  first  published  in  the  Deseret  News  in  1852,  and 
next  in  the  Millennial  Star  at  Liverpool,  England,  in  1853.  It  is  given  entire 
elsewhere  in  this  volume.  The  Edinburgh  Review  of  April  1854, 335,  says,  *Noc 
many  months  have  yet  passed  since  the  Mormon  leaders  have  decided  on  a 
bolder  policy  and  have  publicly  avowed  this  portion  of  the  system, '  which 
shows  that  the  fact  of  publication  was  not  generally  known  to  the  gentile  Euro- 
pean world  until  two  years  after  the  official  notice  in  Salt  Lake  City  appeared. 
Copies  of  it  will  also  be  found  in  Doc.  and  Cov.,  423-32;  Young's  Wife  No. 
19,  77-86;  Ferris''  Utah  and  the  Mormons,  app.;  Burton's  City  of  the  Saints, 
451-7;  Tucker's  Mormonism,  172-82;  Smith's  Rise,  Prog,  and  Travels,  42-8; 
Pearl  of  Great  Price,  64-70:  Stenhouse's  Tell  It  All,  135-8;  and  Stenhouse's 
Expose  of  Polygamy,  207-15. 


tlie  church  might  thereby  be  broken  up.  If  it  must 
needs  be,  then  let  discretion  be  used.  Let  the  mat- 
ter be  broken  to  the  church  as  it  is  able  to  receive  it; 
let  the  system  be  introduced  gradually,  and  practised 
secretly;  by  the  chief  men  at  first,  and  later  by  all.^° 
It  was  indeed  a  heavy  load  that  the  saints  thus  took 
upon  themselves,  willingly  or  unwillingly,  in  the  ser- 
vice of  God  or  in  the  service  of  Satan.     Up  to  this 

2"  It  is  denied  by  some  that  polygamy  was  practised  by  the  Mormons  at 
this  date.  In  the  Deseret  News  of  Oct.  22,  1879,  are  several  statements  under 
oath  to  the  effect  that  between  1840  and  1843  Joseph  taught  the  doctrine  of 
celestial  or  plural  marriage,  that  several  women  were  sealed  to  him  according 
to  this  doctrine,  and  this  with  the  consent  of  Joseph's  wife,  Emma  Smith. 
On  the  other  hand,  it  is  stated  in  the  Scdi  Lake  Citif  Tribune,  Oct.  3,  1 879, 
that  Emma  denied  that  her  husband  was  ever  married  to  another,  or  that,  so 
far  as  she  knew,  he  ever  had  improper  relations  with  any  woman.  Elder  Pratt 
reported  at  Piano,  111.,  in  the  summer  of  1878,  several  instances  of  Joseph's 
having  had  wives  sealed  to  him,  one  at  least  as  early  as  April  5,  1841.  '  Smith 
introduced  (at  Nauvoo)  the  system  of  spiritual  wifeism,  and  had  largely  in- 
creased his  household  by  celestial  ensealment.  This  was  the  preliminary  step 
of  polygamy,  or  its  practical  adoption,  though  it  had  not  yet  been  revealed 
as  a  tenet  in  the  Mormon  creed. '  Tucker's  M or  monism  y  170.  The  revelation 
was  written  after  he  had  taken  other  wives.  Stenhouse's  Exposi  of  Pol  agamy, 
70.  Jos.  Smith  adopts  it  and  is  sealed  to  Eliza  Snow.  Tullklge's  Life  of 
Yonnij,  Suppl.  22.  In  a  letter  to  the  Deseret  News,  Oct.  22,  1879,  Eliza  II. 
Snow  signs  her  name  as  'a  wife  of  Joseph  Smith  the  prophet.'  'Brigham 
Young  delivered  over  to  Jo  Smith  all  his  wives  except  one,  and  soon  "after 
Smith  had  a  revelation  that  Young  should  be  his  successor  as  head  of  the 
church,'  Slater's  Mormonism,  84.  John  D.  Lee  says:  *I  understood  that 
Brig.  Young's  wife  was  sealed  to  Joseph.  After  his  death  Brig.  Young  told 
me  that  Joseph's  time  on  earth  was  short,  and  that  the  Lord  allowed  him 
privileges  that  we  could  not  have.'  Mormonism,  147.  Jos.  Smith  had  taken 
some  more  wives,  but  the  revelation  required  that  he  should  do  it  without 
publicity  (for  fear  of  the  mob).  Richards'  Reminiscences,  MS.,  18.  'Joseph 
Smith  lost  his  life  entirely  through  attempting  to  persuade  a  Mrs  Dr  Foster, 
at  Nauvoo,  that  it  was  the  will  of  God  she  should  become  his  spiritual  wife; 
not  to  the  exclusion  of  her  husband,  Dr  Foster,  but  only  to  become  his  in 
time  for  eternity.  This  nefarious  oflfer  she  confessed  to  her  husband.  Some 
others  of  a  siaiilar  nature  were  discovered,  and  Dr  Foster,  William  Law,  and 
others  began  to  expose  Smith.  Their  paper  was  burned,  type  and  press  de- 
molished, for  which  Smith  was  arrested,  and  afterward  shot  by  Missouriaus, 
at  Carthage,  111. '  Hyde's  Mormonism,  85. 

*  Smith  and  Noble  repaired  by  night  to  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi,  where 
Noble's  sister  was  sealed  to  Smith  by  Noble,  and  the  latter  to  another  woman 
by  Smith.  These  were  the  first  plural  marriages,  and  a  son  born  to  Noble 
the  first  child  bom  in  polygamy.'  Young's  Wife  No.  19,  72-3.  'That  polyg- 
amy existed  at  Nauvoo,  and  is  now  a  matter  scarcely  attempted  to  be  con- 
cealed among  the  Mormons,  is  certain.'  Gunnison's  Mormons,  120.  On  the 
other  side,  in  Times  and  Seasons,  iv.  143  (March  15,  1843),  we  read,  'The 
charge  of  advocating  a  plurality  of  wives  is  as  false  as  the  many  other  ridicu- 
lous charges  brought  against  us.'  In  Id.,  v.  474  (March  15,  1844),  Hynim 
Smith  declares  that  no  such  doctrine  is  taught  or  practised;  and  on  p.  715  it 
is  declared  that  'the  law  of  the  land  and  the  rules  of  the  church  do  not  allow 
one  man  to  have  more  than  one  wife  alive  at  once. '  For  additional  denials 
by  Parley  Pratt,  John  Taylor,  and  others,  see  S.  L.  Tribune,  Nov.  11,  1879. 


time,  though  citizens  of  the  commonwealth,  they  had 
not  been  in  sympathy  with  other  citizens;  though 
rehgionists,  they  were  in  deadly  opposition  to  all  other 
religions;  as  a  fraternity,  bound  by  friendly  compact, 
not  alone  spiritually  but  in  temporal  matters,  in  buying 
and  selling,  in  town-building,  farming,  and  stock-rais- 
ing, in  all  trades  and  manufactures,  they  stood  on  vant- 
age-ground. They  were  stronger  than  their  immediate 
neighbors — stronger  socially,  politically,  and  indus- 
trially ;  and  the  people  about  them  felt  this,  and  while 
hating,  feared  them. 

It  is  true,  that  on  their  first  arrival  in  Zion  they 
were  not  wealthy ;  neither  were  their  neighbors.  They 
were  not  highly  educated  or  refined  or  cultured; 
neither  were  their  neighbors.  They  were  sometimes 
loud  and  vulgar  of  speech ;  so  were  their  neighbors. 
Immorality  cropped  out  in  certain  quarters;  so  it  did 
among  the  ancient  Corinthians  and  the  men  of  mod- 
ern Missouri;  there  was  some  thieving  among  them; 
but  they  were  no  more  immoral  or  dishonest  than 
their  persecutors  who  made  war  on  them,  and  as 
they  thought  without  a  shadow  of  right. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  among  the  Mormons  as 
among  the  gentiles,  perhaps  among  the  Mormon 
leaders  as  among  the  gentile  leaders,  fornication  and 
adultery  were  practised.  It  has  been  so  in  other  ages 
and  nations,  in  every  age  and  nation;  it  is  so  now, 
and  is  likely  to  be  so  till  the  end  of  the  world.  But 
when  the  testimony  on  both  sides  is  carefully  weighed, 
it  must  be  admitted  that  the  Mormons  in  Missouri 
and  Illinois  were,  as  a  class,  a  more  moral,  honest, 
temperate,  hard-working,  self-denying,  and  thrifty 
people  than  the  gentiles  by  whom  they  were  sur- 
rounded. Says  John  D.  Lee  on  entering  the  Mis- 
souri fraternity  and,  at  the  time  of  this  remarking,  by 
no  means  friendly  to  the  saints,  '*The  motives  of  the 
people  who  composed  my  neighborhood  were  pure; 
they  were  all  sincere  in  their  devotions,  and  tried  to 
square  their  actions  through  life  by  the  golden  rule .  .  . 


The  word  of  a  Mormon  was  then  good  for  all  it  was 
pledged  to  or  for.  I  was  proud  to  be  an  associate 
with  such  honorable  people."  And  thus  Colonel 
Kane,  a  disinterested  observer,  and  not  a  Mormon: 
As  compared  with  the  other  "border  inhabitants  of 
Missouri,  the  vile  scum  which  our  society,  like  the 
great  ocean,  washes  upon  its  frontier  shores,"  the 
saints  were  "persons  of  refined  and  cleanly  habits  and 
decent  language." 

Nevertheless  the  sins  of  the  entire  section  must  be 
visited  on  them.  Were  there  any  robberies  for  miles 
around,  they  were  charged  by  their  enemies  upon  the 
Mormons;  were  there  any  house-burnings  or  assas- 
sinations anywhere  among  the  gentiles,  it  was  the 
Danites  who  did  it.  Of  all  that  has  been  laid  at  their 
door  I  find  little  proved  against  them.  The  charges 
are  general,  and  preferred  for  the  most  part  by  irre- 
sponsible men ;  in  answer  to  them  they  refer  us  to  the 
records.  On  the  other  hand,  the  outrages  of  their 
enemies  are  easily  followed;  for  they  are  not  denied, 
but  are  rather  gloried  in  by  the  perpetrators.  To 
shoot  a  Mormon  was  indeed  a  distinction  coveted  by 
the  average  gentile  citizen  of  Illinois  and  Missouri, 
and  was  no  more  regarded  as  a  crime  than  the  shoot- 
ing of  a  Blackfoot  or  Pawnee.  Of  course  the  Mor- 
mons retaliated. 

Polygamy  was  a  heavy  load  in  one  sense ;  in  another 
sense  it  was  a  bond  of  strength.  While  in  the  eyes 
of  the  world  its  open  avowal  placed  the  saints  outside 
the  pale  of  respectability,  and  made  them  amenable 
to  the  law,  among  themselves  as  law-breakers,  openly 
defying  the  law,  and  placing  themselves  and  their 
religion  above  all  law,  the  very  fact  of  being  thus 
legal  offenders,  subject  to  the  penalties  and  punish- 
ments of  the  law,  brought  the  members  of  the  society 
so  acting  into  closer  relationship,  cementing  them  as 
a  sect,  and  making  them  more  dependent  on  each 
other  and  on  their  leaders.  It  is  plain  that  while 
thus  bringing  upon  themselves  ignominy  and  reproach. 



while  laying  themselves  open  to  the  charge  of  being 
law-breakers,  and  assuming  an  attitude  of  defiance 
toward  the  laws  and  institutions  of  the  country  in 
which  they  lived,  this  bond  of  sympathy,  of  crim- 
inality if  you  will,  particularly  when  made  a  mat- 
ter of  conscience,  when  recognized  as  a  mandate  from 
the  almighty,  higher  than  any  human  law,  and  in 
whose  obedience  God-  himself  was  best  pleased,  and 
would  surely  aiford  protection,  could  but  prove  in  the 
end  a  bond  of  strength,  particularly  if  pern:iitted  to 
attain  age  and  respectability  among  themselves,  and 
assume  the  form  of  a  concrete  principle  and  of  sacred 

If  instead  of  falling  back  upon  the  teachings  of  the 
old  testament,  and  adopting  the  questionable  practices 
of  the  half-civilized  Jews;  if  instead  of  taking  for  their 
models  Abraham,  David,  and  Solomon,  the  saints  at 
Nauvoo  had  followed  the  advice  of  Paul  to  the  saints 
at  Ephesus,  putting  away  fornication  and  all  unclean- 
ness,  and  walking  worthy  of  their  vocation,  in  all 
lowliness  and  meekness,  as  children  of  light,  they  would 
probably  have  remained  in  their  beautiful  city,  and 
come  into  the  inheritance  of  their  Missouri  Zion  as 
had  been  prophesied.  Had  they  consulted  more 
closely  the  signs  of  the  times,  had  they  been  less 
orthodox  in  their  creed,  less  patriarchal  in  their  prac- 
tices, less  biblical  in  their  tenets,  less  devoted  in  their 
doctrines — in  a  word,  had  they  followed  more  closely 
the  path  of  worldly  wisdom,  and,  like  opposing  chris- 
tian sects,  tempered  religion  with  civilization,  giving 
up  the  worst  parts  of  religion  for  the  better  parts  of 
civilization,  I  should  not  now  be  writing  their  history, 
as  one  with  the  history  of  Utah. 

But  now  was  brought  upon  them  this  overwhelming 
issue,  which  howsoever  it  accorded  with  ancient  scrip- 
ture teachings,  and  as  they  thought  with  the  rights 
of  man,  was  opposed  to  public  sentiment,  and  to  the 
conscience  of  all  civilized  nations.  Forever  after  they 
must  have  this  mighty  obstacle  to  contend  with;  for- 


ever  after  they  must  live  under  the  ban  of  the  chris- 
tian world;  though,  with  unshaken  faith  in  their 
prophet  and  his  doctrine  of  spiritual  wedlock,  they 
might  scorn  the  world's  opinion,  and  in  all  sincerity 
and  singleness  of  heart  thank  God  that  they  were 
accounted  worthy  to  have  all  manner  of  evil  spoken 
of  them  falsely. 

During  this  period  of  probation  the  church  deemed 
it  advisable  to  deny  the  charge,  notably  by  Elder 
Pratt  in  a  public  sermon,  and  also  by  Joseph  Smith. 
"Inasmuch  as  this  Church  of  Christ  has  been  re- 
proached with  the  crime  of  fornication  and  polygamy, 
we  declare  that  we  believe  that  one  man  should  have 
one  wife,  and  one  woman  but  one  husband,  except  in 
case  of  death,  when  either  is  at  liberty  to  marry 
again." '^^  In  the  Times  and  Seasons  of,  February  1, 
1844,  we  have  a  notice  signed  by  Joseph  and  Hyrum 
Smith:  "As  we  have  lately  been  credibly  informed 
that  an  elder  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter- 
day  Saints,  by  the  name  of  Hiram  Brown,  has  been 
preaching  polygamy  and  other  false  and  corrupt  doc- 
trines in  the  county  of  Lapeer,  state  of  Michigan,  this 
is  to  notify  him  and  the  church  in  general  that  he 
has  been  cut  of  from  the  church  for  his  iniquity." 

Notwithstanding  these  solemn  denials  and  denun- 
ciations in  high  places,  the  revelation  and  the  prac- 
tices which  it  sanctioned  were  not  easily  concealed.^ 
As  yet,  however,  the  calumny  of  the  gentiles  and 
the  bickering  of  the  saints  vexed  not  the  soul  of  Jo- 
seph. He  was  now  in  the  zenith  of  his  fame  and 
power;  his  followers  in  Europe  and  America  numbered 

21  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  app.  331. 

^'^  'It  is  believed,'  writes  Governor  Ford  not  long  afterward  to  the  Illinois 
legislature,  'that  Joseph  Smith  had  announced  a  revelation  from  heaven 
sanctioning  polygamy,  by  some  kind  of  spiritual-wife  system,  which  I  never 
could  well  understand;  but  at  any  rate,  whereby  a  man  was  allowed  one 
wife  in  pursuance  of  the  laws  of  the  country,  and  an  indefinite  number  of 
others,  to  be  enjoyed  in  some  mystical  and  spiritual  mode;  and  that  he  him- 
self, and  many  of  his  followers,  had  practised  upon  the  precepts  of  this 
revelation,  by  seducing  a  large  number  of  women.'  Message  to  III.  Sen.,  14th 
Ass.  1st  Sess.,  6.  A  copy  of  Ford's  message  will  be  found  in  Utah  TractSy 
no.  11. 


more  than  a  hundred  thousand;  his  fortune  was  es- 
timated at  a  milhon  dollars;  he  was  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  Nauvoo  Legion,  a  body  of  troops 
"which,"  remarks  an  artillery  officer,  from  his  own 
observation,  *' would  do  honor  to  any  body  of  armed 
militia  in  any  of  the  states,  and  approximates  very 
closely  to  our  regular  forces;"  he  was  mayor  of  the 
city ;  and  now,  as  the  crowning  point  of  his  earthly 
glory,  he  was  announced  in  February  1844  as  a  candi- 
date for  the  presidency  of  the  United  States,  while  Sid- 
ney Rigdon  was  named  for  vice-president.  Whether 
this  was  done  for  effect  or  in  earnest  is  somewhat 
doubtful,  for  it  appears  that  the  prophet's  head  was 
a  little  turned  about  this  time;  but  it  is  certain  that 
the  people  of  Illinois  and  Missouri  believed  him 
to  be  in  earnest.  Addressing  letters  to  Clay  and 
Calhoun,  near  the  close  of  1843,  he  asked  each  of 
them  wdiat  would  be  his  rule  of  action  toward  the 
Mormons  as  a  people  should  he  be  elected  to  the 
presidency.  The  reply  in  both  cases  was  non-com- 
mittal and  unsatisfactory;^^  whereupon  Joseph  issues 
an  address  setting  forth  his  views  on  the  government 
and  policy  of  the  United  States,  and  foreshadows  his 
own  policy,  in  which  we  find  many  excellent  features 
and  many  absurdities.  "No  honest  man  can  doubt 
for  a  moment,"  he  says,  "but  the  glory  of  American 
liberty  is  on  the  wane;  and  that  calamity  and  con- 
fusion will  sooner  or  later  destroy  the  peace  of  the 
people.  Speculators  will  urge  a  national  bank  as  a 
savior  of  credit  and  comfort.  A  hireling  pseudo- 
priesthood  will  plausibly  push  abolition  doctrines 
and  doings  and  *  human  rights'  into  congress,  and 
into  every  other  place  where  conquest  smells  of  fame 
or  opposition  swells  to  popularity."^* 

2' Copies  of  the  correspondence  may  be  found  in  Times  and  Seasons,  v. 
393-6,  544-8;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  151-62;  Olshausen,  Oeschichte  der 
Mormonen,  202-19. 

=^*  'Now,  oh  people !'  he  continues,  'turn  unto  the  Lord  and  live;  and  re- 
form this  nation.  Frustrate  the  designs  of  wicked  men.  Reduce  congress 
at  least  one  half.  Two  senators  from  a  state  and  two  members  to  a  million  of 
population  will  do  more  business  than  the  army  that  now  occupy  the  halli 


The  aspirations  of  the  prophet,  pretended  or  other- 
wise, to  the  highest  office  in  the  repubHc,  together 
with  renewed,  and  at  this  juncture  exceedingly  dan- 
gerous, clainas,  pointing  toward  almost  universal  eni- 
pire,^^  brought  upon  him  afresh  the  rage  of  the 
surrounding  gentile  populace,  and  resulted  in  an 
awful  tragedy,  the  circumstances  of  which  I  am  now 
about  to  relate.  "The  great  cause  of  popular  fury," 
writes  Governor  Ford  shortly  after  the  occurrence, 
"  was  that  the  Mormons  at  several  preceding  elections 
had  cast  their  vote  as  a  unit;  thereby  making  the 
fact  apparent  that  no  one  could  aspire  to  the  honors 
or  offices  of  the  country,  within  the  sphere  of  their 
influence,  without  their  approbation  and  votes." 

Indeed,  a  myriad  of  evils  about  this  time  befell  the 
church,  all  portendi  ng  bloody  destruction.    There  were 

of  the  national  legislature.  Pay  them  two  dollars  and  their  board  per 
diem,  except  Sundays;  that  is  more  than  the  farmer  gets,  and  he  lives  hon- 
estly. Curtail  the  offices  of  government  in  pay,  number,  and  power,  for 
the  philistine  lords  have  shorn  our  nation  of  its  goodly  locks  in  the  lap  of 
Delilah.  Petition  your  state  legislature  to  pardon  every  convict  in  their 
several  penitentiaries,  blessing  them  as  they  go,  and  saying  to  them  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord,  Go  thy  way  and  sin  no  more. .  .Petition  also,  yc  goodly  in- 
habitants of  the  slave  states,  your  legislators  to  abolish  slavery  by  the  year 
1850,  or  now,  and  save  the  abolitionist  from  reproach  and  ruin,  infamy 
and  shame.  Pray  congress  to  pay  every  man  a  reasonable  price  for  his  slaves 
out  of  the  surplus  revenue  arising  from  the  sale  of  public  lands,  and  from  the 
deduction  of  pay  from  the  members  of  congress.  .  .Give  every  man  his  con- 
stitional  freedom,  and  the  president  full  power  to  send  an  army  to  suppress 
mobs;  and  the  states  authority  to  repeal  and  impugn  that  relic  of  folly 
which  makes  it  necessary  for  the  governor  of  a  state  to  make  the  demand  of 
the  president  for  troops  in  cases  of  invasion  or  rebellion.  The  governor  him- 
self may  be  a  mobber,  and  instead  of  being  punished  as  he  should  be  for 
murder  and  treason,  he  may  destroy  the  very  lives,  rights,  and  property  he 
should  protect.  Like  the  good  Samaritan,  send  every  lawyer  as  soon  as  he 
repents  and  obeys  the  ordinances  of  heaven,  to  preacli  the  gospel  to  the  des- 
titute, without  purse  or  scrip,  pouring  in  the  oil  and  the  wine ...  Were  I 
the  president  of  the  United  States,  by  the  voice  of  a  virtuous  people,  I 
would  honor  the  old  paths  of  the  venerated  fathers  of  freedom;  I  would 
walk  in  the  tracks  of  the  illustrious  patriots,  who  carried  the  ark  of  the  gov- 
ernment upon  their  shoulders  with  an  eye  single  to  the  glory  of  the  people.  . . 
When  a  neighboring  realm  petitioned  to  join  the  union  of  the  sons  of  liberty, 
my  voice  would  be,  Come;  yea,  come  Texas;  come  Mexico;  come  Canada;  and 
come  all  the  world — let  us  be  brethren;  let  us  be  one  great  family;  and  let 
thei-e  be  universal  peace. '  A  full  copy  of  the  address  is  given  in  Times  and 
Seasons,  v.  628-533;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  141-51;  Bemy's  Jour,  to  G.  S, 
L.  City,  353-71. 

"^  Two  months  after  announcing  himself  a  cardidate  for  the  presidency, 
Joseph  again  publicly  declared  that  all  America,  from  north  to  south,  consti- 
tuted the  Zion  of  the  saints,  theirs  by  right  of  heavenly  inheritance. 


suits  and  counter-suits  at  law;  arrests  and  rearrests; 
schisms,  apostasies,  and  expulsions;  charges  one  against 
another  of  vice  and  immorality,  Joseph  himself  being 
implicated.  Here  was  one  elder  unlawfully  trying 
his  hand  at  revelations,  and  another  preaching  polyg- 
amy. Many  there  were  whom  it  was  necessar}^  not 
only  to  cut  off  from  the  church,  but  to  eradicate  with 
their  evil  influences  from  society.  Among  the  proph- 
et's most  inveterate  enemies  were  William  Law,  who 
sought  to  betray  Smith  into  the  hands  of  the  Mis- 
sourians,  and  almost  succeeded — Doctor  Foster  and 
Francis  M.  Higbee,  who  dealt  in  scandal,  charging 
Joseph,  Hyrum,  Sidney,  and  others  with  seducing 
women,  and  having  more  wives  than  one.  Suits  of 
this  kind  brought  by  the  brethren  against  each  other, 
but  more  particularly  by  the  leaders  against  high 
officials,  were  pending  in  the  Nauvoo  municipal  court 
for  over  two  years. 

Early  in  June  1844  was  issued  the  first  number  of 
the  Nauvoo  Expositor^  the  publishers  being  apostate 
Mormons  and  gentiles. ^^  The  primary  object  of  the 
publication  was  to  stir  up  strife  in  the  church,  and 
aid  its  enemies  in  their  work  of  attempted  extermina- 
tion. Its  columns  were  at  once  filled  with  foul  abuse 
of  the  prophet  and  certain  elders  of  the  church, 
assailing  their  character  by  means  of  affidavits,  and 
charging  them  with  all  manner  of  public  and  private 
crimes,  and  abusing  and  misrepresenting  the  people. 
The  city  council  met,  and  pronouncing  the  journal 
a  nuisance,  ordered  its  abatement.  Joseph  Smith 
being  mayor,  it  devolved  on  him  to  see  the  order 
executed,  and  he  issued  instruction  to  the  city  mar- 
shal and  the  policemen  accordingly.  The  officers 
of  the  law  forthwith  entered  the  premises,  and  de- 

^^  In  Bemy^s  Jour,  to  O.  8.  Lake  Citi/,  i.  388,  it  is  stated  that,  among  others, 
a  renegade  catholic  priest,  J.  H.  Jackson  by  name,  '  conceived  the  idea  of 
starting  at  Nauvoo  a  newspaper  ca,lled  the  Expositor,  with  the  avowed  object 
of  opposing  the  Mormons.'  I  find  no  confirmation  of  this  statement.  The 
first  number  of  the  Nauvoo  Neighbor  had  been  issued  May  3,  1843,  in  place 
of  the  Wasp,  suspended. 


stroyed  the  establishment,  tearing  down  the  presses 
and  throwing  the  type  into  the  street.^^  For  this  act 
the  proprietors  obtained  from  the  authorities  of  the 
town  of  Carthage,  some  twenty  miles  distant,  a  war- 
rant for  the  arrest  of  Joseph  Smith,  which  was  placed 
in  the  hands  of  the  Carthage  constable  to  be  served. 

It  was  a  proceeding  not  at  all  to  the  taste  of  the 
Mormons  that  their  mayor  should  be  summoned  for 
misdemeanor  before  the  magistrate  of  another  town, 
and  Smith  refused  to  go.  He  was  willing  to  be  tried 
before  a  state  tribunal.  Meanwhile  the  offenders 
were  brought  before  the  municipal  court  of  Nauvoo, 
on  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus,  and  after  examination 
were  discharged.  The  cry  was  then  raised  through- 
out the  country  that  Joseph  Smith  and  associates,  pub- 
lic offenders,  ensconced  among  their  troops  in  the 
stronghold  of  Nauvoo,  defied  the  law,  refusing  to  re- 
spond to  the  call  of  justice;  whereupon  the  men  of 
Illinois,  to  the  number  of  two  or  three  thousand,  some 
coming  even  from  Missouri,  rallied  to  the  support  of 
the  Carthage  constable,  and  stood  ready,  as  they  said, 
not  only  to  arrest  Joe  Smith,  but  to  burn  his  town  and 
kill  every  man,  woman,  and  child  in  it. 

As  the  forces  of  the  enemy  enlarged  and  grew  yet 
more  and  more  demonstrative  in  their  wrath,  the  town 
prepared  for  defence,  the  Nauvoo  Legion  being  called 
out  and  placed  under  arms,  by  instructions  from  Gov- 
ernor Ford  to  Joseph  Smith,  as  general  in  command. 
This  gave  rise  to  a  report  that  they  were  about  to 
make  a  raid  on  the  neighboring  gentile  settlements.^^ 

2^ Letter  of  John  S.  Fullmer  to  the  New  York  Herald,  dated  Nauvoo,  Oct. 
30, 1844  (but  not  published  until  several  years  later).  A  copy  of  it  will  be  found 
in  Utah  Tracts,  ix.  p.  7.  Smith  had  been  elected  mayor  on  the  resignation  of 
JohnC.  Bennett  April  19, 1842.  Mackay,  The  Mormons,  168,  says:  'A  body  of 
the  prophet's  adherents,  to  the  number  of  two  hundred  and  upward,  sallied  forth 
in  obedience  to  this  order,  and  proceeding  to  the  office  of  the  Expositor,  speedily 
razed  it  to  the  ground. '  Reray  states  that '  an  order  to  destroy  the  journal  signed 
by  Joseph  was  immediately  put  into  execution  by  a  police  officer,  who  pro- 
ceeded the  same  day  to  break  up  the  presses. '  Journey,  i.  389.  Ford  declares 
that  the  marshal  aided  by  a  portion  of  the  legion  executed  his  warrant  by  de- 
stroying the  press  and  scattering  the  type  and  other  materials  of  the  office. 
Message  to  III.  Sen.,  14th  Ass.  1st  Sess.,  4. 

2^  *  At  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Hancock  co,  held  at  Carthage,  on  the 



In  consequence  of  these  rumors  and  counter-rumors 
the  governor  went  to  Carthage.  Previous  to  this, 
frequent  communications  were  sent  to  him  at  Spring- 
field by  Joseph  Smith,  informing  him  of  the  position 
of  affairs  in  and  around  Nauvoo.  The  governor  in 
his  History  of  Illinois,  referring  to  these  times,  writes: 
*' These  also  were  the  active  men  in  blowing  up  the 
fury  of  the  people,  in  hopes  that  a  popular  movement 
might  be  set  on  foot,  which  would  result  in  the  expul- 
sion or  extermination  of  the  Mormon  voters.  For  this 
purpose  public  meetings  had  been  called,  inflammatory 
speeches  had  been  made,  exaggerated  reports  had  been 
extensively  circulated,  committees  had  been  appointed, 
who  rode  night  and  day  to  spread  the  reports  and 
solicit  the  aid  of  neighboring  counties,  and  at  a  public 
meeting  at  Warsaw  resolutions  were  passed  to  expel 
or  exterminate  the  Mormon  population.  This  was 
not,  however,  a  movement  which  was  unanimously 
concurred  in.  The  county  contained  a  goodly  num- 
ber of  inhabitants  in  favor  of  peace,  or  who  at  least 
desired  to  be  neutral  in  such  a  contest.  These  were 
stigmatized  by  the  name  of  Jack  Mormons,  and  there 
were  not  a  few  of  the  more  furious  exciters  of  the 
people  who  openly  expressed  their  intention  to  involve 
them  in  the  common  expulsion  or  extermination." 

Thomas  Ford,  governor  of  IlHnois,  was  as  a  man 
rather  above  the  average  politician  usually  chosen 
among  these  American  states  to  fill  that  position. 
Not  specially  clear-headed,  and  having  no  brain  power 
to  spare,  he  was  quite  respectable  and  had  some  con- 
science, as  is  frequently  the  case  with  mediocre  men. 
He  had  a  good  heart,  too,  was  in  no  wise  vindictive, 
and  though  he  was  in  no  sense  a  strong  man,  his  sense 
of  right  and  equity  could  be  quite  stubborn  upon  oc- 

6th  inst,  it  was  resolved  to  call  in  the  people  of  the  surrounding  counties  and 
states,  to  assist  them  in  delivering  up  Joe  Smith,  if  the  governor  of  Illinois 
refused  to  comply  with  the  requisition  of  the  governor  of  Missouri.  The  meet- 
ing determined  to  avenge  with  blood  any  assaults  made  upon  citizens  by  the 
Mormons.  It  was  also  resolved  to  refuse  to  obey  officers  elected  by  the  Mor- 
mons, who  have  complete  control  of  the  country,  being  a  numerical  majority.* 
MisHouri  Reporter,  in  Niles  liegister,  Ixv.  70,  Sept-.  30,  1843. 


casion.  Small  in  body,  he  was  likewise  small  in  mind  ; 
indeed,  there  was  a  song  current  at  the  time  that 
there  was  no  room  in  his  diminutive  organism  for  such 
a  thing  as  a  soul.  Nevertheless,  though  bitterly  cen- 
sured by  some  of  the  Mormons,  I  do  not  think  Ford 
intended  to  do  them  wrong.  That  he  did  not  believe 
all  the  rumors  to  their  discredit  is  clearly  shown  in 
his  statement  of  what  was  told  him  during  the  days 
he  was  at  Carthage.  He  says :  "A  system  of  excite- 
ment and  agitation  was  artfully  planned  and  executed 
with  tact.  It  consisted  in  speading  reports  and  rumors 
of  the  most  fearful  character.  As  examples:  On 
the  morning  before  my  arrival  at  Carthage,  I  was 
awakened  at  an  early  hour  by  the  frightful  report, 
which  was  asserted  with  confidence  and  apparent  con- 
sternation, that  the  Mormons  had  already  commenced 
the  work  of  burning,  destruction,  and  murder,  and  that 
every  man  capable  of  bearing  arms  was  instantly 
wanted  at  Carthage  for  the  protection  of  the  county. 
We  lost  no  time  in  starting;  but  when  we  arrived  at 
Carthage  we  could  hear  no  more  concerning  this 
story.  Again,  during  the  few  days  that  the  militia 
were  encamped  at  Carthage,  frequent  applications 
were  made  to  me  to  send  a  force  here,  and  a  force 
there,  and  a  force  all  about  the  country,  to  prevent 
murders,  robberies,  and  larcenies  which,  it  was  said, 
were  threatened  by  the  Mormons.  No  such  forces 
were  sent,  nor  were  any  such  offences  committed  at 
that  time,  except  the  stealing  of  some  provisions,  and 
there  was  never  the  least  proof  that  this  was  done 
by  a  Mormon." 

On  the  morning  to  which  he  refers,  the  report  was 
brought  to  him  with  the  usual  alarming  accompani- 
ments of  fears  being  expressed  of  frightful  carnage, 
and  the  like.  Hastily  dressing,  he  assured  the  crowd 
collected  outside  of  the  house  in  which  he  had  lodofed 
that  they  need  have  no  uneasiness  respecting  the  mat- 
ter, for  he  was  very  sure  he  could  settle  the  difficulty 
peaceably.     The  Mormon  prophet   knew    him    well, 


and  would  trust  him.  What  he  purposed  doing  was 
to  demand  the  surrender  of  Joseph  Smith  and  others. 
He  wished  them  to  promise  him  that  they  would  lend 
their  assistance  to  protect  the  prisoners  from  violence, 
which  they  agreed  to  do. 

After  his  arrival  at  Carthage  the  governor  sent  two 
men  to  Nauvoo  as  a  committee  to  wait  on  Joseph 
Smith,  informing  him  of  his  arrival,  with  a  request 
that  Smith  would  inform  him  in  relation  to  the  diffi- 
culties that  then  existed  in  the  county.  Dr  J.  M. 
Bernhisel  and  Elder  John  Taylor  were  appointed  as^^a 
committee  by  Smith,  and  furnished  with  affidavits  and 
documents  in  relation  both  to  the  proceedings  of  the 
Mormons  and  those  of  the  mob;  in  addition  to  the 
general  history  of  the  transaction  they  took  with  them 
a  duplicate  of  those  documents  which  had  previously 
been  forwarded  by  Bishop  Hunter,  Elder  James,  and 
others.  This  committee  waited  on  the  governor,  who 
expressed  an  opinion  that  Joseph  Smith  and  all  par- 
ties concerned  in  passing  or  executing  the  city  law  in 
relation  to  the  press  had  better  come  to  Carthage; 
however  repugnant  it  might  be  to  their  feelings,  he 
thought  it  would  have  a  tendency  to  allay  public  ex- 
citement, and  prove  to  the  people  what  they  professed, 
that  they  wished  to  be  governed  by  law.  The  next 
day  the  constable  and  a  force  of  ten  men  were  de- 
spatched to  Nauvoo  to  make  the  arrests.  The  accused 
were  told  that  if  they  surrendered  they  would  be  pro- 
tected; otherwise  the  whole  force  of  the  state  would 
be  called  out,  if  necessary,  to  take  them. 

Upon  the  arrival  of  the  constable  and  his  posse,  the 
mayor  and  the  members  of  the  city  council  declared  that 
they  were  willing  to  surrender.  Eight  o'clock  was  the 
hour  appointed,  but  the  accused  failed  to  make  their 
appearance;  whereupon  the  constable  returned,  and 
reported  that  they  had  fled.  The  governor  was  of  opin- 
ion that  the  constable's  action  was  part  of  a  plot  to 
get  the  troops  into  Nauvoo  and  exterminate  the  Mor- 
mons.    He  called  a  council  of  officers  and  proposed  to 


march  on  the  town  with  the  small  force  under  his 
command,  but  was  dissuaded.  He  hesitated  to  make  a 
further  call  on  the  militia,  as  the  harvest  was  nigh  and 
the  men  were  needed  to  gather  it.  Meanwhile,  ascer- 
taining that  the  Mormons  had  three  pieces  of  cannon 
and  two  hundred  and  fifty  stand  of  arms  belonging  to 
the  state,  the  possession  of  which  gave  offence  to  the 
gentiles,  he  demanded  a  surrender  of  the  state  arms, 
again  promising  protection. 

On  the  24th  of  June^^  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith, 
the  members  of  the  council,  and  all  others  demanded, 
proceeded  to  Carthage,  gave  themselves  up,  and  were 
charged  with  riot.  All  entered  into  recognizances 
before  the  justice  of  the  peace  to  appear  for  trial, 
and  were  released  from  custody.  Joseph  and  Hyrum, 
however,  were  rearrested,  and,  says  Ford,  were  charged 
with  overt  treason,  having  ordered  out  the  legion 
to  resist  the  posse  comitatus,  though,  as  he  states, 
the  degree  of  their  crime  would  depend  on  circum- 
stances. The  governor's  views  on  this  matter  are 
worthy  of  note.  ''The  overt  act  of  treason  charged 
against  them,"  he  remarks,  ''consisted  in  the  alleged 
levying  of  war  against  the  state  by  declaring  martial 
law  in  Nauvoo,  and  in  ordering  out  the  legion  to  resist 
the  posse  comitatus.  Their  actual  guiltiness  of  the 
charge  would  depend  upon  circumstances.  If  their 
opponents  had  been  seeking  to  put  the  law  in  force  in 
good  faith,  and  nothing  more,  then  an  array  of  a 
military  force  in  open  resistance  to  the  posse  comitatus 
and  the  militia  of  the  state  most  probably  would 
have  amounted  to  treason.  But  if  those  opponents 
merely  intended  to  use  the  process  of  the  law,  the 
militia  of  the  state,  and  the  posse  comitatus  as  cat's- 
paws  to  compass  the  possession  of  their  persons  for 
the  purpose   of  murdering   them   afterward,  as  the 

*'  Report,  ut  supra,  10-11.  In  Times  and  Seasons,  v.  560,  it  is  stated  that '  on 
Monday,  June  24th,  after  Ford  had  sent  word  that  eighteen  persons  demanded 
on  a  warrant,  among  whom  were  Joseph  Smith  and  Hyrum  Smith,  should  be 
protected  by  the  militia  of  the  state,  they  in  company  with  ten  or  twelve 
others  start  for  Carthage.' 


sequel  demonstrated  the  fact  to  be,  it  might  well  be 
doubted  whether  they  were  guilty  of  treason." 

With  the  Nauvoo  Legion  at  their  back,  the  two 
brothers  voluntarily  placed  themselves  in  the  power  of 
the  governor  who,  demanding  and  accepting  their 
surrender,  though  doubting  their  guilt,  nevertheless 
declared  that  they  were  not  his  prisoners,  but  the  pris- 
oners of  the  constable  and  jailer.  Leaving  two  com- 
panies to  guard  the  jail,  he  disbanded  the  main  body  of 
his  troops,  and  proceeding  to  Nauvoo,  addressed  the 
people,  beseeching  them  to  abide  by  the  law.  "They 
claimed,"  he  says,  "to  be  a  law-abiding  people;  and 
insisted  that  as  they  looked  to  the  law  alone  for  their 
protection,  so  were  they  careful  themselves  to  observe 
its  provisions.  Upon  the  conclusion  of  my  address,  I 
proposed  to  take  a  vote  on  the  question,  whether  they 
would  strictly  observe  the  laws,  even  in  opposition  to 
their  prophet  and  leaders.  The  vote  was  unanimous 
in  favor  of  this  proposition."  The  governor  then  set 
forth  for  Carthage,  and  such  in  substance  is  his  report 
when  viewed  in  the  most  favorable  light. ^^ 

It  is  related  that  as  Joseph  set  forth  to  deliver 
himself  up  to  the  authorities  he  exclaimed:  "I  am 
going  like  a  lamb  to  the  slaughter;  but  I  am  calm  as 
a  summer's  morning;  I  have  a  conscience  void  of 
offence  toward  God  and  toward  all  men.  I  shall 
die  innocent,  and  it  shall  yet  be  said  of  me.  He  was 
murdered  in  cold  blood. "^^  Nevertheless,  for  a  moment 
he  hesitated.  Should  he  offer  himself  a  willing 
sacrifice,  or  should  he  endeavor  to  escape  out  of  their 
hands?  Thus  meditating,  he  crossed  the  river  thinking 

^°  Message^  ut  supra.  The  above  appear  to  be  the  facts  of  the  case,  so  far 
as  they  can  be  sifted  from  a  lengthy  report,  which  consists  mainly  of  apology 
or  explanation  of  what  the  governor  did  or  left  undone. 

^^  Smith's  Doc.  and  Cov.,  app.  335.  The  same  morning  he  read  in  the 
fifth  chapter  of  Ether,  'And  it  came  to  pass  that  I  prayed  unto  the  Lord  that 
he  would  give  unto  the  gentiles  grace,  that  they  might  have  charity.  And  it 
came  to  pass  that  the  Lord  said  unto  me,  If  they  have  not  charity  it  mattereth 
not  unto  you,  thou  hast  been  faithful;  wherefore  thy  garments  are  clean. 
And  because  thou  hast  seen  thy  weakness,  thou  shalt  be  made  strong,  even 
uuto  the  sitting  down  in  the  place  which  I  have  prepared  in  the  mansions  of 
my  father.' 


to  depart.  On  reaching  the  opposite  bank  he  turned 
and  gazed  upon  the  beautiful  city,  the  holy  city,  his 
own  hallowed  creation,  the  city  of  Joseph,  with  its 
shining  temple,  its  busy  hum  of  industry,  and  its 
thousand  happy  homes.  And  they  were  his  people 
who  were  there,  his  very  own,  given  to  him  of  God ; 
and  he  loved  them!  Were  he  to  leave  them  now,  to 
abandon  them  in  this  time  of  danger,  they  would  be 
indeed  as  sheep  without  a  shepherd,  stricken,  and 
scattered,  and  robbed,  and  butchered  by  the  destroyer. 
No,  he  could  not  do  it.  Better  die  than  to  abandon 
them  thus  I  So  he  recrossed  the  river,  saying  to  his 
brother  Hyrum,  "Come,  let  us  go  together,  and  let 
God  determine  what  we  shall  do  or  suffer." 

Bidding  their  families  and  friends  adieu,  the  two 
brothers  set  out  for  Carthage.  Their  hearts  were 
very  heavy.  There  was  dire  evil  abroad;  the  air  was 
oppressive,  and  the  sun  shot  forth  malignant  rays. 
Once  more  they  returned  to  their  people;  once  more 
they  embraced  their  wives  and  kissed  their  children, 
as  if  they  knew,  alas!  that  they  should  never  see 
them  again. 

The  party  reached  Carthage  about  midnight,  and 
on  the  following  day  the  troops  were  formed  in 
Une,  and  Joseph  and  Hyrum  passed  up  and  down  in 
company  with  the  governor,  who  showed  them  every 
respect— either  as  guests  or  victims — introducing  them 
as  military  officers  under  the  title  of  general.  Pres- 
ent were  the  Carthage  Greys,  who  showed  signs  of 
mutiny,  hooting  at  and  insulting  the  prisoners — for 
such  in  fact  they  were,  being  committed  to  jail  the 
same  afternoon  until  discharged  by  due  course  of  law. 

A  few  hours  later  Joseph  asked  to  see  the  governor, 
and  next  morning  Ford  went  to  the  prison.  *' All  this 
is  illegal,"  said  the  former.  "  It  is  a  purely  civil  matter, 
not  a  question  to  be  settled  by  force  of  arms."  "  I  know 
it,"  said  the  governor,  "but  it  is  better  so;  I  did  not 
call  out  this  force,  but  found  it  assembled;  I  pledge 
you  my  honor,  however,  and  the  faith  and  honor  of 

HiBT.  Utah.    12 


the  state,  that  no  harm  shall  come  to  you  while  un- 
dergoing this  imprisonment."  The  governor  took  his 
departure  on  the  morning  of  the  27th  of  June. 
Scarcely  was  he  well  out  of  the  way  when  measures 
were  taken  for  the  consummation  of  a  most  damning 
deed.  The  prison  was  guarded  by  eight  men  detailed 
from  the  Carthage  Greys,  their  company  being  in 
camp  on  the  public  square  a  quarter  of  a  mile  dis- 
tant, while  another  company  under  Williams,  also 
the  sworn  enemies  of  the  Mormons,  was  encamped 
eight  miles  away,  there  awaiting  the  development  of 

It  was  a  little  after  five  o'clock  in  the  evening.  Jo- 
seph and  Hyrum  Smith  were  confined  in  an  upper 
room.  With  the  prisoners  were  John  Taylor  and  Wil- 
lard  Kichards,  other  friends  having  withdrawn  a  few 
moments  before.  At  this  juncture  a  band  of  a  hun- 
dred and  fifty  armed  men  with  painted  faces  appeared 
before  the  jail,  and  presently  surrounded  it.  The 
guard  shouted  vociferously  and  fired  their  guns  over 
the  heads  of  the  assailants,  who  paid  not  the  slightest 
attention  to  them.^^  I  give  what  followed  from 
Burton's  City  of  the  Saints,  being  the  statement  of 
President  John  Taylor,  who  was  present  and  wounded 
on  the  occasion. 

"I  was  sitting  at  one  of  the  front  windows  of  the 
jail,  when  I  saw  a  number  of  men,  with  painted  faces, 
coming  around  the  corner  of  the  jail,  and  aiming 
toward  the  stairs.  The  other  brethren  had  seen  the 
same,  for,  as  I  went  to  the  door,  I  found  Brother 
Hyrum  Smith  and  Dr  Richards  already  leaning 
against  it.  They  both  pressed  against  the  door  with 
their  shoulders  to  prevent  its  being  opened,  as  the 
lock  and  latch  were  comparatively  useless.  While  in 
this  position,  the  mob,  who  had  come  up  stairs,  and 
tried   to   open   the   door,  probably   thought  it   was 

'2  Littlefield  says  the  Carthage  Greys  were  marched  in  a  body,  *  within  about 
eight  rods  of  the  jail,  where  they  halted,  in  plain  view  of  the  whole  transac- 
tion, until  the  deed  was  executed.'  Narrative,  9. 


locked,  and  fired  a  ball  through  the  keyhole;  at  this 
Dr  Richards  and  Brother  Hyrum  leaped  back  from 
the  door,  with  their  faces  toward  it;  almost  instantly 
another  ball  passed  through  the  panel  of  the  door, 
and  struck  Brother  Hyrum  on  the  left  side  of  the 
nose,  entering  his  face  and  head.  At  the  same 
instant,  another  ball  from  the  outside  entered  his  back, 
passing  through  his  body  and  striking  his  watch. 
The  ball  came  from  the  back,  through  the  jail  window, 
opposite  the  door,  and  must,  from  its  range,  have  been 
fired  from  the  Carthage  Greys,  who  were  placed  there 
ostensibly  for  our  protection,  as  the  balls  from  the 
fire-arms,  shot  close  by  the  jail,  would  have  entered 
the  ceiling,  we  being  in  the  second  story,  and  there 
never  was  a  time  after  that  w^hen  Hyrum  could  have 
received  the  latter  wound.  Immediately,  when  the 
balls  struck  him,  he  fell  flat  on  his  back,  crjang  as  he 
fell,  'I  am  a  dead  man!'  He  never  moved  after- 

'^I  shall  never  forget  the  deep  feeling  of  sympathy 
and  regard  manifested  in  the  countenance  of  Brother 
Joseph  as  he  drew  nigh  to  Hyrum,  and,  leaning  over 
him,  exclaimed,  ^  Oh !  my  poor,  dear  brother  Hyrum ! ' 
He,  however,  instantly  arose,  and  with  a  firm,  quick 
step,  and  a  determined  expression  of  countenance,  ap- 
proached the  door,  and  pulling  the  six-shooter  left  by 
Brother  Wheelock  from  his  pocket,  opened  the  door 
slightly,  and  snapped  the  pistol  six  successive  times; 
only  three  of  the  barrels,  however,  were  discharged. 
I  afterward  understood  that  two  or  three  were 
wounded  by  these  discharges,  two  of  whom,  I  am  in- 
formed, died.^'*  I  had  in  my  hands  a  large,  strong 
hickory  stick,  brought  there  by  Brother  Markham, 
and  left  by  him,  which  I  had  seized  as  soon  as  I  saw 
the  mob  approach;  and  while  Brother  Joseph  was 
firing  the  pistol,  I  stood  close  behind  him.     As  soon 

"  *He  wounded  three  of  them,  two  mortally,  one  of  whom,  as  he 
rushed  down  out  of  the  door,  was  asked  if  he  was  badly  hurt.  He  replied, 
**Yes;  my  arm  is  shot  all  to  pieces  by  old  Joe;  but  I  don't  care,  I've  got  re- 
venge; I  shot  Hyrum  ! " '  Id.,  11. 


as  he  had  discharged  it  he  stepped  back,  and  I  im- 
mediately took  his  place  next  to  the  door,  while  he 
occupied  the  one  I  had  done  while  he  was  shooting. 
Brother  Richards,  at  this  time,  had  a  knotty  walking- 
stick  in  his  hands  belonging  to  me,  and  stood  next  to 
Brother  Joseph,  a  little  farther  from  the  door,  in  an 
oblique  direction,  apparently  to  avoid  the  rake  of  the 
fire  from  the  door.  The  firing  of  Brother  Joseph 
made  our  assailants  pause  for  a  moment;  very  soon 
after,  however,  they  pushed  the  door  some  distance 
open,  and  protruded  and  discharged  their  guns  into 
the  room,  when  I  parried  them  off  with  my  stick, 
giving  another  direction  to  the  balls. 

"It  certainly  was  a  terrible  scene:  streams  of  fire 
as  thick  as  my  arm  passed  by  me  as  these  men  fired, 
and,  unarmed  as  we  were,  it  looked  like  certain  death. 
I  remember  feeling  as  though  my  time  had  come,  but 
I  do  not  know  when,  in  any  critical  position,  I  was 
more  calm,  unruffled,  energetic,  and  acted  with  more 
promptness  and  decision.  It  certainly  was  far  from 
pleasant  to  be  so  near  the  muzzles  of  those  fire-arms 
as  they  belched  forth  their  liquid  flames  and  deadly 
balls.  While  I  was  engaged  in  parrying  the  guns. 
Brother  Joseph  said,  'That's  right,  Brother  Taylor, 
parry  them  off  as  well  as  you  can.'  These  were  the 
last  words  I  ever  heard  him  speak  on  earth. 

"Every  moment  the  crowd  at  the  door  became 
more  dense,  as  they  were  unquestionably  pressed  on 
by  those  in  the  rear  ascending  the  stairs,  until  the 
whole  entrance  at  the  door  was  literally  crowded  with 
muskets  and  rifles,  which,  with  the  swearing,  shout- 
ing, and  demoniacal  expressions  of  those  outside  the 
door  and  on  the  stairs,  and  the  firing  of  the  guns, 
mingled  with  their  horrid  oaths  and  execrations,  made 
it  look  like  pandemonium  let  loose,  and  was,  indeed, 
a  fit  representation  of  the  horrid  deed  in  which  they 
were  engaged. 

"After  parrying  the  guns  for  some  time,  which  now 
protruded  thicker  and  farther   into   the   room,  and 


seeing  no  hope  of  escape  or  protection  there,  as  we 
were  now  unarmed,  it  occurred  to  me  that  we  might 
have  some  friends  outside,  and  that  there  might  be 
some  chance  to  escape  in  that  direction,  but  here 
there  seemed  to  be  none.  As  I  expected  them  every 
moment  to  rush  into  the  room — nothing  but  extreme 
cowardice  having  thus  far  kept  them  out — as  the 
tumult  and  pressure  increased,  without  any  other 
hope,  I  made  a  spring  for  the  window  which  was 
right  in  front  of  the  jail  door,  where  the  mob  was 
standing,  and  also  exposed  to  the  fire  of  the  Carthage 
Greys,  who  were  stationed  some  ten  or  twelve  rods 
off.  The  weather  was  hot,  we  had  our  coats  off,  and 
the  window  was  raised  to  admit  air.  As  I  reached 
the  window,  and  was  on  the  point  of  leaping  out,  I 
was  struck  by  a  ball  from  the  door  about  midway  of 
my  thigh,  which  struck  the  bone  and  flattened  out 
almost  to  the  size  of  a  quarter  of  a  dollar,  and  then 
passed  on  through  the  fleshy  part  to  within  about 
half  an  inch  of  the  outside.  I  think  some  prominent 
nerve  must  have  been  severed  or  injured,  for,  as  soon 
as  the  ball  struck  me,  I  fell  like  a  bird  when  shot,  or 
an  ox  when  struck  by  a  butcher,  and  lost  entirely  and 
instantaneously  all  power  of  action  or  locomotion.  I 
fell  upon  the  window-sill,  and  cried  out,  *I  am  shot!' 
Not  possessing  any  power  to  move,  I  felt  myself  fall- 
ing outside  of  the  window,  but  immediately  I  fell 
inside,  from  some,  at  that  time,  unknown  cause. 
When  I  struck  the  floor  my  animation  seemed  re- 
stored, as  I  have  seen  it  sometimes  in  squirrels  and 
birds  after  being  shot.  As  soon  as  I  felt  the  power 
of  motion  I  crawled  under  the  bed,  which  was  in  a 
corner  of  the  room,  not  far  from  the  window  where  I 
received  my  wound.  While  on  my  way  and  under 
the  bed  I  was  wounded  in  three  other  places;  one  ball 
entered  a  little  below  the  left  knee,  and  never  was 
extracted;  another  entered  the  forepart  of  my  left 
arm,  a  little  above  the  wrist,  and  passing  down  by  the 
joint,  lodged  in  the  fleshy  part  of  my  hand,  about 


midway,  a  little  above  the  upper  joint  of  my  little 
finger;  another  struck  me  on  the  fleshy  part  of  my 
left  hip,  and  tore  away  the  flesh  as  large  as  my  hand, 
dashing  the  mangled  fragments  of  flesh  and  blood 
against  the  wall. 

"It  would  seem  that  immediately  after  my  attempt 
to  leap  out  of  the  window,  Joseph  also  did  the  same 
thing,  of  which  circurpstance  I  have  no  knowledge 
only  from  information.  The  first  thing  that  I  noticed 
was  a  cry  that  he  had  leaped  out  of  the  window.  A 
cessation  of  firing  followed,  the  mob  rushed  down 
stairs,  and  Dr.  Richards  went  to  the  window.  Im- 
mediately afterward  I  saw  the  doctor  going  toward 
the  jail  door,  and  as  there  was  an  iron  door  at  the 
head  of  the  stairs  adjoining  our  door  which  led  into 
the  cells  for  criminals,  it  struck  me  that  the  doctor 
was  going  in  there,  and  I  said  to  him,  ^Stop,  doctor, 
and  take  me  along.'  He  proceeded  to  the  door  and 
opened  it,  and  then  returned  and  dragged  me  along  to 
a  small  cell  prepared  for  criminals. 

"Brother  Kichards  wa§  very  much  troubled,  and 
exclaimed,  ^Oh!  Brother  Taylor,  is  it  possible  that 
they  have  killed  both  Brothers  Hyrum  and  Joseph? 
it  cannot  surely  be,  and  yet  I  saw  them  shoot  them;' 
and,  elevating  his  hands  two  or  three  times,  he  ex- 
claimed, 'Oh  Lord,  my  God,  spare  thy  servants!' 
He  then  said,  'Brother  Taylor,  this  is  a  terrible 
event ; '  and  he  dragged  me  farther  into  the  cell,  saying, 
'I  am  sorry  I  can  not  do  better  for  you;'  and,  taking 
an  old  filthy  mattress,  he  covered  me  with  it,  and 
said,  'That  may  hide  you,  and  you  may  yet  live  to 
tell  the  tale,  but  I  expect  they  will  kill  me  in  a  few 
moments.'  While  lying  in  this  position  I  suflered 
the  most  excruciating  pain.  Soon  afterward  Dr. 
Bichards  came  to  me,  informed  me  that  the  mob  had 
precipitately  fled,  and  at  the  same  time  confirmed  my 
worst  fears  that  Joseph  was  assuredly  dead."  It  ap- 
pears that  Joseph,  thus  murderously  beset  and  in  dire 
extremity,  rushed  to  the  window  and  threw  himself 


out,  receiving  in  the  act  several  shots,  and  with  the 
cry,  "0  Lord,  my  God!"  fell  dead  to  the  ground.^ 
The  fiends  were  not  yet  satiated;  but  setting  up  the 
lifeless  body  of  the  slain  prophet  against  the  well- 
curb,  riddled  it  with  bullets.^^ 

Where  now  is  the  God  of  Joseph  and  of  Hyrum, 
that  he  should  permit  this  most  iniquitous  butchery? 
Where  are  Moroni  and  Ether  and  Christ  ?  What 
mean  these  latter-day  manifestations,  their  truth  and 
efficacy,  if  the  great  high  priest  and  patriarch  of  the 
new  dispensation  can  thus  be  cruelly  cut  off  by 
wicked  men  ?    Practical  piety  is  the  doctrine !    Prayer 

^*  Joseph  dropped  his  pistol,  and  sprang  into  the  window;  but  just  as  he 
was  preparing  to  descend,  he  saw  such  an  array  of  bayonets  below,  that  he 
caught  by  the  window  casing,  where  he  hung  by  his  hands  and  feet,  with  his 
head  to  the  north,  feet  to  the  south,  and  his  body  swinging  downward.  He 
hung  in  that  position  three  or  four  minutes,  during  which  time  he  exclaimed 
two  or  three  times,  'O  Lord,  my  God !'  and  fell  to  the  ground.  While  he  was 
hanging  in  that  situation.  Col.  Williams  halloed,  'Shoot  him!  God  damn 
him !  shoot  the  damned  rascal ! '  However,  none  fired  at  him.  He  seemed  to 
fall  easy.  He  struck  partly  on  his  right  shoulder  and  back,  his  neck  and 
head  reaching  the  ground  a  little  before  his  feet.  He  rolled  instantly  on  his 
face.  From  this  position  he  was  taken  by  a  young  man  who  sprung  to  him 
from  the  other  side  of  the  fence,  who  held  a  pewter  fife  in  his  hand,  was 
barefooted  and  bareheaded,  having  on  no  coat,  with  his  pants  rolled  above  his 
knees,  and  shirt-sleeves  above  his  elbows.  He  set  President  Smith  against 
the  south  side  of  the  well-curb  that  was  situated  a  few  feet  from  the  jail. 
While  doing  this  the  savage  muttered  aloud,  'This  is  old  Jo;  I  know  him. 
I  know  you,  old  Jo.  Damn  you ;  you  are  the  man  that  had  my  daddy  shot' 
— intimating  that  he  was  a  son  of  Boggs,  and  that  it  was  the  Missourians  who 
were  doing  this  murder.  Littlefield's  Narrative^  13. 

3^  After  President  Taylor's  account  in  Burton's  City  of  the  Saints,  the 
best  authorities  on  this  catastrophe  are:  Assassination  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum 
Smith,  the  Prophet  and  the  Patriarch  of  the  Church  of  Jesus  Christ  of  Latter- 
day  Saints;  also  a  Condensed  History  of  the  Expulsion  of  the  Saints  from 
Nauvoo,  by  Elder  John  S.  Fullmer  (of  Utah,  U.  S.  A.),  Pastor  of  the  Man- 
chester, Liverpool,  and  Preston  Conferences.  Liverpool  and  London,  1855; 
Message  of  the  Governor  of  the  State  of  Illinois,  in  relation  to  the  disturbances 
in  Han/iock  Couniy,  December  23,  1844-  Springfield,  1844;  Awful  assassina- 
tion of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith;  the  pledged  faith  of  the  State  of  Illinois 
stained  icith  innocent  blood  by  a  mob,  in  Times  and  Sectsons,  v.  560-75;  A 
Narrative  of  the  Massacre  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith  by  an  Outsider  and  an 
Eye-witness,  in  Utah  Tracts,  i.;  and  The  Martyrdom  of  Joseph  Smith,  by  Apos- 
tle John  Taylor,  a  copy  of  which  is  contained  in  Burton's  City  of  the 
Saints,  625-67.  Brief  accounts  will  be  found  in  Utah  Pamphlets,  23;  Lee^s 
Mormonism,  152-5;  Remy's  Jour,  to  G.  S.  L.  City,  388-96;  HcdVs  Mormonism 
Exposed,  15-16;  Green's  Mormonism,  36-7;  Tullidge's  Women,  297-300;  Ols- 
hausen,  Gesch.  der  Mor.,  100-3;  Tucker's  Mormonism,  189-92;  Mackay's  The 
Mormons,  169-72;  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  177-9;  Ferris'  Utah  and  Mormons, 
120-5,  and  in  other  works  on  Mormonism.  Li  the  Atlantic  Monthly  for  Dec. 
1869  is  an  article  entitled  '  The  Mormon  Prophet's  Tragedy,'  which,  however 
justly  it  may  lay  claim  to  Boston  '  smart '  writing,  so  far  as  the  facts  are  con- 
cerned is  simply  a  tissue  of  falsehoods. 


and  faith  must  cease  not  though  prayer  be  unan- 
swered; and  they  ask  where  was  the  father  when  the 
son  called  in  Gethsemane  ?  It  was  foreordained  that 
Joseph  and  Hyrum  should  die  for  the  people;  and  the 
more  of  murder  and  extermination  on  the  part  of  their 
enemies,  the  more  praying  and  believing  on  the  part 
of  saints,  and  the  more  praise  and  exultation  in  the 
heavenly  inheritance. 

The  further  the  credulity  of  a  credulous  people  is 
taxed  the  stronger  will  be  their  faith.  Many  of  the 
saints  believed  in  Joseph;  with  their  whole  mind 
and  soul  they  worshipped  him.  He  was  to  them  as 
God;  he  was  their  deity  present  upon  earth,  their 
savior  from  evil,  and  their  guide  to  heaven.  What- 
ever he  did,  that  to  his  people  was  right;  he  could 
do  no  wrong,  no  more  than  king  or  pope,  no  more 
than  Christ  or  Mahomet.  Accordingly  they  obeyed 
him  without  question;  and  it  was  this  belief  and 
obedience  that  caused  the  gentiles  to  fear  and  hate. 
There  are  still  open  in  the  world  easier  fields  than  this 
for  new  religions,  which  might  recommend  themselves 
as  a  career  to  young  men  laboring  under  a  fancied  in- 
exorable necessity. 

Whatever  else  may  be  said  of  Joseph  Smith,  it 
must  be  admitted  that  he  was  a  remarkable  man. 
His  course  in  life  was  by  no  means  along  a  flowery 
path;  his  death  was  like  that  which  too  often  comes 
to  the  founder  of  a  religion.  What  a  commentary  on 
the  human  mind  and  the  human  heart,  the  deeds  of 
those  who  live  for  the  love  of  God  and  man,  who  die 
for  the  love  of  God  and  man,  who  severally  and  col- 
lectively profess  the  highest  holiness,  the  highest 
charity,  justice,  and  humanity,  higher  far  than  any 
held  by  other  sect  or  nation,  now  or  since  the  world 
began — how  lovely  to  behold,  to  write  and  meditate 
upon  their  disputings  and  disruptions,  their  cruelties 
and  injustice,  their  persecutions  for  opinion's  sake, 
their  ravenous  hate  and  bloody  butcheries! 


The  founder  of  Mormonism  displayed  a  singular 
genius  for  the  work  he  gave  himself  to  do.  He 
made  thousands  believe  in  him  and  in  his  doctrines, 
howsoever  good  or  evil  his  life,  howsoever  true  or 
false  his  teachings.  The  less  that  can  be  proved 
the  more  may  be  asserted.  Any  one  possessing  the 
proper  abilities  may  found  a  religion  and  make  pros- 
elytes. His  success  will  depend  not  on  the  truth  or 
falsity  of  his  statements,  nor  on  their  gross  absurdity 
or  philosophic  refinement,  but  on  the  power  and  skill 
with  which  his  propositions  are  promulgated.  If  he 
has  not  the  natural  and  inherited  genius  for  this  work, 
though  his  be  otherwise  the  greatest  mind  that  ever 
existed,  he  is  sure  to  fail.  If  he  has  the  mental  and 
physical  adaptation  for  the  work,  he  will  succeed, 
whatever  may  be  his  abilities  in  other  directions. 

There  was  more  in  this  instance  than  any  consid- 
eration short  of  careful  study  makes  appear:  things 
spiritual  and  things  temporal;  the  outside  world  and 
the  inside  workings.  The  prophet's  days  were  full  of 
trouble.  His  people  were  often  petulant,  his  elders 
quarrelsome,  his  most  able  followers  cautious  and 
captious.  While  the  world  scoffed  and  the  neighbors 
used  violence,  his  high  priests  were  continually  ask- 
ing him  for  prophecies,  and  if  they  were  not  fulfilled 
at  once  and  to  the  letter,  they  stood  ready  to  apostatize. 
Many  did  apostatize ;  many  behaved  disgracefully,  and 
brought  reproach  and  enmity  upon  the  cause.  More- 
over, Joseph  was  constantly  in  fear  for  his  life,  and 
though  by  no  means  desirous  of  death,  in  moments 
of  excitement  he  often  faced  danger  with  apparent 
indifference  as  to  the  results.  But  without  occupy- 
ing further  space  with  my  own  remarks,  I  will  give 
the  views  of  others,  who  loved  or  hated  him  and 
knew  him  personally  and  well. 

Of  his  physique  and  character,  Parley  P.  Pratt  re- 
marks: ''President  Joseph  Smith  was  in  person  tall 
and  well  built,  strong  and  active;  of  a  light  complex- 
ion, light  hair,  blue  eyes,  very  little  beard,  and  of  an 


expression  peculiar  to  himself,  on  which  the  eye  natu- 
rally rested  with  interest,  and  was  never  weary  of  be- 
holding. His  countenance  was  ever  mild,  affable, 
and  beaming  with  intelligence  and  benevolence,  min- 
gled with  a  look  of  interest  and  an  unconscious  smile 
of  cheerfulness,  and  entirely  free  from  all  restraint,  or 
affectation  of  gravity;  and  there  was  something  con- 
nected with  the  serene  and  steady,  penetrating  glance 
of  his  eye,  as  if  he  would  penetrate  the  deepest  abyss 
of  the  human  heart,  gaze  into  eternity,  penetrate  the 
heavens,  and  comprehend  all  worlds.  He  possessed 
a  noble  boldness  and  independence  of  character;  his 
manner  was  easy  and  familiar,  his  rebuke  terrible  as 
the  lion,  his  benevolence  unbounded  as  the  ocean, 
his  intelligence  universal,  and  his  language  abounding 
in  original  eloquence  peculiar  to  himself." 

And  thus  a  female  convert  who  arrived  at  Nauvoo 
a  year  or  two  before  the  prophet's  death:  ''The  first 
time  I  ever  saw  Joseph  Smith  I  recognized  him  from  a 
vision  that  once  appeared  to  me  in  a  dream.  His  coun- 
tenance was  like  that  of  an  angel,  and  such  as  I  had 
never  beheld  before.  He  was  then  thirty-seven  years 
of  age,  of  ordinary  appearance  in  dress  and  manner, 
but  with  a  child-like  innocence  of  expression.  His  hair 
was  of  a  light  brown,  his  eyes  blue,  and  his  complex- 
ion light.  His  natural  demeanor  was  quiet;  his  char- 
acter and  disposition  were  formed  by  his  life-work;  he 
was  kind  and  considerate,  taking  a  personal  interest  in 
all  his  people,  and  considering  every  one  his  equal/' ^ 

On  the  other  hand,  the  author  of  Mormonism  Un- 
veiled says:  "The  extreme  ignorance  and  apparent 
stupidity  of  this  modern  prophet  were  by  his  early 
followers  looked  upon  as  his  greatest  merit,  and  as 
furnishing  the  most  incontestable  proof  of  his  divine 
mission .  .  .  His  followers  have  told  us  that  he  could 
not  at  the  time  he  was  chosen  of  the  Lord  even  write 
his  own  name.     But  it  is  obvious  that  all  these  defi- 

^^  Another  account  says  that  at  36  he  weighed  212  lbs,  stood  6  feet  in  his 
pumps,  was  robust,  corpulent,  and  jovial,  but  when  roused  to  anger  his  ex 
pression  was  very  severe. 


ciencies  are  fully  supplied  by  a  natural  genius,  strong 
inventive  powers  of  mind,  a  deep  study,  and  an  unusu- 
ally correct  estimate  of  the  human  passions  and  feel- 
ings. In  short,  he  is  now  endowed  with  all  the  re- 
quisite traits  of  character  to  pursue  most  successfully 
the  humbug  which  he  has  introduced.  His  address 
is  easy,  rather  fascinating  and  winning,  of  a  mild  and 
sober  deportment  when  not  irritated.  But  he  fre- 
quently becomes  boisterous  by  the  impertinence  or 
curiosity  of  the  skeptical,  and  assumes  the  bravado, 
instead  of  adhering  to  the  meekness  which  he  pro- 
fesses. His  followers,  of  course,  can  discover  in  his 
very  countenance  all  the  certain  indications  of  a  di- 
vine mission." 

One  more  quotation  will  serve  to  show  the  impres- 
sion that  Joseph  Smith's  doctrines  and  discourse  made 
not  onh  on  his  own  followers  but  on  the  gentiles,  and 
even  oi'  gentile  divines.  In  1843  a  methodist  minis- 
ter, named  Prior,  visited  Nauvoo  and  was  present 
during  a  sermon  preached  by  the  prophet  in  the  tem- 
ple. "I  took  my  seat,"  he  remarks,  "in  a  conspicu- 
ous place  in  the  congregation,  who  were  waiting  in 
breathless  silence  for  his  appearance.  While  he  tar- 
ried, I  had  plenty  of  time  to  revolve  in  my  mind  the 
character  and  common  report  of  that  truly  singular 
personage.  I  fancied  that  I  should  behold  a  counte- 
nance sad  and  sorrowful,  yet  containing  the  fiery  marks 
of  rage  and  exasperation.  I  supposed  that  I  should 
be  enabled  to  discover  in  him  some  of  those  thought- 
ful and  reserved  features,  those  mystic  and  sarcastic 
glances,  which  I  had  fancied  the  ancient  sages  to  pos- 
sess. I  expected  to  see  that  fearful  faltering  look  of 
conscious  shame  which  from  what  I  had  heard  of  him 
he  might  be  expected  to  evince.  He  appeared  at  last; 
but  how  was  I  disappointed  when,  instead  of  the  head 
and  horns  of  the  beast  and  false  prophet,  I  beheld 
only  the  appearance  of  a  common  man,  of  tolerably 
large  proportions. 

"I  was  sadly  disappointed,  and  thought  that,  al- 


though  his  appearance  could  not  be  wrested  to  indi- 
cate anything  against  Lim,  yet  he  would  manifest  all  I 
had  heard  of  him  when  he  began  to  preach.  I  sat 
uneasily  and  watched  him  closely.  He  commenced 
preaching,  not  from  the  book  of  Mormon,  however, 
but  from  the  bible;  the  first  chapter  of  the  first  of 
Peter  was  his  text.  He  commenced  calmly,  and  con- 
tinued dispassionately  to  pursue  his  subject,  while  I 
sat  in  breathless  silence,  waiting  to  hear  that  foul 
aspersion  of  the  other  sects,  that  diabolical  disposi- 
tion of  revenge,  and  to  hear  that  rancorous  denuncia- 
tion of  every  individual  but  a  Mormon.  I  waited  in 
vain;  I  listened  with  surprise;  I  sat  uneasy  in  my 
seat,  and  could  hardly  persuade  myself  but  that  he 
had  been  apprised  of  my  presence,  and  so  ordered 
his  discourse  on  my  account,  that  I  might  not  be 
able  to  find  fault  with  it;  for  instead  of  a  jumbled 
jargon  of  half-connected  sentences,  and  a  volley  of 
imprecations,  and  diabolical  and  malignant  denuncia- 
tions heaped  upon  the  heads  of  all  who  differed  from 
him,  and  the  dreadful  twisting  and  wresting  of  the 
scriptures  to  suit  his  own  peculiar  views,  and  attempt 
to  weave  a  web  of  dark  and  mystic  sophistry  around 
the  gospel  truths,  which  I  had  anticipated,  he  glided 
along  through  a  very  interesting  and  elaborate  dis- 
course, with  all  the  care  and  happy  facility  of  one 
who  was  well  aware  of  his  important  station  and  his 
duty  to  God  and  man." 


No  event,  probably,  that  had  occurred  thus  far  in 
the  history  of  the  saints  gave  to  the  cause  of  Mor- 
monism  so  much  of  stability  as  the  assassination  of  Jo- 
seph Smith.  Not  all  the  militia  mobs  in  Illinois,  in 
Missouri,  or  in  the  United  States  could  destroy  this 
cause,  any  more  than  could  the  roundheads  in  the 

"  MacTcay's  The  Mormms,  131-3.  Of  course  views  as  to  Joseph  Smith's 
character  are  expressed  in  nearly  all  the  works  published  on  Mormonism. 
With  the  exception,  periiaps,  of  Mahomet,  no  one  has  been  so  much  bespat- 
tered with  praise  by  his  followers  and  with  abuse  by  his  adversaries  as  the 
founder  of  this  faith. 


seventeenth  century  destroy  the  cause  of  monarchy. 
The  deed  but  reacted  on  those  who  committed  it. 

When  two  miles  on  his  way  from  Nauvoo,  the  gov- 
ernor was  met  by  messengers  who  informed  him  of  the 
assassination,  and,  as  he  relates,  he  was  "  struck  with  a 
kind  of  dumbness."  At  daybreak  the  next  morning  all 
the  bells  in  Carthage  were  ringing.  It  was  noised 
abroad  throughout  Hancock  county,  he  says,  that  the 
Mormons  had  attempted  the  rescue  of  Joseph  and  Hy- 
rum ;  that  they  had  been  killed  in  order  to  prevent  their 
escape,  and  that  the  governor  was  closely  besieged  at 
Nauvoo  by  the  Nauvoo  Legion,  and  could  hold  out 
only  for  two  days.  Ford  was  convinced  that  "  those 
whoever  they  were  who  assassinated  the  Smiths 
meditated  in  turn  his  assassination  by  the  Mormons," 
thinking  that  they  would  thus  rid  themselves  of  the 
Smiths  and  the  governor,  and  that  the  result  would 
be  the  expulsion  of  the  saints,  for  Ford  had  shown  a 
determination  to  defend  Nauvoo,  so  far  as  lay  in  his 
power,  from  the  threatened  violence.  Arriving  at 
Carthage  at  ten  o'clock  at  night,  he  found  the  citi- 
zens in  flight  with  their  families  and  effects,  one  of 
his  companies  broken  up,  and  the  Carthage  Greys  also 
disbanding,  the  citizens  that  remained  being  in  instant 
fear  of  attack.  At  length  he  met  with  John  Taylor 
and  Willard  Richards,  who,  notwithstanding  the  ill- 
usage  they  had  received,  came  to  the  relief  of  the 
panic-stricken  magistrate,  and  addressed  a  letter  to 
their  brethren  at  Nauvoo,  exhorting  them  to  preserve 
the  peace,  the  latter  stating  that  he  had  pledged  his 
word  that  no  violence  would  be  used. 

The  letter  of  Richards  and  Taylor,  signed  also  by 
Samuel  H.  Smith,  a  brother  of  the  deceased,  who  a 
few  weeks  afterward  died,  as  the  Mormons  relate,  of  a 
broken  heart,  prevented  a  threatened  uprising  of  the 
saints.^  On  the  29th  of  June,  the  day  after  the  news 
was  received,  the  legion  was  called  out,  the  letter  read, 

'8  To  the  letter  was  appended  a  postscript  from  the  governor,  bidding  the 
Mormons  defend  themselves  until  protection  could  be  furnished,  and  one  from 


and  the  fury  of  the  citizens  allayed  by  addresses  from 
Judge  Phelps,  Colonel  Buckmaster,  the  governor's 
aid,  and  others.  In  the  afternoon  the  bodies  of 
Joseph  and  Hyrum  arrived  in  wagons  guarded  by 
three  men.  They  were  met  by  the  city  council,  the 
prophet's  staff,  the  officers  of  the  legion,  and  a  vast 
procession  of  citizens,  crying  out  "amid  the  most 
solemn  lamentations  and  wailings  that  ever  ascended 
into  the  ears  of  the  Lord  of  hosts  to  be  avenged  of 
their  enemies."  Arriving  at  the  Nauvoo  House,  the 
assemblage,  numbering  ten  thousand  persons,  was 
again  addressed,  and  "  with  one  united  voice  resolved 
to  trust  to  the  law  for  a  remedy  of  such  a  high-handed 
assassination,  and  when  that  failed,  to  call  upon  God 
to  avenge  them  of  their  wrongs.  Oh!  widows  and 
orphans!  Oh  Americans!  weep,  for  the  glory  of  free- 
dom has  departed!" 

Meanwhile  the  governor,  fearing  that  the  Mormons 
would  rise  in  a  body  to  execute  vengeance,  issued  an 
address  to  the  people  of  Illinois,  in  which  he  attempted 
to  explain  his  conduct,^^  and  again  called  out  the 
militia.  Two  officers  were  despatched  to  Nauvoo, 
with  orders  to  ascertain  the  disposition  of  the  citizens, 
and  to  proceed  thence  to  Warsaw,  where  were  the 
headquarters  of  the  anti-Mormon  militia,  and  forbid 
violent  measures  in  the  name  of  the  state.  On  arriv- 
ing at  the  former  place  they  laid  their  instructions 
before  the  members  of  the  municipality.  A  meeting 
of  the  council  was  summoned,  and  it  was  resolved  that 
the  saints  rigidly  sustain  the  laws  and  the  governor, 
so  long  as  they  are  themselves  sustained  in  their 
constitutional  rights;  that  they  discountenance  ven- 
geance on  the  assassins  of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smith; 
that  instead  of  an  appeal  to  arms,  they  appeal  to  the 
majesty  of  the  law,  and,  should  the  law  fail,  they 

General  Deming,  telling  them  to  remain  quiet,  that  the  assassination  would 
be  condemned  by  three  fourths  of  the  people  of  Illinois,  but  that  they  were 
in  danger  of  attack  from  Missouri,  and  'prudence  might  obviate  material 
destruction.'  Times  and  Seasons,  v.  561. 

^'Copies  of  it  will  be  found  in  Id.,  v.  664-5;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  178- 
9 J  and  Smucker's  Hist.  Mor.,  186-7. 


leave  the  matter  with  God;  that  the  council  pledges 
itself  that  no  aggressions  shall  be  made  by  the  citizens 
of  Nauvoo,  approves  the  course  taken  by  the  gov- 
ernor, and  will  uphold  him  by  all  honorable  means. 
A  meeting  of  citizens  was  then  held  in  the  public 
square;  the  people  were  addressed,  the  resolutions 
read,  and  all  responded  with  a  hearty  amen. 

The  two  officers  then  returned  to  Carthage  and 
reported  to  the  governor,  who  was  so  greatly  pleased 
with  the  forbearance  of  the  saints  that  he  officially 
declared  them  "human  beings  and  citizens  of  the 
state."  He  caused  writs  to  be  issued  for  the  arrest  of 
three  of  the  murderers — after  they  had  taken  refuge 
in  Missouri.*^  The  assassins  escaped  punishment, 
however;  and  now  that  order  was  restored,  the  chief 
magistrate  disbanded  the  militia,  after  what  he  termed 
^^a  campaign  of  about  thirteen  days." 

On  the  afternoon  of  July  1st  a  letter  was  addressed  by 
Richards,  Taylor,  and  Phelps  to  the  citizens  of  Nau- 
voo, and  a  fortnight  later,  an  epistle  signed  by  the  same 
persons  and  also  by  Parley  P.  Pratt  was  despatched 
to  all  the  saints  throughout  the  world.  ''Be  peace- 
able, quiet  citizens,  doing  the  works  of  righteousness; 
and  as  soon  as  the  twelve  and  other  authorities  can 
assemble,  or  a  majority  of  them,  the  onward  course 
to  the  great  gathering  of  Israel,  and  the  final  con- 
summation of  the  dispensation  of  the  fulness  of  times, 
will  be  pointed  out,  so  that  the  murder  of  Abel,  the 
assassination  of  hundreds,  the  righteous  blood  of  all 
the  holy  prophets,  from  Abel  to  Joseph,  sprinkled 
with  the  best  blood  of  the  son  of  God,  as  the  crim- 
son sign  of  remission,  only  carries  conviction  to  the 
business  and  bosoms  of  all  flesh,  that  the  cause  is  just 
and  will  continue;  and  blessed  are  they  that  hold  out 
faithful  to  the  end,  while  apostates,  consenting  to  the 
shedding  of  innocent  blood,  have  no  forgiveness  in 
this  world  nor  in  the  world  to  come .  . .  Let  no  vain 

*°  In  Message  to  III.  Legis.,  20,  it  is  stated  that  some  of  the  murderers  after- 
ward surrendered  on  the  understanding  that  they  should  be  admitted  to  bail. 
There  was  not  suflScient  proof  to  convict  them. 


and  foolish  plans  or  imaginations  scatter  us  abroad 
and  divide  us  asunder  as  a  people,  to  seek  to  save  our 
lives  at  the  expense  of  truth  and  principle,  but  rather 
let  us  live  or  die  together  and  in  the  enjoyment  of 
society  and  union.  "*^ 

At  this  time  the  saints  needed  such  words  of  ad- 
vice and  consolation.  Some  were  already  making 
preparations  to  return  to  the  gentiles;  some  feared 
that  their  organization  as  a  sect  would  soon  come  to 
an  end.  To  reassure  them,  one  more  address  was 
issued  on  August  15th,  in  the  name  of  the  twelve 
apostles,*^  and  signed  by  Brigham  Young,  the  presi- 
dent of  the  apostles.  The  saints  were  told  that 
though  they  were  now  without  a  prophet  present  in 
the  flesh,  the  twelve  would  administer  and  regulate 
the  affairs  of  the  church;  and  that  even  if  they  should 
be  taken  away,  there  w^ere  still  others  who  would 
insure  the  triumph  of  their  cause  throughout  the 

In  1830,  as  will  be  remembered,  the  church  of 
Jesus  Christ  of  Latter-day  Saints  was  organized  in  a 
chamber  by  a  few  humble  men;  in  1844  the  prophet's 
followers  mustered  scores  of  thousands.  Speedy  dis- 
solution was  now  predicted  by  some,  while  others 
argued  that  as  all  his  faults  would  lie  buried  in  the 
tomb,  while  on  his  virtues  martyrdom  would  shed  its 
lustre,  the  progress  of  the  sect  would  be  yet  more 
remarkable.  The  latter  prediction  was  verified,  and 
after  the  Mormons  had  suffered  another  period  of  per- 
secution, Joseph  Smith  the  martyr  became  a  greater 
power  in  the  land  than  Joseph  Smith  the  prophet. 

*^The  full  text  of  both  letters  is  given  in  Times  and  Seasons,  v.  568,  586- 
7;  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  180-2;  Smucker's  Hist.  Mormons,  189-92. 

*^  Who  are  thus  described  in  a  letter  addressed  by  Phelps  to  the  editor  of 
the  New  York  Prophet,  a  small  journal  established  to  promulgate  the  views 
of  the  sect:  '  Brigham  Young,  the  lion  of  the  Lord;  Heber  C.  Kimball,  the  her- 
ald of  grace;  Parley  P.  Pratt,  the  archer  of  paradise;  Orson  Hyde,  the  olive 
branch  of  Israel;  Willard  Richards,  the  keeper  of  the  rolls;  John  Taylor, 
the  champion  of  right;  William  Smith,  the  patriarchal  staJff  of  Jacob;  Wilford 
Woodruff,  the  banner  of  the  gospel;  George  A.  Smith,  the  entablature  of 
truth;  Orson  Pratt,  the  gauge  of  philosophy;  John  E.  Page,  the  sun-dial; 
and  Lyman  Wight,  the  wild  ram  of  the  mountains.  They  are  good  men; 
the  best  the  Lord  can  find.'    See  Mackay's  The  Mormons,  186. 




The  Question  of  Succession — ^Biography  op  Bbigham  Young — His  Early 
LrPB — Conversion — Missionary  Work — Made  President  op  the 
Twelve — His  Devotion  to  the  Prophet— Sidney  Rigdon  and  Brig- 
ham  Young  Rival  Aspirants  for  the  Presidency — Rigdon's  Claims 
— Public  Meetings — Brigham  Elected  President  of  the  Church — 
His  Character — Temple-building — Fresh  Disasters — The  Affair  at 
MoRLEY — The  Men  op  Quincy  and  the  Men  of  Carthage — The  Mor- 
mons Consent  to  Abandon  their  City. 

Upon  the  death  of  Joseph  Smith,  one  of  the  ques- 
tions claiming  immediate  attention  was,  Who  shall 
be  his  successor?  It  was  the  first  time  the  question 
had  arisen  in  a  manner  to  demand  immediate  solution, 
and  the  matter  of  succession  was  not  so  well  deter- 
mined then  as  now,  it  being  at  present  well  established 
that  upon  the  death  of  the  president  of  the  church 
the  apostle  eldest  in  ordination  and  service  takes  his 

Personal  qualifications  would  have  much  to  do  with 
it;  rules  could  be  established  later.  The  first  consid- 
eration now  was  to  keep  the  church  from  falling  in 
pieces.  None  realized  the  situation  better  than  Brig- 
ham  Young,  who  soon  made  up  his  mind  that  he  him- 
self was  the  man  for  the  emergency.  Then  to  make 
ifc  appear  plain  to  the  brethren  that  God  would  have 
him  take  Joseph's  place,  his  mind  thus  works:  "The 
first  thing  that  I  thought  of,"  he  says,  "was  whether 
Joseph  had  taken  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  with  him 

Hist.  Utah.    13  ( 193  ) 


from  the  earth.  Brother  Orson  Pratt  sat  on  my 
left;  we  were  both  leaning  back  on  our  chairs.  Bring- 
ing my  hand  down  on  my  knee,  I  said,  *The  keys  of 
the  kingdom  are  right  here  with  the  church.'"  But 
who  held  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  ?  This  was  the  all- 
absorbing  question  that  was  being  discussed  at  Nauvoo 
when  Brigham  and  the  other  members  of  the  quorum 
arrived  at  that  city  on  the  6th  of  August,  1844. 

Brigham  Young  was  born  at  Whitingham,  Wind- 
ham county,  Vermont,  on  the  1st  of  June,  1801.  His 
father,  John,  a  Massachusetts  farmer,  served  as  a  pri- 
vate soldier  in  the  revolutionary  war,  and  his  grand- 
father as  surgeon  in  the  French  and  Indian  war.^  In 
1804  his  family,  which  included  nine  children,^  of  whom 
he  was  then  the  youngest,  removed  to  Sherburn, 
Chenango  county,  New  York,  where  for  a  time  hard- 
ship and  poverty  were  their  lot.  Concerning  Brig- 
ham's  youth  there  is  little  worthy  of  record.  Lack 
of  means  compelled  him,  almost  without  education, 
to  earn  his  own  livelihood,  ab  did  his  brothers,  finding 
employment  as  best  they  could.  Thus,  at  the  age  of 
twenty-three,  when  he  married  he  had  learned  how 
to  work  as  farmer,  carpenter,  joiner,  painter,  and 
glazier,  in  the  last  of  which  occupations  he  was  an  ex- 
pert craftsman. 

In  1829  he  removed  to  Mendon,  Monroe  county, 
where  his  father  then  resided;  and  here,  for  the  first 
time,  he  saw  the  book  of  Mormon  at  the  house  of  his 
brother  Phineas,  who  had  been  a  pastor  in  the  re- 
formed methodist  church,  but  was  now  a  convert  to 

^  Waite's  The  Mormon  Prophet  and  his  Harem.  Linforth,  JRoute  from 
Liverpool,  1 12,  note,  states  that  his  grandfather  was  an  officer  in  the  revolu- 
tionary war;  this  is  not  confirmed  by  Mrs  Waite,  who  quotes  from  Brigham's 
autobiography.  Again,  Nabby  Howe  was  the  maiden  name  of  Brigham's 
mother,  as  given  in  his  autobiography;  while  Linforth  reads  Nancy  Howe;  and 
Remy,  Jour,  to  O.  S.  L.  City,  i.  413,  Naleby  Howe. 

''Born  as  follow:  Nancy,  Aug.  6,  1786,  Fanny,  Nov.  8,  1787,  Rhoda,  Sept. 
10,  1789,  John,  May  22,  1791,  Nabby,  Apr.  23,  1793,  Susannah,  June  7,  1795, 
Joseph,  Apr.  7,  1797,  Phineas,  Feb.  16,  1799,  and  Brigham,  June  1, 1801.  Two 
others  were  bom  later:  Louisa,  Sept.  25,  1804,  and  Lorenzo  Dow,  Oct.  19, 

^  In  Ibid,  f  it  is  mentioned  that  before  tha  organization  of  the  latter-day 


About  two  years  later  he  himself  was  converted*  by 
the  preaching  of  Elder  Samuel  H.  Smith,  brother  of 
the  prophet;  on  the  14th  of  April,  1832,  he  was  bap- 
tized, and  on  the  same  night  ordained  an  elder,  his 
father^  and  all  his  brothers  afterward  becoming  pros- 
elytes. During  the  same  month  he  set  forth  to  meet 
the  prophet  at  Kirtland,  where  he  found  him  and 
several  of  his  brethren  chopping  wood.  "Here,"  says 
Brigham,  "my  joy  was  full  at  the  privilege  of  shak- 
ing the  hand  of  the  prophet  of  God .  .  .  He  was  happy 
to  see  us  and  bid  us  welcome.  In  the  evening  a  few 
of  the  brethren  came  in,  and  we  conversed  together 
upon  the  things  of  the  kingdom.  He  called  upon  me 
to  pray.  In  my  prayer  I  spoke  in  tongues.  As  soon 
as  we  rose  from  our  knees,  the  brethren  flocked 
around  him,  and  asked  his  opinion .  .  .  He  told  them 
it  was  the  pure  Adamic  language; .  .  .it  is  of  God,  and 
the  time  will  come  when  Brother  Brigham  Young 
will  preside  over  this  church."  In  1835  he  was  chosen, 
as  will  be  remembered,  one  of  the  quorum  of  the 
twelve,  and  the  following  spring  set  forth  on  a  mis- 
sionary tour  to  the  eastern  states.  Returning  early 
in  the  winter,  he  saved  the  life  of  the  prophet,  and 
otherwise  rendered  good  service  during  the  great 
apostasy  of  1836,  when  the  church  passed  through  its 
darkest  hour.^ 

Brigham  was  ever  a  devoted  follower  of  the  prophet, 
and  at  the  risk  of  his  own  life,  shielded  him  against 
the  persecutions  of  apostates.  At  the  close  of  1837 
he  was  driven  by  their  machinations  from  Kirtland,'' 

church,  Phineas  had  wrought  a  miracle,  'whereby  a  young  girl  on  the  point  of 
death  had  been  restored  to  life.'    Remy  does  not  give  his  authority. 

*  At  a  branch  of  the  church  at  Columbia,  Penn.  Tullidge's  Life  of  Young,  78. 

*  John  Young  was  made  first  patriarch  of  the  church.  He  died  at  Quincy, 
ni.,  Oct.  12,  1839.  WaUe's  The  Mormon  Prophet,  2. 

*  Tullidge's  Life  of  Brigham  Young,  83.  In  a  speech  delivered  after  he 
became  president,  Brigham  says:  'Ascertaining  that  a  plot  was  laid  to  waylay 
Joseph  for  the  purpose  of  taking  his  life,  on  his  return  from  Monroe,  Michi- 
gan, to  Kirtland,  I  procured  a  horse  and  buggy,  and  took  brother  William 
Smith  along  to  meet  Joseph,  whom  we  met  returning  in  the  stage-coach. 
Joseph  requested  William  to  take  his  seat  in  the  stage,  and  he  rode  with  me 
in  the  buggy      We  arrived  at  Kirtland  in  safety.' 

"*  *0n  the  morning  of  Dec.  22d  1  left  Kirtland  in  consequence  of  the  fury 


and  took  refuge  at  Dublin,  Indiana,  where  he  was  soon 
afterward  joined  by  Joseph  Smith  and  Sidney  Rigdon. 
Thence,  in  company  with  the  former,  he  went  to  Mis- 
souri, arriving  at  Far  West  a  short  time  before  the 
massacre  at  Haun's  Mill.  Once  more  Brigham  was 
compelled  to  flee  for  his  life,  and  now  betook  himself 
to  Quincy,  where  he  raised  means  to  aid  the  destitute 
brethren  in  leaving  Missouri,^  and  directed  the  first 
settlement  of  the  saints  in  Illinois,  the  prophet  Joseph, 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  and  others  being  then  in  prison. 

By  revelation  of  July  8,  1838,^  it  was  ordered  that 
eleven  of  the  quorum  should  ^'  depart  to  go  over  the 
great  waters,  and  there  promulgate  my  gospel,  the 
fulness  thereof,  and  bear  record  of  my  name.  Let 
them  take  leave  of  my  saints  in  the  city  Far  West,  on 
the  26th  day  of  April  next;  on  the  building  spot  of  my 
house,  saith  the  Lord."  As  the  twelve  had  been  ban- 
ished from  Missouri  and  could  not  return  with  safety, 
many  of  the  church  dignitaries  urged  that  the  latter 
part  of  this  revelation  should  not  be  fulfilled.  '^But," 
says  Brigham,  "  I  felt  differently,  and  so  did  those  of 
the  quorum  who  were  with  me."  The  affairs  of  the 
church  were  now  in  the  hands  of  the  twelve,  and  their 
president  was  not  the  man  to  shrink  from  danger. 
"  The  Lord  had  spoken,  and  it  was  their  duty  to  obey." 

The  quorum  started  forth,  and  reaching  Far  West 
toward  the  end  of  April,  hid  themselves  in  a  grove. 
Between  midnight  of  the  25th  and  dawn  of  the  26th 

of  the  mob,  and  the  spirit  that  prevailed  in  the  apostates,  who  threatened  to 
destroy  me  because  I  would  proclaim  publicly  and  privately  that  I  knew,  by 
the  power  of  the  holy  ghost,  that  Joseph  Smith  was  a  prophet  of  the  most 
high  God,  and  had  not  transgressed  and  fallen,  as  apostates  declared.'  Id.,  84. 

^  •  I  held  a  meeting  with  the  brethren  of  the  twelve  and  the  members  of 
the  church  in  Quincy,  on  the  17th  of  March,  when  a  letter  was  read  to  the 
people  from  the  committee,  on  behalf  of  the  saints  at  Far  West,  who  were 
left  destitute  of  the  means  to  move.  Though  the  brethren  were  poor  and 
stripped  of  almost  everything,  yet  they  manifested  a  spirit  of  willingness  to 
do  their  utmost,  offering  to  sell  their  hats,  coats,  and  shoes  to  accomplish  the 
object.  At  the  close  of  the  meeting  $50  was  collected  in  money  and  several 
teams  were  subscribed  to  go  and  bring  the  brethren.'  Id.y  89-90. 

^This  is  the  date  given  in  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  381  (ed.  S.  L.  City, 
1876).  See  also  Linforth^s  Route  from  Liverpool,  112,  note.  Tullidge  gives 
July  8,  1836.  Life  of  Brigham  Young,  90. 


they  held  a  conference,  relaid  the  foundation  of  the 
house  of  the  Lord,^^  and  ordained  Wilford  Woodruff 
and  George  A.  Smith  as  apostles  in  place  of  those 
who  had  fallen  from  grace.  "Thus,"  says  Brigham, 
'*was  this  revelation  fulfilled,  concerning  which  our 
enemies  said,  if  all  the  other  revelations  of  Joseph 
Smith  came  to  pass,  that  one  should  not  be  fulfilled." 

Upon  the  excommunication  of  Thomas  B.  Marsh, 
in  1839,  the  office  of  president  of  the  twelve  devolved 
by  right  on  Brigham  by  reason  of  his  seniority  of 
membership.  On  the  14th  of  April,  1840,  he  was 
publicly  accepted  by  the  council  as  their  head,  and  at 
the  reorganization  of  the  church  councils  at  Nauvoo 
he  was  appointed  by  revelation  on  the  19th  of  Janu- 
ary, 1843,  president  of  the  twelve  travelling  council. 

After  the  founding  of  Nauvoo,  the  president,  to- 
gether with  three  others  of  the  quorum,^^  sailed  for 
Liverpool,  where  they  arrived  on  the  6th  of  April, 
1840,  the  tenth  anniversary  of  the  organization  of 
the  church.  Here  he  was  engaged  for  about  a  year 
in  missionary  work,  of  which  more  hereafter.  Taking 
ship  for  New  York  on  the  20th  of  April,  1841,  he 
reached  Nauvoo  on  the  1st  of  July,  and  was  warmly 
welcomed  by  the  prophet,  who  a  few  days  afterward ^^ 
received  the  following  revelation:  "Dear  and  well- 
beloved  brother  Brigham  Young,  verily  thus  saith 
the  Lord  unto  you,  my  servant  Brigham,  it  is  no  more 
required  at  your  hand  to  leave  your  family  as  in  times 
past,  for  your  offering  is  acceptable  to  me;  I  have 
seen  your  labor  and  toil  in  journey ings  for  my  name. 
I  therefore  command  you  to  send  my  word  abroad, 
and  take  special  care  of  your  family  from  this  time 
henceforth  and  forever.     Amen." 

Already  the  mantle  of  the  prophet  was  falling  upon 
the  president  of  the  twelve;  already  the  former  had 

^° 'Elder  Cutler,  the  master  workman  of  the  house,  recommenced  laying 
the  foundation  by  rolling  up  a  large  stone  near  the  south-east  comer.'  Id.,  92. 

"  Heber  C.  Kimball,  George  A.  Smith,  and  Parley  P.  Pratt,  Reuben 
Hedlock  also  accompanied  them. 

^^On  July  9th.  Doctrine  and  Covenants^  409. 


foretold  his  own  death ;  but  notwithstanding  the  rev- 
elation, Brigham  was  sent  as  a  missionary  to  the 
eastern  states,  and  at  Peterborough,  New  Hampshire, 
received  news  of  the  tragedy  at  Carthage  jail. 

When  Governor  Ford  and  his  militia  were  prepar- 
ing to  march  on  Nauvoo  for  the  purpose  of  forestall- 
ing civil  war,  the  only  course  open  to  the  prophet 
and  his  followers  was  a  removal  from  Illinois.  In  1842 
an  expedition  had  beeii  planned  to  explore  the  coun- 
try toward  or  beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains;  but 
when  Joseph  Smith  put  himself  forward  as  a  candi- 
date for  the  presidency  of  the  United  States,  all 
other  matters  were  for  the  time  forgotten.  Brigham 
claimed  that  had  he  been  present  the  assassination 
would  never  have  occurred;  he  would  not  have  per- 
mitted the  prophet's  departure  for  Carthage:  rather 
would  he  have  sent  him  to  the  mountains  under  a 
guard  of  elders.  But  Brigham  had  no  reason  to 
complain  of  the  dispensation  of  providence  which  was 
now  to  bring  his  clear,  strong  judgment  and  resolute 
will  to  the  front. 

Prominent  among  the  aspirants  for  the  presidency 
of  the  church  was  Sidney  Bigdon,  one  of  the  first  and 
ablest  to  espouse  the  cause,  and  not  altogether  without 
grounds  for  his  pretensions.  He  had  performed  much 
labor,  had  encountered  many  trials,  and  had  received 
scanty  honors,  being  at  present  nothing  more  than 
preacher,  and  professor  of  history,  belles-lettres,  and 
oratory.  By  revelation  of  January  19,  1841,  he  had 
been  offered  the  position  of  counsellor  to  the  prophet, 


^^  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  406.  In  this  same  revelation  the  officers  of 
the  priesthood  were  likewise  named:  Hyrum  Smith,  patriarch;  Joseph  Smith, 
presiding  elder  over  the  whole  church,  also  translator,  revelator,  seer,  and 
prophet,  with  Sidney  Rigdon  and  William  Law  as  councillors,  the  three  to 
constitute  a  quorum  and  first  presidency.  Brigham  Young,  president  over 
the  twelve  travelling  council,  who  were  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Parley  P.  Pratt, 
Orson  Pratt,  Orson  Hyde,  William  Smith,  John  Taylor,  John  E.  Page,  Wilford 
Woodruff,  Willard  Richards,  George  A.  Smith,  and  some  one  to  be  appointed 
in  place  of  David  Patten;  a  high  council,  Samuel  Bent,  H.  G.  Sherwood, 
George  W.  Harris,  Charles  C.  Rich,  Thomas  Grover,  Newel  Knight,  David 
Dort,  Dunbar  Wilson,  Aaron  Johnson,  David  Fulmer,  Alpheus  Cutler,  Will 


if  he  would  consent  to  humble  himself.  But  Sidney 
would  not  humble  himself.  Soon  after  Joseph's 
death,  at  which  he  was  not  present,  he  had  a  revela- 
tion of  his  own,  bidding  him  conduct  the  saints  to 
Pittsburgh.^*  Visiting  that  city,  he  found  the  time 
not  yet  ripe  for  this  measure;  and  meanwhile  return- 
ing to  Nauvoo,  the  3d  of  August,  he  offered  himself 
on  the  following  day  as  a  candidate  for  the  presidency, 
aided  by  Elder  Marks. 

Sidney  now  put  forth  all  his  strength  to  gain  influ- 
ence and  secure  retainers.  He  must  have  Joseph's 
mantle ;  he  must  have  the  succession,  or  henceforth  he 
would  be  nothing.  It  was  a  momentous  question,  not 
to  be  disposed  of  in  a  day.  To  substantiate  his  claim, 
Sidney  could  now  have  visions  with  the  best  of  them ; 
on  various  occasions  he  told  how  the  Lord  had  through 
him  counselled  the  people  to  appoint  him  as  their  guar- 
dian. He  requested  that  a  meeting  should  be  held 
on  the  following  sabbath,  the  8th  of  August,  for  the 
further  consideration  of  the  matter.  But  prior  to  this 
meeting  Parley  Pratt  and  two  others  of  the  twelve 
bade  the  candidate  go  with  them  to  the  house  of  John 
Taylor,  who  yet  lay  prostrate  with  his  wounds.  Tay- 
lor expostulated  with  him,  but  to  no  purpose.  Sidney 
continued  to  press  his  claims,  even  assuming  the  sacred 
office,  prophesying  and  ordaining.  On  the  sabbath 
named,  according  to  appointment,  Sidney  and  his  sup- 
porters met  in  the  grove  near  the  temple ;  but  were 
confronted  by  the  apostles,  with  Brigham  at  their 
head.    Standing  before  them,  Sidney  addressed  the 

iam  Huntington;  president  over  a  quorum  of  high  priests,  Don  Carlos  Smith, 
with  Amasa  Lyman  and  Noah  Packard  for  counsellors;  a  priesthood  to  pre- 
side over  the  quorum  of  elders,  John  A.  Hicks,  Samuel  Williams,  and  Jesse 
Baker;  to  preside  over  the  quorum  of  seventies,  Joseph  Young,  Josiah  But- 
terfield,  Daniel  Miles,  Henry  Herriman,  Zera  Pulsipher,  Levi  Hancock, 
James  Foster — this  for  elders  constantly  travelling,  while  the  quorum  of 
elders  was  to  preside  over  the  churches  from  time  to  time;  to  preside  over 
the  bishopric,  Vinson  Knight,  Samuel  H.  Smith,  and  Shadrach  Roundy,  and 

^*  See  his  memorial  to  the  Pennsylvania  legislature,  in  Times  and  Seasons, 
V.  418-23.  Remy  says  that  he  was  also  instructed  to  pay  a  visit  to  Queen 
Victoria,  and  overthrow  her  if  she  refused  to  accept  the  gospel.  Jour,  to  O. 
8.  L.  City,  i.  411;  a  statement  for  which  I  find  no  authority. 


brethren  for  nearly  two  hours.  Yet  he  seemed  to 
make  no  impression.  "The  Lord  has  not  chosen 
him,"  said  one  to  another.  The  assembly  then  ad- 
journed to  two  o'clock,  when  the  saints  in  and  about 
Nauvoo  gathered  in  great  numbers.  After  singing 
and  prayer,  through  the  vast  assemblage  was  heard  a 
voice,  strikingly  clear,  distinct,  and  penetrating.^^  It 
was  the  voice  of  Brigham,  who  said:  "Attention,  all! 
For  the  first  time  in  my  life  I  am  called  to  act  as  chief 
of  the  twelve;  for  the  first  time  in  your  lives  you  are 
called  to  walk  by  faith,  your  prophet  being  no  longer 
present  in  the  flesh.  I  desire  that  every  one  present 
shall  exercise  the  fullest  liberty.  I  now  ask  you,  and 
each  of  you,  if  you  want  to  choose  a  guardian,  a  prophet, 
evangelist,  or  something  else  as  your  head  to  lead  you. 
All  who  wish  to  draw  away  from  the  church,  let  them 
do  it,  but  they  will  not  prosper.  If  any  want  Sidney 
Rigdon  to  lead  them,  let  them  have  him;  but  I  say  unto 
you  that  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  are  with  the  twelve.  "^^ 

It  was  then  put  to  vote,  Brigham  meanwhile  say- 
ing, "All  those  who  are  for  Joseph  and  Hyrum,  the 
book  of  Mormon,  book  of  Doctrine  and  Covenants,  the 
temple,  and  Joseph's  measures,  they  being  one  party, 
will  be  called  upon  to  manifest  their  principles  boldly, 
the  opposite  party  to  enjoy  the  same  liberty."  ^^  The 
result  was  ten  votes  for  Sidney,  the  quorum  with 
Brigham  at  their  head  getting  all  the  rest.  Elder 
Philips  then  motioned  that  all  "who  have  voted  for 
Sidney  Bigdon  be  suspended  until  they  can  have  a 
trial  before  the  high  council.  "^^ 

The  truth  is,  Sidney  was  no  match  for  Brigham. 
It  was  a  battle  of  the  lion  and  the  lamb;  only  Brig- 

^^  'He  [Brigham]  said,  as  he  stood  on  the  stand,  he  would  rather  sit  in  sack- 
cloth and  ashes  for  a  month  than  appear  before  the  people,  but  he  pitied  their 
loneliness,  and  was  constrained  to  step  forward,  and  we  knew  he  was,  because 
he  had  the  voice  and  manner  of  Joseph,  as  hundreds  can  testify. '  Reminiscences 
of  Mrs  F.  D.  Richards,  MS.,  p.  14. 

^«  Woodruffs  Journal,  MS.,  Aug.  8,  1844. 

^''  Hist.  Brigham  Young,  1844,  MS.,  25. 

^^Wilford  Woodruff  states  that  Higdon  did  not  receive  a  single  vote. 
Reminiscences,  MS.,  2. 


ham  did  not  know  before  that  he  was  a  lion,  while 
Sidney  received  the  truth  with  reluctance  that  he  was 
indeed  a  lamb.  Something  more  than  oratory  was  nec- 
essary to  win  in  this  instance ;  and  of  that  something, 
with  great  joy  in  his  heart,  Brigham  found  himself  in 
possession.  It  was  the  combination  of  qualities  which 
we  find  present  primarily  in  all  great  men,  in  all  leaders 
of  men — intellectual  force,  mental  superiority,  united 
with  personal  magnetism,  and  physique  enough  to  give 
weight  to  will  and  opinion;  for  Brigham  Young  was 
assuredly  a  great  man,  if  by  greatness  we  mean  one 
who  is  superior  to  others  in  strength  and  skill,  moral, 
intellectual,  or  physical.  The  secret  of  this  man's 
power — a  power  that  within  a  few  years  made  itself 
felt  throughout  the  world — was  this :  he  was  a  sincere 
man,  or  if  an  impostor,  he  was  one  who  first  imposed 
upon  himself  He  was  not  a  hypocrite;  knave,  in 
the  ordinary  sense  of  the  term,  he  was  not;  though  he 
has  been  a  thousand  times  called  both.  If  he  was  a  bad 
man,  he  was  still  a  great  man,  and  the  evil  that  he  did 
was  done  with  honest  purpose.  He  possessed  great  ad- 
ministrative ability ;  he  was  far-seeing,  with  a  keen  in- 
sight into  human  nature,  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of 
the  good  and  evil  qualities  of  men,  of  their  virtues  and 
frailties.  His  superiority  was  native  to  him,  and  he 
was  daily  and  hourly  growing  more  powerful,  develop- 
ing a  strength  which  surprised  himself,  and  gaining  con-  / 
stantly  more  and  more  confidence  in  himself,  gaining ' 
constantly  more  and  more  the  respect,  fear,  and  obe- 
dience of  those  about  him,  until  he  was  able  to  con- 
sign Sidney  to  the  bufibtings  of  Satan  for  a  thousand 
years,  while  Brigham  remained  president  and  supreme 
ruler  of  the  church.  ^^ 

*•  Sidney  had  a  trial,  and  was  convicted  and  condemned.  Sidney  Rigdon 
was  a  native  of  Saint  Clair,  Penn.,  where  he  was  bom  in  1793.  Until  his  26th 
year  he  worked  on  his  father's  farm,  but  in  1819  received  a  license  to  preach, 
from  the  society  known  as  the  regular  baptists,  being  appointed  in  1822  to  the 
charge  of  the  first  baptist  church  in  Pittsburgh,  where  he  became  very  popu- 
lar. In  1824  he  resigned  his  position,  from  conscientious  motives,  and  joined 
the  Campbellites,  supporting  himself  by  working  as  a  journeyman  tanner. 
Two  years  later  he  accepted  a  call  as  a  Campbellite  preacher  at  l^nbridge,  O., 


Thus  Brigham  Young  succeeded  Joseph  Smith. 
The  work  of  the  latter  was  done.  It  was  a  singular 
work,  to  which  he  was  singularly  adapted;  the  work  yet 
to  be  done  is  no  less  remarkable,  and  a  no  less  remark- 
able agent  is  raised  up  at  the  right  moment.  Mat- 
ters assume  now  a  more  material  turn,  and  a  more 
material  nature  is  required  to  master  them — if  coarser- 
grained,  more  practical,  rougher,  more  dogmatical, 
dealing  less  in  revelations  from  heaven  and  more  in 
self-protection  and  self-advancement  here  on  earth, 
so  much  the  better  for  the  saints.  "Strike,  but  hear 
me!"  Joseph  with  Themistocles  used  to  cry;  "I  will 
strike,  and  you  shall  hear  me,"  Brigham  would  say. 

No  wonder  the  American  Israel  received  Brigham 
as  the  gift  of  God,  the  Lion  of  the  Lord,^^  though 
the  explanation  of  the  new  ruler  himself  would  have 
been  nearer  that  of  the  modern  evolutionist,  who 
would  account  for  Brigham's  success  as  the  survival 
of  the  fittest.  It  was  fortunate  for  the  saints  at  this 
juncture  that  their  leader  should  be  less  prophet  than 
priest  and  king,  less  idealist  than  business  manager, 
political  economist,  and  philosopher.  Brigham  holds 
communion  with  spiritual  powers  but  distantly,  per- 
haps distrustfully;  at  all  events,  he  commands  the 
spirits  rather  than  let  them  command  him;  and  the 
older  he  grows  the  less  he  has  to  do  with  them;  and 
the  less  he  has  to  do  with  heavenly  affairs,  the  more 
his  mind  dwells  on  earthly  matters.  His  prophecies  are 
eminently  practical;  his  people  must  have  piety  that 
will  pay.  And  later,  and  all  through  his  life,  his  posi- 
tion is  a  strange  one.  If  the  people  about  Nauvoo  are 
troublesome,  God  orders  him  west;  and  then  he  tells 

and  afterward  built  up  churches  at  Mantua  and  Mentor  in  that  state.  In 
1830  he  joined  the  Mormon  church,  being  converted  by  the  preaching  of  Par- 
ley. Further  particulars  will  be  found  in  Times  and  Seasons^  iv.  177-8,  193-4, 
209-10;  CoWs  Mormon  Problem,  MS.,  12;  Tucker's  Mormonism,  123-7;  Pitts- 
burgh Oaz.,  in  S.  F.  Bulletin,  Aug.  4,  1876.  Returning  to  Pittsburgh  after 
hia  excommunication,  Sidney  led  a  life  of  utter  obscurity,  and  finally  died 
at  Friendship,  Alleghany  County,  K  Y.,  July  14,  1876.  Lippincott's  Mag., 
Aug.  1880. 

^»See  note  41,  p.  192,  this  vol. 


him  if  roads  are  opened  and  canals  constructed  it  will 
please  him.  From  these  practical  visions  come  ac- 
tions, and  on  a  Sunday  the  great  high-priest  rises 
in  the  tabernacle  and  says:  "God  has  spoken.  He 
has  said  unto  his  prophet,  'Get  thee  up,  Brigham,  and 
build  me  a  city  in  the  fertile  valley  to  the  south, 
where  there  is  water,  where  there  are  fish,  where 
the  sun  is  strong  enough  to  ripen  the  cotton  plants,  and 
give  raiment  as  well  as  food  to  my  saints  on  earth. 
Brethren  willing  to  aid  God's  work  should  come  to 
me  before  the  bishop's  meeting.'"  *'As  the  prophet 
takes  his  seat  again,"  says  an  eye-witness,  "and  puts 
on  his  broad-brimmed  hat,  a  hum  of  applause  runs 
around  the  bowery,  and  teams  and  barrows  are  freely 

To  whatsoever  Brigham  applied  himself  he  directed 
his  whole  strength,  provided  his  whole  strength  was 
necessary  to  the  accomplishment  of  his  purpose. 
There  were  others  in  the  field  against  him,  aspirants 
for  the  late  prophet's  place,  besides  Sidney ;  but  direct- 
ing his  efforts  only  against  the  most  powerful  of  them, 
the  president  of  the  twelve  summoned  the  quorum  and 
the  people,  as  we  have  seen,  crushed  Bigdon  and  his 
adherents  by  one  of  the  master-strokes  which  he  was 
now  learning,  declared  the  revelations  of  Eigdon  to  be 
of  the  devil,  cut  him  off,  cursed  him,  and  was  himself 
elected  almost  without  a  dissenting  voice,  giving  all 
ostensibly  the  fullest  liberty  to  act,  yet  permitting 
none  of  them  to  do  so,  and  even  causing  ten  to  be  tried 
for  dissenting.  Henceforth  none  dared  to  gainsay  his 
authority ;  he  became  not  only  the  leader  of  the  Mor- 
mons, but  their  dictator;  holding  authority  for  a  time 
as  president  of  the  twelve  apostles,  and  finally  in  the 
capacity  of  the  first  presidency,  being  made  president 
of  the  whole  church  in  December  1847. 
.  Brigham  Young  was  now  in  his  forty-third  year,  in 
the  prime  of  a  hale  and  vigorous  manhood,  with  ex- 
uberant vitality,  with  marvelous  energy,  and  with  un- 
swerving faith  in  his  cause  and  in  himself     In  stat- 


ure  he  was  a  little  above  medium  height;  in  frame 
well-knit  and  compact,  though  in  later  years  rotund 
and  portly;  in  carriage  somewhat  stately;  presence 
imposing,  even  at  that  time,  and  later  much  more  so; 
face  clean  shaven  now,  but  afterward  lengthened  by 
full  beard  except  about  the  mouth;  features  all  good, 
regular,  well  formed,  sharp,  and  smiling,  and  wearing 
an  expression  of  self-sufficiency,  bordering  on  the  su- 
percilious, which  later'  in  life  changed  to  a  look  of  sub- 
dued sagacity  which  he  could  not  conceal;  deep-set, 
gray  eyes,  cold,  stern,  and  of  uncertain  expression, 
lips  thin  and  compressed,  and  a  forehead  broad  and 
massive — his  appearance  was  that  of  a  self-reliant  and 
strong-willed  man,  of  one  born  to  be  master  of  him- 
self and  many  others.  In  manner  and  address  he  was 
easy  and  void  of  affectation,  deliberate  in  speech,  con- 
veying his  original  and  suggestive  ideas  in  apt  though 
homely  phrase.^^  When  in  council  he  was  cool  and 
imperturbable,  slow  to  decide,  and  in  no  haste  to  act; 
but  when  the  time  for  action  came  he  worked  with  an 
energy  that  was  satisfied  only  with  success. 

Like  his  predecessor,  he  was  under  all  circumstances 
naturally  a  brave  man,  possessing  great  physical 
strength,  and  with  nerves  unshaken  by  much  excess 
or  sickness.  That  he  was  given  to  strong  drink  has 
often  been  asserted  by  his  enemies,  but  never  by  his 
friends,  and  rarely  by  impartial  observers.  He  was 
always  in  full  possession  of  himself,  being  far  too 
wise  a  man  to  destroy  himself  through  any  indiscre- 

He  was  undoubtedly  the  man  for  the  occasion, 
however,  for  no  other  could,  at  this  juncture,  save 
the  Mormons  from  dissolution  as  a  sect  and  as  a 
people.  If  the  saints  had  selected  as  their  leader  a 
man  less  resolute,  less  confident,  less  devoted  to  his 
cause  and  to  his  people,  a  man  like  Sidney  Rigdon, 

'^  Bowles,  Aa-oss  the  Continent,  86,  says  that  even  at  64  he  spoke  ungram- 
matically. This  criticism  is  a  fair  commentary  on  the  difference  between  a 
Bowles  and  a  Brigham. 


for  example,  Mormonism  would  have  split  into  half  a 
dozen  petty  factions,  the  strongest  of  which  would 
hardly  be  worthy  of  notice. 

Discussing  the  great  Mormon  leaders,  Hyde,  who 
though  an  apostate  was  one  of  the  most  impartial  of 
writers,  says:  ''Brigham  Young  is  far  superior  to 
Smith  in  everything  that  constitutes  a  great  leader. 
Smith  was  not  a  man  of  genius;  his  forte  was  tact. 
He  only  embraced  opportunities  that  presented  them- 
selves. He  used  circumstances,  but  did  not  create 
them.  The  compiling  genius  of  Mormonism  was 
Sidney  Rigdon.  Smith  had  boisterous  impetuosity, 
but  no  foresight.  Polygamy  was  not  the  result  of  his 
policy,  but  of  his  passions.  Sidney  gave  point,  direc- 
tion, and  apparent  consistency  to  the  Mormon  system 
of  theology.  He  invented  its  forms  and  many  of  its 
arguments.  He  and  Parley  Pratt  were  its  leading 
orators  and  polemics.  Had  it  not  been  for  the  acces- 
sion of  these  two  men,  Smith  would  have  been  lost, 
and  his  schemes  frustrated  and  abandoned.  That 
Brigham  was  superior  not  only  to  Smith  but  also  to 
Rigdon  is  evident." 

Burton  says:  "His  manner  is  at  once  affable  and 
impressive,  simple  and  courteous, .  .  .  shows  no  sign  of 
dogmatism,. .  .impresses  a  stranger  with  a  certain 
sense  of  power;  his  followers  are,  of  course,  wholly 
fascinated  by  his  superior  strength  of  brain."  Temper 
even  and  placid,  manner  cold,  but  he  is  neither  morose 
nor  methodistic.  Often  reproves  in  violent  language; 
powers  of  observation  acute;  has  an  excellent  mem- 
ory, and  is  a  keen  judge  of  character.  "If  he  dis- 
likes a  stranger  at  the  first  interview,  he  never  sees 
him  again.  Of  his  temperance  and  sobriety  there  is 
but  one  opinion.  His  life  is  ascetic;  his  favorite  food 
is  baked  potatoes  with  a  little  buttermilk,  and  his 
drink  water.  "^ 

"  City  ofihe  Saints^  292-3;  Mormonism,  170.  Hyde  is  by  no  means  one  of 
Brighaan's  flatterers,  but  appears  to  speak  from  conviction.  On  the  same 
page  he  remarks:  *  Brigham  may  be  a  great  man,  greatly  deceived,  but  he 


Further:  though  he  made  his  people  obey  him,  he 
shared  their  privations.  Soon  we  shall  find  him 
rousing  his  followers  from  the  lethargy  of  despair, 
when  their  very  hearts  had  died  within  them,  and 
when  all  cheeks  blanched  but  his;  speaking  words  of 
cheer  to  the  men,  and  with  his  own  sick  child  in  his 
arms,  sharing  his  scant  rations  with  women  and 
children  who  held  out  their  hands  for  bread. 

For  a  brief  space  after  the  election  of  Brigham  the 
saints  had  rest.  The  city  of  Nauvoo  continued  to 
thrive  ;^^  a  portion  of  the  temple  was  finished  and 
dedicated,^*  the  building  of  the  Nauvoo  house  and 
council-house  was  progressing  rapidly. 

Their  buildings  were  erected  with  great  sacrifice 
of  time,  and  amidst  difficulties  and  discouragement  in 
consequence  of  poverty.  Money  was  exceedingly 
scarce.^^  The  revelation  requiring  tithing,  made  in 
1838,  was  first  practically  applied  in  Nauvoo;  the 
tenth  day  was  regularly  given  to  work  on  the  temple ; 
the  penny  subscriptions  of  the  sisters  are  mentioned, 
which  was  a  weekly  contribution,  and  was  intended 
for  the  purchase  of  glass  and  nails.  Every  effort  was 
made  to  encourage  manufacture,  and  to  utilize  their 
water-power.     At  a  meeting  of  the  trades  delegates 

is  not  a  hypocrite;'  and  on  the  next  page:  'Brigham,  however  deceived,  is 
still  a  bad  man,  and  a  dangerous  man;  and  as  much  more  dangerous,  being 
sincere  in  thinking  he  is  doing  God's  work,  as  a  madman  is  than  an  impostor. ' 
In  /(Z.,  136-40,  we  have  a  short  and  succinct  narrative  of  Brigham's  career 
up  to  the  assassination  of  Joseph  Smith,  probably  the  best  that  has  yet  been 
written  in  such  brief  space. 

^  'Almost  every  stranger  that  enters  our  city  is  excited  with  astonish- 
ment that  so  much  has  been  done  in  so  short  a  time.'  Likewise  there  was 
always  work  enough  for  them  among  the  gentiles,  who  *  did  not  know  how  to 
make  a  short  johnny-cake  until  our  girls  taught  them.'  Speech  of  Elder 
Kimball,  April  8,  1845,  in  Id.,  vi.  973.  Says  John  Taylor:  'When  we  first 
settled  in  Nauvoo, . .  .farming  lands  out  of  the  city  were  worth  from  $1.25  to 
$5  per  acre;  whenwe  left  they  were  worth  from  $5  to  $50  per  acre.  We 
turned  the  desert  into  a  city,  and  the  wilderness  into  a  fruitful  field  or  fields 
and  gardens.  *  Millennial  Star,  viii.  115.  Bennett  mentions  a  community  farm 
near  Nauvoo,  which  was  cultivated  in  common  by  the  poorer  classes.  History 
of  the  Saints,  191. 

"  It  was  dedicated  May  1,  1846,  by  Wilford  WoodrufiF  and  Orson  Hyde. 
Two  days  later  they  held  their  last  meetmg  there.    Woodruff's  Bern.,  MS.,  3. 

^'  'When  com  was  brought  to  my  door  at  ten  cents  a  bushel,  and  sadly 
needed,  the  money  could  not  be  raised.'  Utah  Notes,  MS.,  p.  6. 


there  was  intelligent  discussion  as  to  the  place  becom- 
ing a  great  manufacturing  centre.^^ 

In  January  1845  it  was  proposed  that  a  building 
for  the  high-priests  should  be  erected,  to  cost  $15,000, 
and  the  work  was  cheerfully  undertaken.  There  were 
frequent  entertainments  given  in  the  way  of  dances 
and  public  dinners  in  the  Nauvoo  mansion  and  in  the 
bowery  six  miles  out  of  the  city.^^  At  their  confer- 
ence in  April,  thousands  gathered.  The  temple  was 
pushed  forward,  as  the  people  were  counselled  to  re- 
ceive their  endowments  there  as  early  as  possible.  On 
the  24th  of  May  the  walls  were  finished,  and  the 
event  was  duly  celebrated.^^  On  the  5th  of  October 
their  first  meeting  in  the  temple  was  held.^  From 
mites  and  tithings  it  was  estimated  that  a  million  dol- 
lars had  been  raised.  Brigham,  Parley,  and  others 
of  the  quorum  administered  in  the  temples  to  hun- 
dreds of  people,  the  services  often  continuing  all  day 
and  night.^  At  the  end  of  December  one  thousand 
of  the  people  had  received  the  ordinances.  And  all 
this  was  done  midst  renewed  persecutions,  and  while 
the  people  were  making  preparations  to  evacuate  the 

The  masons  withdrew  the  dispensation  previously 
granted  to  Nauvoo,  and  to  this  day  they  refuse  to 
admit  Mormons  into  their  order. 

*•  There  was  $500  or  $600  already  collected  from  the  penny  subscriptions, 
which  was  drawn  by  order  of  Brigham  to  meet  a  debt  on  land  which  must  be 
immediately  paid.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  Dec.  5,  1844.  John  Taylor  says  it 
was  intended  to  establish  manufactures  at  Nauvoo  on  a  large  scale,  for  which 
the  services  of  English  emigrants  were  to  be  secured.  At  the  head  of  the 
rapids,  near  Nauvoo,  stood  an  island,  to  which  it  was  proposed  to  build  a 
dam,  leaving  spaces  for  water-wheels,  and  thus  securing  power  for  mills. 
Rem.,  MS.,  19-20. 

"  In  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  July  9, 1845,  is  a  description  of  a  public  dinner 
for  the  benefit  of  the  church,  where  Young,  Kimball,  Taylor,  and  others  offi- 
ciated at  the  table. 

'^  At  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  people  assembled.  The  *  Cap-stone 
March,'  composed  for  the  occasion,  was  played  by  Pitt's  band;  Brigham  laid 
on  the  last  stone,  and  pronounced  the  benediction,  and  the  whole  congregation 
shouted,  '  Hosanna  !  hosanna  to  God  and  the  lamb  !  amen,  amen,  and  amen !' 
Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  83. 

"The  first  stone  was  laid  April  6,  1841. 

"°  *  I  commenced  administering  the  ordinances  of  endowment  at  five  o'clock 
and  continued  until  half -past  three  in  the  morning.'  Id.,  MS.,  Dec.  10,  1845. 


Fresh  disaster  now  approached  Nauvoo.  Th  3 
whigs  and  the  democrats  of  Illinois  had  both  sought 
to  secure  the  Mormon  vote,  until  finally  they  began 
to  declare  that  Mormonism  signified  a  government  not 
in  accord  with  that  of  the  United  States.  The  city 
charter  had  been  repealed  in  January  1845,  and  Dan- 
iel Spencer,  who  had  been  elected  to  fill  the  remain- 
der of  the  term  of  the  murdered  ma3^or,  was  deposed, 
as  were  all  the  other  city  officers;  a  new  charter  was 
before  the  legislature,  but  never  granted.  These  and 
like  measures,  followed  as  they  were  by  the  discharge 
of  Joseph  Smith's  assassins,  imparted  to  the  gentiles 
renewed  courage.  The  crimes  of  the  whole  country 
were  laid  at  the  door  of  the  saints.  Nauvoo  was  de- 
nounced as  a  den  of  counterfeiters,  cattle-thieves,  and 
assassins,^^  the  leaders  of  the  gang  being  men  who  in  the 
name  of  religion  outraged  all  sense  of  decency.  The 
saints  retaliated  in  kind;  and  shortly  it  came  about  that 
in  sections  settled  by  Mormons  gentiles  feared  to  travel, 
and  in  sections  settled  by  gentiles  Mormons  feared 
to  travel.  In  view  of  this  state  of  affairs,  which  was 
more  like  old-time  feudalism  than  latter-day  repub- 
licanism. Governor  Ford  made  an  inspection  of  the 
city,  and  declared  that  fewer  thefts  were  committed 
in  Nauvoo  in  proportion  to  population  than  in  any 
other  town  in  the  state.  The  cause  of  this,  however, 
may  have  lain  in  the  fact  that  the  population  of  Nau- 
voo  was  chiefly  Mormon,  and  whatever  might  be  their 
depredations  upon  the  gentiles,  the  saints  were  not 
accustomed  to  steal  from  each  other. 

At  a  place  called  the  Morley  settlement,  in  Han- 
cock county,  in  September  1845,  the  people  held  a 
meeting  to  devise  means  for  the  prevention  of  thievery. 
Though  few  definite  charges  were  advanced,  there 
was  much  said  derogatory  to  Mormon  honesty. 
Presently  the  discharge  of  a  gun  was  heard,  once  or 
twice,  perhaps  more.     It  was  said  the  shots  were  fired 

^^  For  specimens  of  the  accusations  brought  against  them,  see  HotlVs  Mor- 
monism  Exposed,  24-34. 


by  Mormons,  and  that  they  took  aim  at  the  house  in 
which  the  meeting  was  held.  Soon  the  cry  went 
abroad  that  the  Mormons  were  in  arms,  and  there 
were  quickly  volunteers  at  hand  to  help  the  men  of 
Morley.  A  meeting  was  held,  and  it  was  resolved  to 
expel  the  saints.  At  the  time  appointed,  armed  bands 
appeared  and  burned  some  twenty  Mormon  dwellings, 
driving  the  inmates  into  the  bushes.^^  The  people  of 
Illinois  were  evidently  now  determined  to  adopt  the 
previous  policy  of  the  men  of  Missouri.  This  was  not 
all.  Word  had  come  that  forces  from  Nauvoo  were 
moving  to  the  aid  of  the  Mormons  at  Morley,  where- 
upon the  gentiles  throughout  all  that  region  banded, 
threatening  to  burn  and  drive  out  the  saints  until  not 
one  should  remain.  As  a  beginning,  Buel's  flouring 
mill  and  carding  machine,  near  Lima,  the  property  of 
a  Mormon,  was  reduced  to  ashes. ^^ 

And  now  the  men  of  Quincy,  their  old  friends  and 
benefactors,  turned  against  them;  and  though  not 
manifesting  the  deadly  hate  displayed  in  some  quar- 
ters, were  nevertheless  resolved  that  the  Mormons 
should  depart  from  the  state.  On  the  22d  the  citi- 
zens met  and  agreed  that  further  efforts  to  live  in 
peace  with  the  Mormons  were  useless.^ 

Indeed,   the   saints   themselves   had   reached    the 

'^  Says  the  Quincy  Whig:  '  If  the  Mormons  have  been  guilty  of  crime,  why, 
punish  them;  but  do  not  visit  their  sins  on  defenceless  women  and  children. 
This  is  as  bad  as  the  savages. '  Sheriff  Backenstos  thus  testifies:  '  It  is  proper 
to  state  that  the  Mormon  community  have  acted  with  more  than  ordinary  for- 
bearance, remaining  perfectly  quiet,  and  offering  no  resistance  when  their 
dwellings,  other  buildings,  stacks  of  grain,  etc.,  were  set  on  fire  in  their 
presence,  and  they  have  forborne  until  forbearance  is  no  longer  a  virtue.' 
Fullmer'i  Expulsion,  19. 

^  '  Mobs  commenced  driving  out  the  Mormons  in  the  lower  part  of  Han- 
cock CO.,  and  burning  their  houses  and  property..  .The  burning  was  con- 
tinued from  settlement  to  settlement  for  ten  or  eleven  days  without  any  re- 
sistance whatever.  The  people  at  Nauvoo  sent  out  wagons  and  teams  to 
bring  those  people  in  whom  the  mob  had  driven  out  of  their  homes. '  WeW 
Narrative,  MS. ,  35-6.  *  The  mob  said  they  would  drive  all  into  Nauvoo,  and 
all  Nauvoo  into  the  Mississippi.'  Richards,  Rem.,  MS.,  16. 

^*  *  It  is  a  settled  thing  that  the  public  sentiment  of  the  state  is  agamst 
the  Mormons,  and  it  will  be  in  vain  for  them  to  contend  against  it;  and  to 
prevent  bloodshed  and  the  sacrifice  of  so  many  lives  on  both  sides  it  is  their 
duty  to  obey  the  public  will,  and  leave  the  state  as  speedily  as  possible. 
That  they  will  do  this,  we  have  a  confident  hope,  and  that,  too,  before  the 
last  extreme  is  resorted  to,  that  of  force.'  Fullmer' s  Expulsion,  20. 
Hist.  ITiab.    11 



same  conclusion.  It  was  no  new  idea  to  them,  seek- 
ing a  home  elsewhere.  It  was  a  rough  element,  that  by 
which  they  were  surrounded,  an  element  which  brought 
upon  them  more  of  evil  than  of  good.  Compara- 
tively few  additions  were  made  to  their  number  from 
the  bold  border  men  of  Missouri  and  Illinois,  most 
of  their  proselytes  coming  from  other  parts  of  the 
United  States  and  from  Europe.  The  whole  great 
west  was  open  to  them;  even  during  the  days  of 
Joseph  there  had  been  talk  of  some  happy  Arca- 
dian retreat  far  away  from  every  adverse  influence ;^'^ 
and  in  the  fertile  brain  of  Brigham  the  idea  assumed 
proportions  yet  broader  and  of  more  intensified  form, 
significant  of  western  empire  and  isolation  somewhere 
in  California  or  the  Pacific  isles,  with  himself  as 
leader,  and  followers  drawn  from  every  quarter  of 
the  globe, 

A  general  council  was  held  on  the  9th  of  Septem- 
ber, at  which  it  was  resolved  that  a  company  of  fifteen 
hundred  men  be  selected  to  go  to  Salt  Lake  Valley, 
and  a  committee  of  five  was  appointed  to  gather  in- 
formation relative  to  the  subject. ^^  There  were  fre- 
quent meetings  of  the  authorities  and  consultations  in 
regard  to  emigrating  to  California.^'^ 

The  saints  would  go,  they  said,  but  they  must  have 
a  reasonable  time  in  which  to  dispose  of  their  prop- 

3^  On  the  20th  of  Feb.,  1844,  according  to  the  Millennial  Star,  xxii.  819, 
Joseph  counselled  the  twelve  to  send  out  a  delegation  and  '  investigate  the 
locations  of  California  and  Oregon,  and  hunt  out  a  good  location  where 
we  can  remove  to  after  the  temple  is  completed,  where  we  can  build  a  city 
in  a  day  and  have  a  government  of  our  own. '  In  Taylor's  Reminiscences,  MS., 
19,  is  the  following:  'A  favorite  song  in  Nauvoo,  and  of  my  own  composi- 
tion, was  entitled  "The  Upper  California,  0  that's  the  land  for  me!  "  what 
is  now  Utah  being  known  by  that  name.  Joseph  Smith  was  the  first  who 
talked  of  the  latter-day  saints  coming  to  this  region.  As  early  as  August 
1842  he  prophesied  that  the  saints  would  be  driven  to  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
and  there  become  a  mighty  people. ' 

36 See  Hist.  B.  Young,  1845,  MS.,  19. 

3^  F.  D.  Richards  read  FremonVs  Journal  to  the  twelve,  and  later  Hastings' 
account  of  California  was  read.  Hist.  B.  Youncj,  MS.,  308-16.  A  letter  was 
also  read  to  the  authorities  from  Brother  Sam  Brannan,  stating  that  the  secre- 
tary of  war  and  others  of  the  cabinet  were  planning  to  prevent  their  moving 
west — alleging  that  it  was  against  the  law  for  an  armed  body  to  go  from  the 
U.  S.  to  any  other  government;  that  it  would  not  do  to  let  them  go  to  Cali- 
fornia or  Oregon,  but  that  they  must  be  obliterated.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  305. 


erty  and  leave  the  country.^  The  meeting  at  Quincy, 
notice  of  which  with  a  copy  of  the  resolutions  was  sent 
to  Nauvoo,  named  six  months  as  the  time  within 
which  the  Mormons  must  depart.  In  answer,  the 
council  of  the  church  replied,  on  the  24th  of  Septem- 
ber, that  they  could  not  set  forth  so  early  in  the  spring, 
when  there  would  be  neither  food  for  man  or  beast, 
nor  even  running  water,  but  that  it  was  their  full  in- 
tention to  depart  as  soon  as  possible,  and  that  they 
would  go  far  enough,  God  helping  them,  forever  there- 
after to  be  free  from  their  enemies.  Meanwhile  all 
they  asked  was  that  they  should  not  be  further  mo- 
lested by  armed  bands  or  suits  at  law,  but  rather 
assisted  in  selling  their  property  and  collecting  their 

To  this  the  men  of  Quincy  gave  assent;  at  the  same 
time  pledging  themselves  to  prompt  action  in  case  of 
failure  on  the  part  of  the  saints  to  keep  their  promise, 
and  taking  measures  to  secure  a  military  organization 
of  the  people  of  Adams  county.^ 

It  was  not  to  be  expected  that  Carthage  would 
remain  idle  while  other  towns  were  acting.  A  con- 
vention of  delegates  from  nine  surrounding  counties 
was  held  there  about  the  end  of  September,  and 
four  commissioners,  among  whom  were  Hardin,  com- 
mander of  the  state  militia,  and  Douglas,  senator,*^ 
were  sent  to  Nauvoo  to  demand  the  departure  of  the 
Mormons.  The  deputation  was  met  by  the  council 
of  the  twelve  with  the  president  at  their  head,  and 
answer  was  promptly  made  that  the  removal  would 

^^One  thousand  families,  including  5,000  or  6,000  souls,  would  remove  in 
the  spring.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1845,  134.  Hundreds  of  farms  and  some 
2,000  houses  were  offered  for  sale  in  Nauvoo  city  and  county.  'There  was 
grain  enough  growing  within  10  miles  of  Nauvoo,  raised  by  the  Mormons,  to 
feed  the  whole  population  for  two  years,  if  they  were  to  do  nothing  but  gather 
it  in  and  feast  upon  it.'  Id..,  MS.,  35. 

^'  A  lengthy  communication  to  this  effect  was  drawn  up  and  signed  by  Brig- 
ham  Young,  president,  and  Willard  Richards,  clerk.  Printed  in  full  in  Full- 
mer''s  Eocpulsion,  20-1. 

*°  Answer  in  full  in  Id.,  22. 

*^The  other  two  were  W.  B.  Warren  and  J..  A.  McDougal.  TulUdg^a 
Life  of  Young,  8. 


take  place  as  speedily  as  possible.  '*  What  guarantee 
will  you  give  us?"  asked  Hardin.  ''You  have  our 
all  as  guarantee,"  answered  Brigham.  "Young  is 
right,"  said  Douglas.  But  this  reply  would  not  sat- 
isfy all  the  commissioners,  and  the  twelve  were  re- 
quested to  submit  their  intentions  in  writing,  in  order 
that  they  might  be  laid  before  the  governor  and 
people  of  the  state.     This  was  done.*^ 

The  commissioners  then  returned  home;  but  not 
even  yet  were  the  men  of  Carthage  content.  To  the 
resolutions  passed  at  Quincy  were  added  others  of 
similar  nature,  and  the  whole  adopted.  A  plan  of 
organization  was  agreed  upon,  and  arrangements  were 
made  for  calling  meetings  and  securing  volunteers, 
who  were  to  select  their  own  officers  and  report  to  the 
Quincy  military  committee.  The  judge  of  Hancock 
county  was  requested  by  this  convention  not  to  hold 

^2  In  answer  to  the  letter  of  the  commissioners,  the  saints  on  the  same 
day  said,  after  referring  to  their  communication  of  the  24th  to  the  Quincy 
committee:  *  In  addition  to  this,  we  would  say  that  we  had  commenced 
making  arrangements  to  remove  from  the  country  previous  to  the  recent  dis- 
turbances; that  we  have  four  companies  of  100  families  each,  and  six  more 
companies  now  organizing,  of  the  same  number  each,  preparatory  to  a  removal. 
That  1,000  families,  including  the  twelve,  the  high  council,  the  trustees,  and 
general  authorities  of  the  church,  are  fully  determined  to  remove  in  the 
spring,  independent  of  the  contingencies  of  selling  our  property;  and  this 
company  will  comprise  from  5,000  to  6,000  souls.  That  the  church,  as  a 
body,  desire  to  remove  with  us,  and  will  if  sales  can  be  effected  so  as  to  raise 
the  necessary  means.  That  the  organization  of  the  church  we  represent  is 
such  that  there  never  can  exist  but  one  head  or  presidency  at  any  one  time. 
And  all  good  members  wish  to  be  with  the  organization;  and  all  are  determined 
to  remove  to  some  distant  point,  where  we  shall  neither  infringe  nor  be 
infringed  upon,  so  soon  as  time  and  means  will  permit.  That  we  have  some 
hundreds  of  farms  and  some  2,000  houses  for  sale  in  this  city  and  county, 
and  we  request  all  good  citizens  to  assist  in  the  disposal  of  our  property. 
That  we  do  not  expect  to  find  purchasers  for  our  temple  and  other  public 
buildings;  but  we  are  willing  to  rent  them  to  a  respectable  community  who 
may  inhabit  the  city.  That  we  wish  it  distinctly  understood  that  although 
we  may  not  find  purchasers  for  our  property,  we  will  not  sacrifice  it,  nor 
give  it  away,  or  suffer  it  illegally  to  be  wrested  from  us.  That  we  do  not 
intend  to  sow  any  wheat  this  fall,  and  should  we  all  sell,  we  shall  not  put  in 
any  more  crops  of  any  description.  That  as  soon  as  practicable  we  will 
appoint  committees  from  the  city,  La  Harpe,  Macedonia,  Bear  Creek,  and 
all  necessary  places  in  the  country,  to  give  information  to  purchasers.  That 
if  these  testimonies  are  not  sufficient  to  satisfy  any  people  that  we  are  in 
earnest,  we  will  soon  give  them  a  sign  that  cannot  be  mistaken — we  will 
leave  them.'  In  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  Nov.  1845,  it  is  stated  that  there 
were  families  organized  3,285:  wagons  on  hand  1,508;  wagons  commenced 


court  during  that  autumn,  for  fear  of  collision  between 
saints  and  gentiles,  and  the  governor  was  recommended 
to  station  in  that  vicinity  a  small  military  force  to 
keep  peace  during  the  winter. 

During  the  height  of  the  troubles  at  Nauvoo,  Orson 
Pratt  was  in  New  York,  where  on  the  8th  of  No- 
vember, 1845,  he  addressed  a  farewell  message  to  the 
brethren  in  the  east,  calling  upon  such  of  them  as 
had  means  to  sell  their  property,  buy  teams,  and  join 
the  overland  emigration,  and  those  who  had  none  to 
take  passage  in  the  ship  Brooklyn,  chartered  for  the 
purpose  by  Elder  Samuel  Brannan,  and  which  was  to 
sail  round  Cape  Horn,  via  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  for 
California.  Shortly  after,  the  Brooklyn  sailed  with 
238  emigrants,  the  price  of  passage  being  $50  for 
adults,  with  $25  additional  for  subsistence.  The  de- 
tails of  this  expedition,  with  names  of  the  emigrants, 
their  doings  in  California,  and  the  departure  for  the 
Great  Salt  Lake  of  a  large  portion  of  them,  is  given 
in  volume  V.  chapter  XX.  of  my  Histoid  of  California. 
Upon  his  return  to  Nauvoo,  Pratt  brought  $400  worth 
of  Allen's  six-shooting  pistols. 




A  Bust  City — Meeting  in  the  Temple — Sacrifice  of  Property — ^Detach- 
ments Move  Forward — A  Singular  Exodus — The  First  Encampment 
— Cool  Proposal  from  Brother  Brannan — The  Journey— Courage 
AND  Good  Cheer — Swelling  of  their  Numbers — The  Remnant  of 
THE  Saints  in  Nauvoo — Attitude  of  the  Gentiles — The  Mormons 
Attacked — Continued  Hostilities — The  Final  Departures — ^Thb 
Poor  Camp — A  Deserted  City. 

The  holy  city  now  presented  an  exciting  scene. 
Men  were  making  ready  their  merchandise,  and  fami- 
lies preparing  to  vacate  their  homes.  Hundreds  were 
making  tents  and  wagon  covers  out  of  cloth  bought 
with  anything  they  happened  to  have ;  companies  were 
organized  and  numbered,  each  of  which  had  its  own 
wagon-shop,  wheelwrights,  carpenters,  and  cabinet- 
makers, who  were  all  busily  employed.^  Green  timber 
was  prepared  for  spokes  and  felloes,  some  kiln-dried, 
and  some  boiled  in  salt  and  water.  At  the  Nauvoo 
house  shops  were  established  as  well  as  at  the  mason's 
hall  and  arsenal.  Iron  was  brought  from  different 
parts  of  the  country,  and  blacksmiths  were  at  work 
night  and  day.^ 

Some  three  years  previous,  the  prophet  Joseph  had 
ordered  that  there  should  not  be  another  general  con- 

*  Parley  Pratt's  calculation  for  an  outfit  of  every  family  of  6  persons  was 
1  good  wagon,  3  yoke  cattle,  2  cows,  2  beef  cattle,  3  sheep,  1,000  lbs  flour, 
20  lbs  sugar,  1  rifle  and  ammunition,  a  tent  and  tent-poles,  from  10  to  20  lbs 
seed  to  a  family,  from  25  to  100  lbs  tools  for  farming,  and  a  few  other  items, 
the  cost  being  about  $250,  provided  they  had  nothing  else  but  bedding  and 
cooking  utensils.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  125. 

^  In  December  the  drying-house  of  emigrating  company  no.  18  was  burned 
to  the  ground,  consuming  |300  worth  of  wagon  timber.  Id.,  MS.,  Dec.  1845. 



ference  until  it  could  be  held  in  the  temple.  And 
now,  on  the  5th  of  October,  1 845,  five  thousand  per- 
sons assembled,  and  on  the  following  day  began  the 
great  conference,  which  lasted  three  days.  The  saints, 
however,  were  permitted  but  short  enjoyment  of  their 
beautiful  structure,  a  meagre  reward  for  all  the  toil 
and  money  expended.  Holiness  to  the  Lord  was  the 
motto  of  it;  and  there  was  little  else  they  could  now 
carry  hence;  the  hewn  stone,  the  wood- work,  and  the 
brass  they  must  leave  behind.  This  building  was  to 
them  as  a  temple  "where  the  children  of  the  last 
kingdom  could  come  together  to  praise  the  Lord." 
As  they  cast  one  last  gaze  on  their  homes  and  the 
monuments  reared  to  their  faith,  they  asked,  "Who  is 
the  God  of  the  gentiles  ?     Can  he  be  our  God  ?"^ 

In  the  same  number  of  the  Times  and  Seasons  in 
which  appeared  a  notice  of  this  meeting  was  pub- 
lished a  circular  signed  by  Brigham  Young,  and  ad- 
dressed to  the  brethren  scattered  abroad  throughout 
America,  informing  them  of  the  impending  change. 
"  The  exodus  of  the  nations  of  the  only  true  Israel 
from  these  United  States  to  a  far  distant  region  of 
the  west,  where  bigotry,  intolerance,  and  insatiable 
oppression  will  have  lost  its  power  over  them,  forms 
a  new  epoch,  not  only  in  the  history  of  the  church, 
but  of  this  nation."* 

'  Kane,  with  the  carelessness  usual  in  his  statements,  says  that  the  temple 
■was  completed  and  consecrated  in  May,  and  that  the  day  after  its  consecration 
its  ornaments  were  carried  away.  *  For  that  one  day  the  temple  shone,  re- 
splendent in  all  its  typical  glories  of  sun,  moon,  and  stars,  and  other  abound- 
ing figured  and  lettered  signs,  hieroglyphs,  and  symbols;  but  that  day  only. 
The  sacred  rites  of  consecration  ended,  the  work  of  removing  the  sacrasancta 
proceeded  with  the  rapidity  of  magic.  It  went  on  through  the  night;  and 
when  the  morning  of  the  next  day  dawned,  all  the  ornaments  and  furniture, 
everything  that  could  provoke  a  sneer,  had  been  carried  off;  and  except  some 
fixtures  that  would  not  bear  removal,  the  building  was  dismantled  to  the 
bare  walls.  It  was  this  day  saw  the  departure  of  the  last  elders,  and  the 
largest  band  that  moved  in  one  company  together.  The  people  of  Iowa  have 
told  me  that  from  morning  to  night  they  passed  westward  like  an  endless 
procession.  They  did  not  seem  greatly  out  of  heart,  they  said;  but  at  the 
top  of  every  hill,  before  they  disappeared,  were  to  be  seen  looking  back,  like 
bajiished  Moors,  on  their  aoandoned  homes  and  the  far-seen  temple  and  its 
glittering  spire.'  The  Mormons,  21. 

*  Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  1018.  In  this  number  is  a  notice,  signed  by  Willard 
Richards,  cutting  off  William  Smith,  the  prophet's  brother,  for  apostasy. 


The  arbitrary  acts  of  the  people  of  Illinois  in  forc- 
ing the  departure  of  the  saints  lays  them  open  to  the 
grave  charge,  among  others,  of  a  desire  to  possess 
their  property  for  less  than  its  value.  Houses  and 
lots,  farms  and  merchandise,  could  not  be  turned  into 
money,  or  even  into  wagons  and  live-stock,  in  a  moment, 
except  at  a  ruinous  sacrifice.  Granted  that  the  hier- 
archy was  opposed  to  American  institutions,  that  the 
Mormons  wished  to  gain  possession  of  the  United 
States  and  rule  the  world :  no  one  feared  the  immediate 
consummation  of  their  pretentious  hopes.  Granted 
that  among  them  were  adulterers,  thieves,  and  mur- 
derers: the  gentiles  were  the  stronger,  and  had  laws 
by  which  to  punish  the  guilty.  It  was  not  a  noble 
sentiment  which  had  actuated  the  people  of  Missouri ; 
it  was  not  a  noble  sentiment  which  now  actuated  the 
people  of  Illinois^  thus  to  continue  their  persecutions 
during  the  preparations  for  departure,  and  drive  a 
whole  cityful  from  their  homes  out  upon  the  bleak 
prairie  in  the  dead  of  winter. 

In  January  1846  the  council  ordered  that  a  de- 
tachment should  set  forth  at  once,  and  that  the  re- 
mainder of  the  saints  should  follow  as  soon  as  possi- 
ble. '' Beloved  brethren,"  said  their  leader,  '4t  now 
remains  to  be  proven  whether  those  of  our  family 
and  friends  who  are  necessarily  left  behind  for  a 
season,  to  obtain  an  outfit  through  the  sale  of  prop- 
erty, shall  be  mobbed,  burned,  and  driven  away  by 
force.  Does  any  American  want  the  honor  of  doing 
it?  or  will  any  Americans  suffer  such  acts  to  be  done, 
and  the  disgrace  of  them  to  remain  on  their  char- 
acter, under  existing  circumstances.  If  they  will, 
let  the  world  know  it." 

The  world  was  soon  to  know  it.  Driven  almost  at 
the  point  of  the  sword,  a  large  number  of  the  saints, 
soon  afterward  followed  by  the  president,  the  twelve, 
the  high  council,  and  other  companies,  gathered  on 
the  eastern  bank  of  the  Mississippi  early  in  February. 

There  was  but  little  money  in  circulation  tlirough- 


out  the  west  at  this  time.  Over  vast  wild  sections 
skins  were  the  only  currency,  and  at  the  settlements 
traffic  for  the  most  part  assumed  the  form  of  barter 
or  exchange  of  labor.  It  was,  therefore,  exceedingly 
difficult,  as  I  have  said,  for  the  saints  to  get  their 
property  into  portable  form,  even  after  selling  their 
lands  at  half  or  quarter  their  value.  The  gentiles, 
of  course,  could  pay  what  they  pleased,  being  the  only 
buyers,  and  the  saints  being  forced  to  sell.  More- 
over, there  was  more  property  thrown  upon  the 
market  than  could  be  taken  at  once,  and  the  depart- 
ure of  so  large  and  thrifty  a  portion  of  the  popula- 
tion was  of  itself  sufficient  to  depreciate  property. 
The  best  they  could  do  was  to  exchange  their  lands 
for  wagons  and  horses  and  cattle,  and  this  they  did 
to  as  large  an  extent  as  possible,  scouring  the  coun- 
try for  a  hundred  miles  around  in  search  of  live-stock.^ 

And  now,  putting  upon  their  animals  and  vehicles 
such  of  their  household  effects  as  they  could  carry,  in 
small  detachments  the  migratory  saints  began  to  leave 
Nauvoo.^  Before  them  was  the  ice-bound  river,  and 
beyond  that  the  wilderness. 

There  is  no  parallel  in  the  world's  history  to  this 
migration  from  Nauvoo.  The  exodus  from  Egypt 
was  from  a  heathen  land,  a  land  of  idolaters,  to  a  fer- 
tile region  designated  by  the  Lord  for  his  chosen  peo- 
ple, the  land  of  Canaan.  The  pilgrim  fathers  in  flying 
to  America  came  from  a  bigoted  and  despotic  people — 

'  *  The  Mormons  went  up  and  down  with  their  furniture,  etc.,  and  traded 
for  anything  that  could  travel,  such  as  an  animal  or  a  wagon . . .  Another 
company  went  out  in  May,  but  they  did  not  sell  their  property,  leaving  it 
in  the  hands  of  trustees  to  sell.'  WelW  Narrative,  MS.,  37.  Their  two- 
story  brick  house,  which  they  had  occupied  but  three  months,  and  which 
they  had  denied  themselves  in  every  way  to  build,  Mrs  Richards  says  was 
sold  for  'two  yoke  of  half -broken  cattle  and  an  old  wagon.'  BeminiscenceSy 
MS.,  20. 

6  •  When  we  were  to  leave  Mo. ,  the  saints  entered  into  a  covenant  not  to 
cease  their  exertions  imtil  every  saint  who  wished  to  go  was  removed,  which 
was  done. .  .We  are  better  off  now  than  we  were  then;. .  .he  [B.  Y.]  wants 
to  see  this  influence  extend  from  the  west  to  the  east  sea.'  Brigham  moved: 
*  That  we  take  all  the  saints  with  us,  to  the  extent  of  our  ability,  that  is,  our 
influence  and  property;  seconded  by  Elder  Kimball,  and  carried  unanimously. ' 
Tliis  covenant  was  entered  into  Oct.  6,  1845.   Times  and  Seasons,  vi.  1011. 


a  people  making  few  pretensions  to  civil  or  religious 
liberty.  It  was  from  these  same  people  who  had  fled 
from  old-world  persecutions  that  they  might  enjoy 
liberty  of  conscience  in  the  wilds  of  America,  from 
their  descendants  and  associates,  that  other  of  their 
descendants,  who  claimed  the  right  to  differ  from  them 
in  opinion  and  practice,  were  now  fleeing.  True,  the 
Mormons  in  various  ways  had  rendered  themselves 
abominable  to  their  neighbors:  so  had  the  puritan 
fathers  to  their  neighbors.  Before  this  the  Mormons 
had  been  driven  to  the  outskirts  of  civilization,  where 
they  had  built  themselves  a  city;  this  they  must  now 
abandon,  and  throw  themselves  upon  the  mercy  of 

The  first  teams  crossed  about  the  10th,  in  flat 
boats,  which  were  rowed  over,  and  which  plied  forth 
and  back  from  early  dawn  until  late  into  the  night, 
skiffs  and  other  river  craft  being  also  used  for 
passengers  and  baggage.  The  cold  increased.  On 
the  16th  snow  fell  heavily;  and  the  river  was  frozen 
over,  so  that  the  remainder  of  the  emigration  crossed 
on  the  ice.  Their  first  camp,  the  camp  of  the  congre- 
gation, was  on  Sugar  Creek,  a  few  miles  from  Nauvoo 
and  almost  within  sight  of  the  city.^  All  their  move- 
ments were  directed  by  Brigham,  who  with  his  family 
and  a  quorum  of  the  twelve,  John  Taylor,  George  A. 
Smith,  Heber  C.  Kimball,  Willard  Richards,  Orson 
Hyde,  Orson  Pratt,  Parley  P.  Pratt,  and  Amasa 
Lyman,  joined  the  brethren  on  Sugar  Creek  on  the 
15th.  Wilford  Woodruff,  who  had  been  sent  to  pre- 
side over  the  mission  to  England,  joined  the  emigra- 
tion later  at  Mount  Pisofah. 

On  the  morning  of  the  17th,  all  the  saints  in  camp 
being  assembled  near  the  bridge  to  receive  their  lead- 
er s  instructions,  the  president  stood  upright  in  his 
wagon,  and  cried  with  a  loud  voice,  '*  Attention!  the 

^  *  We  encamped  at  Sugar  Creek,  in  the  snow,  while  two  of  ray  children 
were  very  ill.  We  slept  in  our  wagons,^  which  were  placed  close  to  our  tents.  * 
Home's  Migrations^  MS.,  16. 


whole  camp  of  Israel."^  He  then  went  on  to  say  that 
as  the  Lord  had  been  with  them  in  times  past,  how- 
soever singular  had  been  his  method  of  proving  his 
presence,  so  would  he  be  with  them  in  the  future. 
His  empire,  the  empire  of  his  people,  was  established, 
and  the  powers  of  hell  should  not  prevail  against  it.® 

After  this,  with  comparatively  light  hearts,  they 
broke  camp,  and  slowly  wending  their  way  westward, 
disappeared  at  length  beyond  the  horizon,  in  pursuit 
once  more  of  the  ever-mocking  phantom  of  home. 
Whither  they  journeyed  they  were  as  yet  uncertain. 
They  knew  only  that  they  were  to  search  out,  prob- 
ably beyond  the  Rocky  Mountains,  if  not  indeed 
among  them,  some  isolated  spot,  where,  far  away  from 
the  land  of  boasted  freedom,  the  soil,  the  skies,  and 
mind  and  manners  were  free.  If  they  were  offensive 
to  the  laws,  if  the  laws  of  the  land  were  offensive  to 
them,  they  would  go  where  they  might  have  land  and 
laws  of  their  own. 

Considering  their  situation,  and  what  they  had  been 
lately  called  to  undergo — ignominy,  insult,  the  loss  of 
property,  the  abandonment  of  home — there  was  little 
complaint.  It  was  among  their  opponents,  and  in  the 
midst  of  a  general  recital  of  their  wrongs,  that  the 
saints  were  accustomed  to  put  on  a  long  face  and  strike 
into  a  doleful  strain.     Among  themselves  there  were 

^  The  camp  of  Israel  was  wherever  the  president  and  apostles  were. 

•  It  has  been  stated  that  after  dismissing  his  congregation  on  the  17th  the 
president  led  several  of  the  twelve  aside  to  a  valley  east  of  the  camp,  and  held 
a  council.  A  letter  was  then  read  from  Samuel  Brannan,  a  Mormon  elder 
then  in  New  York,  together  with  a  copy  of  an  agreement  between  him  and 
one  A.  G.  Benson.  Brannan  was  at  that  time  in  charge  of  a  company  of  saints 
bound  for  the  Pacific  coast  by  way  of  Cape  Horn,  and  the  agreement  which 
he  forwarded  for  Brigham's  signature  required  the  pioneers  to  transfer  to  A. 
G.  Benson  and  company  the  odd  numbers  of  all  the  town  lots  that  they  might 
acquire  in  the  country  where  they  settled.  *I  shall  select,'  writes  Brannan, 
*the  most  suitable  spot  on  the  bay  of  San  Francisco  for  the  location  of  a  commer- 
cial city.'  The  council  refused  to  take  any  action  in  the  matter.  In  case 
they  refused  to  sign  the  agreement,  Tullidge  soberly  relates.  Life  of  Brigham. 
Young,  19-23,  the  president,  it  was  said,  would  issue  a  proclamation,  setting 
forth  that  it  was  the  intention  of  the  Mormons  to  take  sides  with  either  Mex- 
ico or  Great  Britain  against  the  United  States,  and  order  them  to  be  disarmed 
or  dispersed!  Further  mention  of  this  matter  is  made  in  History  of  Califor- 
nia^ vol.  v.  cap.  XX.,  this  series. 


few  people  more  free  from  care,  or  more  light-hearted 
and  happy. 

In  the  present  instance,  though  all  were  poor  and 
some  destitute,  and  though  man  and  beast  were  ex- 
posed to  driving  rain  and  hail,  and  the  chill  blasts  of  a 
western  winter  often  sweeping  down  upon  them  un- 
checked from  the  limitless  prairie,  they  made  the  best 
of  it,  and  instead  of  wasting  time  in  useless  repining, 
set  themselves  at  work  to  make  the  most  of  their 
joys  and  the  least  of  their  sorrows.  On  the  night  of 
March  1st,  when  the  first  camp  was  pitched  beyond 
Sugar  Creek,  after  prayer  they  held  a  dance,  and 
as  the  men  of  Iowa  looked  on  they  wondered  how 
these  homeless  outcasts  from  Christian  civilization 
could  thus  praise  and  make  merry  in  view  of  their 
near  abandoning  of  themselves  to  the  mercies  of  sav- 
ages and  wild  beasts. ^^  Food  and  raiment  were  pro- 
vided for  all;  for  shelter  they  had  their  tents  and 
wagons,  and  after  the  weather  had  spent  somewhat  of 
its  ruggedness,  no  extreme  hardships  were  suffered. 
Without  attempting  long  distances  in  a  single  day, 
they  made  camp  rather  early,  and  after  the  usual 
manner  of  emigrants,  the  wagons  in  a  circle  or  semi- 
circle round  the  camp-fire,  placed  so  as  best  to  shield 
them  from  the  wind  and  wild  beasts  and  Indians, 
with  the  animals  at  a  convenient  distance,  some  staked, 
and  some  running  loose,  but  all  carefully  guarded. 
The  country  through  which  they  passed  was  much  of 
it  well  wooded;  the  land  was  fertile  and  afforded  abun- 
dant pastures,  the  grass  in  summer  being  from  one  to 
ten  feet  high.  Provisions  were  cheap:  corn  twelve 
cents  and  wheat  twenty-five  to  thirty  cents  a  bushel, 

^^ '  In  the  latter  part  of  March  we  started  for  Council  Bluffs,  400  miles  dis- 
tant, and  were  three  months  on  the  way.  Crossing  a  long  prairie  in  a  fearful 
storm,  the  mud  became  so  soft  that  we  could  not  travel,  and  we  were  obliged 
to  encamp;  the  water  was  several  inches  deep  all  over  our  camping-ground; 
we  had  no  wood  for  a  fire,  and  no  means  of  drying  our  soaked  clothing.  In 
the  morning  everything  was  frozen  fast;  and  a  squirrel  was  found  frozen . . . 
Frequently  boughs  were  laid  on  the  ground  before  the  teams  could  pass. . . 
We  had  to  camp  in  mud  until  the  roads  were  dry  enough  to  travel.'  Hornets 
Migrations^  MS,,  18-19. 


beef  two  cents  a  pound,  and  all  payable  in  labor  at 
what  was  then  considered  good  wages,  say  forty  or 
fifty  cents  a  day. 

Into  the  wilderness  they  went,  journeying  day 
after  day  on  toward  the  setting  sun,  their  hearts 
buoyant,  their  sinews  strengthened  by  a  power  not  of 
this  world.  Forever  fades  the  real  before  the  imag- 
inary. There  is  nothing  tougher  than  fanaticism. 
What  cared  they  for  wind  and  rain,  for  comfortless 
couches  or  aching  limbs? — the  kingdom  of  the  Lord 
was  with  them.  vVhat  cared  they  for  insults  and  in- 
justice when  the  worst  this  world  could  do  was  to 
hasten  heaven  to  them  ?  So  on  toward  the  west  their 
long  train  of  wagons  rolled,  leaving  each  day  farther 
and  farther  behind  the  old,  cold,  fanatical  east,  with 
its  hard,  senseless  dogmas,  and  its  merciless  civilization, 
without  murmurings,  without  discord,  the  man  above 
any  other  on  earth  they  most  loved  and  feared  riding 
at  their  head,  or  standing  with  uplifted  and  extended 
hands  as  his  people  passed  by,  blessing  and  comforting 
them.  ''We  were  happy  and  contented,"  says  John 
Taylor,  *'  and  the  songs  of  Zion  resounded  from  wagon 
to  wagon,  reverberating  through  the  woods,  while  the 
echo  was  returned  from  the  distant  hills.  "^^ 

There  were  brass  or  stringed  instruments  in  every 
company,  and  night  and  morning  all  were  called  to 
prayers ^^  at  the  sound  of  the  bugle.  Camp-fires 
drew  around  them  the  saints  when  their  day's  work 
was  finished,  and  singing,  dancing,  and  story-telling 
enlivened  the  hour. 

As  they  went  on  their  way  their  ranks  were  swelled 
by  fresh  bands,  until  there  were  brought  together 
3,000  wagons,  30,000  head  of  cattle,  a  great  number 
of  mules  and  horses,  and  immense  flocks  of  sheep. 

11 « It  is  true,'  he  writes,  *  that  in  our  sojourning  we  do  not  possess  all  the 
luxuries  and  delicacies  of  old-established  countries  and  cities,  but  we  have 
abundance  of  the  staple  commodities,  such  as  flour,  meal,  beef,  mutton,  pork, 
milk,  butter,  and  in  some  instances  cheese,  sugar,  cofiee,  tea,  etc'  Letter  in 
Millennial  Star,  viii.  114. 

*'Each  family  had  prayers  separately.   Taylor's  Rem.,  MS.,  9. 



Richardson  Point ^^  they  made  their  second  stationary 
camp,  the  third  at  Chariton  River,  the  fourth  at 
Locust  Creek,  where  a  considerable  time  was  spent. 
Then  there  were — so  named  by  the  saints — Garden 
Grove,^*  a  large  timbered  tract  which  had  been  burned 
over,  Mount  Pisgah/^  and  finally  Winter  Quarters,  in 
Nebraska,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Missouri,  a  little  above 
the  modern  Omaha,  on  the  site  of  the  present  town 
of  Florence.^^  At  Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah 
were  established  farming  settlements  for  the  benefit 
of  those  who  were  to  follow.  In  July  the  main  body 
reached  the  Missouri  at  the  spot  now  known  as  Council 
Bluffs,  and  soon  afterward  many  crossed  the  river  in  a 
ferry-boat  of  their  own  construction,  and  pitched  their 
tents  at  Winter  Quarters.     Other  large  encampments 

Between  the  Mississippi  and  Missouri. 

^3  In  Lee  County,  Iowa,  three  weeks  from  their  starting-point. 

^^  About  150  miles  from  Nauvoo,  on  the  east  fork  of  the  Grand  River. 
*  Many  located  there,  ploughing  and  sowing,  and  preparing  homes  for  their 
poor  brethren  for  a  longer  period.'  Home' a  Migrations,  MS.,  19.  'On  the 
morning  of  the  27th  of  April  the  bugle  sounded  at  Garden  Grove,  and  all 
the  men  assembled  to  organize  for  labor.  Immediately  hundreds  of  men 
were  at  work,  cutting  trees,  splitting  rails,  making  fences,  cutting  logs  for 
houses,  building  bridges,  making  ploughs,  and  herding  cattle.  Quite  a  num- 
ber were  sent  into  the  Missouri  settlements  to  exchange  horses  for  oxen,  val- 
uable feather-beds  and  the  like  for  provisions  and  articles  most  needed  in  the 
camp,  and  the  remainder  engaged  in  ploughing  and  planting.  Messengers 
were  also  despatched  to  call  in  the  bands  of  pioneers  scattered  over  the  coun- 
try seeking  work,  with  instructions  to  hasten  them  up  to  help  form  the  new 
settlements  before  the  season  had  passed;  so  that,  in  a  scarcely  conceiv^able 
space  of  time,  at  Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah,  industrious  settlements 
sprung  up  almost  as  if  by  magic'  Tullidge's  Life  of  Brhjham  Young,  41. 

^■•This  site  was  discovered  by  Parley,  who  was  sent  forward  to  reconnoitre 
by  Brigham.  It  was  situated  on  a  branch  of  Grand  River,  and  for  years  was 
the  resting-place  for  the  saints  on  their  way  to  Utah.  Autohiog.  P.  Pratt,  381. 

'•^Hei-e  700  log  cabms  and  150  dugouts  (cabins  half  under  ground)  were 
built.    A  large  quantity  of  hay  was  cut,  and  a  flouring  mill  erected.  Id.,  383. 


were  formed  on  both  banks  of  the  river,  or  at  points 
near  by,  where  grass  was  plentiful.  In  early  autumn 
about  12,000  Mormons  were  assembled  in  this  neigh- 
borhood, or  were  on  their  way  across  the  plains. 

Leaving  here  the  advance  portion  of  the  emigra- 
tion, let  us  return  to  Nauvoo  and  see  how  it  fared 
with  those  who  were  still  engaged  in  preparations  for 
their  pilgrimage.  It  had  been  stipulated,  the  reader 
will  remember,  that  the  Mormons  should  remove  from 
the  state  in  the  spring,  or  as  soon  afterward  as  they 
could  sell  their  property,  and  that  meanwhile  they 
should  not  be  molested.  Long  before  spring,  thou- 
sands had  crossed  the  Mississippi,  among  whom  were 
all  the  more  obnoxious  members  of  the  sect.  Mean- 
while, how  had  the  gentiles  kept  their  faith  ? 

But  passing  the  cause,  what  a  picture  was  now 
presented  by  the  deserted  city  and  its  exiled  inhabi- 
tants!— the  former,  as  Colonel  Kane  viewed  it — but 
which  view  must  be  regarded  as  ideal  rather  than 
strictly  historical — with  "its  bright  new  dwellings 
set  in  cool  green  gardens,  ranging  up  around  a  stately 
dome-shaped  hill,  which  was  crowned  by  a  noble 
marble  edifice,  whose  high  tapering  spire  was  radiant 
with  white  and  gold.  The  city  appeared  to  cover 
several  miles ;  and  beyond  it,  in  the  background,  there 
rolled  off  a  fair  country,  checkered  by  the  careful  lines 
of  fruitful  husbandry." 

To  the  Nauvoo  Eagle  Major  Warren  sent  notice 
from  Carthage,  on  the  16th  of  April,  that  he  had  been 
directed  by  the  governor  to  disband  on  the  1st  of  May 
the  force  which  had  been  kept  there  ostensibly  for 
the  protection  of  the  saints,  as  the  time  appointed  for 
their  departure  would  expire  on  that  day.^^  The  day 
arrived,  and  there  were  yet  many  Mormons  remaining, 
many  who  had  found  it  impossible  to  remove  on  ac- 

^^  'The  removal  of  the  entire  population,'  the  major  adds,  *has  been  looked 
forward  to  as  an  event  that  could  alone  restore  peace  and  quiet  to  this  por- 
tion of  our  state. '  FiUlmer's  Expulsion,  24. 


count  of  sickness,  failure  to  dispose  of  their  property, 
or  other  adverse  fortune;  whereat  the  men  of  Illinois 
began  to  bluster  and  threaten  annihilation.  Warren, 
who  had  disbanded  his  troops  on  the  1st,  received  an 
order  from  the  governor  on  the  following  day  to  mus- 
ter them  into  service  again.  This  he  did;  for  he 
would,  if  possible,  see  the  treaty  between  the  Mor- 
mons and  the  governor  faithfully  carried  out,  and 
while  urging  the  saints  to  haste,  he  endeavored  to 
stand  between  them  and  the  mob  which  now  threat- 
ened their  lives  and  the  destruction  of  their  prop- 

Major  Warren  appears  to  have  performed  his  duty 
firmly  and  well,  and  to  have  done  all  that  lay  in  his 
power  to  protect  the  Mormons.  In  a  letter  to  the 
Quincy  Whig,  dated  May  20th, he  writes:  "The  Mor- 
mons are  leaving  the  city  with  all  possible  despatch. 
During  the  week  four  hundred  teams  have  crossed  at 
three  points,  or  about  1,350  souls.  The  demonstra- 
tions made  by  the  Mormon  people  are  unequivocal. 
They  are  leaving  the  state,  and  preparing  to  leave, 
with  every  means  God  and  nature  have  placed  in 
their  hands."  It  was  but  the  lower  class  of  people 
that  clamored  for  the  immediate  expulsion  of  the 
remnant  of  the  saints — the  ignorant,  the  bigoted,  the 
brutal,  the  vicious,  the  lawless,  and  profligate,  those 
who  hated  their  religion  and  coveted  their  lands. 

18  <Thus  while  with  one  hand  he  pushed  the  saints  from  their  possessions 
across  the  river  to  save  their  lives,  with  the  other  he  kept  at  bay  the  savage 
fiends  who  thirsted  for  blood,  and  who  would  fain  have  washed  their  hands 
in  the  blood  of  innocence,  and  feasted  their  eyes  on  the  smoking  ruins  of  their 
martyred  victims.'  Id.,  24-5.  From  Nauvoo,  May  11,  1846,  Warren  writes: 
*To  the  Mormons  I  would  say,  Go  on  with  your  preparations,  and  leave  as 
fast  as  you  can.  Leave  the  fighting  to  be  done  by  my  detachment.  If  we  are 
overpowered,  then  recross  the  river  and  defend  yourselves  and  property.  The 
neighboring  coimties,  under  the  circumstances,  cannot  and  will  not  lend  their 
aid  to  an  unprovoked  and  unnecessary  attack  upon  the  Mormons  at  this  time; 
and  without  such  aid  the  few  desperadoes  in  the  county  can  do  but  little  mis- 
chief, and  can  be  made  amenable  to  the  law  for  that  little.  The  force  under 
my  command  is  numerically  small;  but  backed  as  I  am  by  the  moral  force  of 
the  law,  and  possessing  as  I  do  the  confidence  of  nine  tenths  of  the  respect- 
able portion  of  the  old  citizens,  my  force  is  able  to  meet  successfully  any 
mob  which  can  be  assembled  in  the  county,  and  if  any  such  force  does  assem- 
ble, they  or  I  will  leave  the  field  in  double-quick  time.' 


On  the  6th  of  June  the  people  of  Hancock  county 
met  at  Carthage  to  arrange  for  celebrating  the  4th  of 
July.  One  of  the  citizens  rose  and  said  that  since 
the  Mormons  were  not  all  removed  they  could  not 
rejoice  as  freemen.  Mormon  affairs  then  took  prece- 
dence, and  another  meeting  was  appointed  for  the  12th, 
an  invitation  being  sent  to  the  gentiles  at  Nauvoo  who 
had  occupied  the  deserted  dwellings  of  the  saints.  It 
happened  that  this  was  the  day  appointed  for  the 
assembling  of  the  militia,  with  a  view  to  raise  volun- 
teers for  the  Mexican  war;  and  now,  it  was  thought, 
was  a  good  opportunity  to  show  the  Mormons  the 
military  strength  of  the  county.  The  officers  con- 
ferred, and  without  authority  from  the  governor, 
marched  their  troops,  some  three  or  four  hundred  in 
number,  to  a  place  called  Golden  Point,  five  miles 
from  Nauvoo,  where  they  encamped,  and  opened  com- 
munication with  the  city.  It  happened,  however,  at 
this  juncture,  that  Colonel  Markham  and  others  had 
returned  with  teams  from  Council  Bluffs  for  some  of 
the  church  property,  and  arming  a  force  of  six  or  eight 
hundred,  prepared  to  sally  forth ;  the  name  of  Colonel 
Markham  was  a  terror  to  evil-doers,  and  the  militia 
fled,  no  one  pursuing  them. 

There  were  yet  remaining,  as  late  as  August,  cer- 
tain sturdy  saints  who,  having  committed  no  crime, 
would  not  consent  to  be  driven  from  their  homes  or 
barred  from  their  occupations.  Among  these  was  a 
party  engaged  in  harvesting  wheat  at  a  settlement  eight 
miles  from  Nauvoo,  in  company  with  one  or  two  of  the 
gentiles,  although  it  was  forbidden  by  the  men  of  Illi- 
nois that  any  Mormon  should  show  himself  outside  the 
city,  except  en  route  for  the  west.  The  harvesters 
were  seized  and  beaten  with  clubs,  whereupon  the 
people  of  Nauvoo,  both  Mormons  and  gentiles,  took 
up  the  matter.  Some  arrests  were  made,  and  the 
culprits  taken  to  Nauvoo,  but  by  writ  of  habeas  cor- 
pus were  removed  to  Quincy,  where  they  met  with 
little  trouble.     While  in  Nauvoo,  a  gun  in  the  hands 

Hist.  Utah.    15 


of  a  militia  officer  was  recognized  by  William  Pickett 
as  belonging  to  one  of  the  harvesters.  Pickett  took 
possession  of  the  weapon,  and  a  warrant  was  issued 
aofainst  him  for  theft:  when  an  officer  came  to  arrest 
him,  he  refused  to  surrender.  As  the  Mormons  stood 
by  him  in  illegal  attitude,  the  affair  caused  consider- 
able excitement. 

In  short,  from  the  1st  of  May  until  the  final  evac- 
uation of  the  city,  the  men  of  Illinois  never  ceased 
from  strife  and  outrage.  Of  the  latter  I  will  mention 
only  two  instances:  ''A  man  of  near  sixty  years  of 
age,"  writes  Major  Warren  in  the  letter  just  referred 
to,  "living  about  seven  miles  from  this  place,  was 
taken  from  his  house  a  few  nights  since,  stripped  of 
his  clothing,  and  his  back  cut  to  pieces  with  a  whip, 
for  no  other  reason  than  because  he  was  a  Mormon, 
and  too  old  to  make  a  successful  resistance.  Conduct 
of  this  kind  would  disgrace  a  horde  of  savages."  In 
August  a  party  consisting  of  Phineas  H.  Young,  his 
son  Brigham,  and  three  others  who  were  found  out- 
side the  city,  were  kidnapped  by  a  mob,  hurried  into 
the  thickets,  passed  from  one  gang  to  another — men 
from  Nauvoo  being  in  hot  pursuit — and  for  a  fort- 
night were  kept  almost  without  food  or  rest,  and 
under  constant  threat  of  death. 

Fears  are  now  entertained  that,  by  reason  of  the 
popular  feeling  throughout  the  country,  Nauvoo  city 
will  be  again  attacked;  the  gentile  citizens  therefore 
ask  Governor  Ford  for  protection,  whereupon  Major 
Parker  is  sent  to  their  relief. ^^     All  through  August 

*•  'Sir — I  have  received  information  that  another  eflfort  is  to  be  made  on 
Monday  next  to  drive  out  the  inhabitants  of  Nauvoo,  new  as  well  as  old,  and 
destroy  the  city.  I  am  informed  that  it  is  believed  in  the  surrounding  coun- 
ties that  the  new  citizens  in  Nauvoo  are  all  Mormons,  and  that  the  remnant 
of  the  old  Mormon  population  are  determined  to  remain  there,  although  I  am 
assured  that  the  contrary  in  both  particulars  is  the  truth.  You  are  there- 
fore hereby  authorized  and  empowered  to  repair  to  Nauvoo,  and  there  remain 
imtil  you  are  relieved.  You  will  immediately  inquire  how  many  of  the  in- 
habitants are  new  citizens,  and  how  many  of  them  are  Mormons;  how  many 
'  of  the  old  Mormon  population  remain,  and  what  the  prospect  is  of  their  re- 
imoval  in  a  reasonable  time;  and  in  case  an  attack  on  the  city  should  be  at- 
:.tempted  or  threatened,  you  are  hereby  authorized  to  take  command  of  such 


troubles  continue,  the  anti-Mormons  almost  coming 
to  blows  among  themselves.  Before  the  end  of  the 
month  about  six  hundred  men  are  assembled  at  Car- 
thage, by  order  of  Thomas  Carlin,  a  special  consta- 
ble, ostensibly  to  enforce  the  arrest  of  Pickett,  but 
in  reality  to  enforce  the  expulsion  of  the  Mormons. 
Major  Parker  orders  the  constable's  posse  to  dis- 
perse, otherwise  he  threatens  to  treat  them  as  a  mob. 
The  constable  replies  that  if  the  major  should  at- 
tempt to  molest  them  in  discharge  of  their  duty  he 
will  regard  him  and  his  command  as  a  mob  and  so  treat 
them.  "Now,  fellow-citizens,"  declares  a  committee 
selected  from  four  counties,^^  in  a  proclamation  issued 
at  Carthage,  "an  issue  is  fairly  raised.  On  the  one 
hand,  a  large  body  of  men  have  assembled  at  Carthage, 
under  the  command  of  a  legal  officer,  to  assist  him  in 
performing  legal  duties.  They  are  not  excited — they 
are  cool,  but  determined  at  all  hazards  to  execute 
the  law  in  Nauvoo,  which  has  always  heretofore  de- 
fied it.  They  are  resolved  to  go  to  work  systemati- 
cally and  with  ample  precaution,  but  under  a  full 
knowledge  that  on  their  good  and  orderly  behavior 
their  character  is  staked.  On  the  other  hand,  in 
Nauvoo  is  a  blustering  Mormon  mob,  who  have  de- 
fied the  law,  and  who  are  now  organized  for  the  pur- 
pose of  arresting  the  arm  of  civil  power.  Judge  ye 
which  is  in  the  right." 

Intending,  as  it  seems,  to  keep  his  word,  Carlin 
places  his  men  under  command  of  Colonel  Singleton, 
who  at  once  throws  off  the  mask,  and  on  the  7th  of 
September  announces  to  Major  Parker  that  the  Mor- 
mons must  go.  On  the  same  day  a  stipulation  is 
made,  granting  to  the  saints  sixty  days'  extension  of 
time,  and  signed  by  representatives  on  both  sides. ^^ 

volunteers  as  may  offer  themselves,  free  of  cost  to  the  state,  to  repel  it  and 
defend  the  city. '  Fidlmer*8  Expulsion,  29-30. 

'■'<'  Among  the  members  was  the  Rev.  Thomas  S.  Brockman,  who  afterward 
took  command  of  the  posse. 

'■^^Hostilities  to  cease;  the  city  to  be  evacuated  in  60  days,  25  men  re- 
maining to  see  the  stipulation  carried  out.  /rf.,  34-5. 


But  to  the  terms  of  this  stipulation  the  men  of  Illi- 
nois would  not  consent.  They  were  sore  disgusted, 
and  rebelled  against  their  leaders,  causing  Singleton, 
Parker,  and  others  to  abandon  their  commands,  the 
posse  being  left  in  charge  of  Constable  Carlin,  who 
summoned  to  his  aid  one  Thomas  Brockman,  a  clergy- 
man of  Brown  county,  and  for  the  occasion  dubbed 
general.  On  the  10th  of  September  the  posse,  now 
more  than  a  thousand  strong,  with  wagons,  equip- 
ments, and  every  preparation  for  a  campaign,  ap- 
proached Nauvoo  and  encamped  at  Hunter's  farm. 

At  this  time  there  were  in  the  city  not  more  than 
a  hundred  and  fifty  Mormons,  and  about  the  same 
number  of  gentiles,  or,  as  they  were  termed,  *new  citi- 
zens,' capable  of  bearing  arms,  the  remainder  of  the 
population  consisting  of  destitute  women  and  children 
and  of  the  sick.  Many  of  the  gentiles  had  departed, 
fearing  a  general  massacre,  and  those  who  remained 
could  not  be  relied  upon  as  combatants,  for  they  were 
of  course  unwilling  to  risk  their  lives  in  a  conflict 
which,  if  successful,  would  bring  them  no  credit. 
Nothing  daunted,  the  little  band,  under  command  of 
colonels  Daniel  H.  Wells  ^  and  William  Cutler,  took 
up  its  position  on  the  edge  of  a  wood  in  the  suburbs 
of  Nauvoo,  and  less  than  a  mile  from  the  enemy's 

Before  hostilities  commenced,  a  deputation  from 
Quincy^  visited  the  camp  of  the  assailants,  and  in 
vain  attempted  to  dissuade  them  from  their  purpose. 
No  sooner  had  they  departed  than  fire  was  opened  on 
the  Mormons  from  a  battery  of  six-pounders,  but 
without  efibct.  Here  for  the  day  matters  rested. 
At  sunrise  the  posse  changed  their  position,  intending 
to  take  the  city  by  storm,  but  were  held  in  check  by 

2^  Who  afterward  became  lient-gen.  of  the  Nauvoo  legion  in  Utah. 

^  There  were  about  300  Mormons  and  new  citizens  who  could  then  bear 
arms  against  the  mob,  but  on  the  day  of  the  fight  no  more  than  100  coiild 
be  found  to  go,  as  the  Mormons  were  continually  leaving.'  Wells^  Narrative, 
MS.,  39. 

2*  John  Wood,  the  mayor.  Major  Flood,  Dr  Conyers,  and  Joel  Rice.  See 
WdW  Narrative,  MS.,  passim. 


Captain  Anderson  ^'^  at  the  head  of  thirty-five  men, 
termed  by  the  saints  the  Spartan  band.  The  enemy 
now  fired  some  rounds  of  grape-shot,  forcing  the  be- 
sieged to  retire  out  of  range;  and  after  some  further 
cannonading,  darkness  put  an  end  to  the  skirmish, 
the  Mormons  throwing  up  breastworks  during  the 

On  the  morning  of  the  12th  the  demand  of  uncon- 
ditional surrender  was  promptly  rejected;  where- 
upon, at  a  given  signal,  several  hundred  men  who  had 
been  stationed  in  ambush,  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
river,  to  cut  off  the  retreat  of  the  Mormons,  appeared 
with  red  flags  in  their  hands,  thus  portending  massacre. 
The  assailants  now  opened  fire  from  all  their  batter- 
ies, and  soon  afterward  advanced  to  the  assault, 
slowly,  and  with  the  measured  tramp  of  veterans, 
at  their  head  being  Constable  Carlin  and  the  Rev- 
erend Brockman,  and  unfurled  above  them — the 
stars  and  stripes.  When  within  rifle-range  of  the 
breastworks  the  posse  wheeled  toward  the  south,  at- 
tempting to  outflank  the  saints  and  gain  possession 
of  the  temple  square.  But  this  movement  had  been 
anticipated,  and  posted  in  the  woods  to  the  north  of 
the  Mormon  position  lay  the  Spartan  band.  Leading 
on  his  men  at  double-quick,  Anderson  suddenly  con- 
fronted the  enemy  and  opened  a  brisk  fire  from  re- 
volving rifles.^^  The  posse  advanced  no  farther,  but 
for  an  hour  and  a  half  held  their  ground  bravely 
against  the  Spartan  band,  the  expense  of  ammunition 
in  proportion  to  casualties  being  greater  than  has  yet 
been  recorded  in  modern  warfare.  Then  they  re- 
treated in  excellent  order  to  the  camp.  The  losses 
of  the  Mormons  were  three  killed  and  a  few  slightly 
wounded;  the  losses   of  the   gentiles  are   variously 

^  He  was  more  than  brave,  he  was  presumptuous.  Wells,  in  Utah  NoteSy 
MS.,  p.  7. 

^  *Many  of  our  log  houses  were  torn  down  by  the  mob,  which  numbered 
1,000  men;  we  made  Darricades  of  corn-stalks  stacked  up.'  Wells,  in  Utah 
Notes,  MS.,  7. 

'■^''  Elder  John  S.  Fullmer,  then  a  colonel  in  the  Nauvoo  legion,  claims  that 
be  directed  this  movement.  Expulsion^  38. 


stated.^  Among  those  who  fell  were  Captain  Ander- 
son and  his  son,  a  youth  of  sixteen,  the  former  dying, 
as  he  had  vowed  that  he  would  die,  in  defence  of  the 
holy  sanctuary. 

The  following  day  was  the  sabbath,  and  hostilities 
were  not  renewed;  but  on  that  morning  a  train  of 
wagons,  despatched  by  the  posse  for  ammunition  and 
supplies,  entered  the  town  of  Quincy.  It  was  now 
evident  that,  whether  the  men  of  Illinois  intended 
massacre  or  forcible  expulsion,  it  would  cost  them 
many  lives  to  effect  either  purpose.  With  a  view, 
therefore,  to  prevent  further  bloodshed,  a  committee 
of  one  hundred  proceeded  to  Nauvoo  and  attempted 
mediation.  At  the  same  time  the  Reverend  Brock- 
man  sent  in  his  ultimatum,  the  terms  being  that 
the  Mormons  surrender  their  arms,  and  immediately 
cross  the  river  or  disperse,  and  that  all  should  be 
protected  from  violence.^^  There  was  no  alternative. 
The  armed  mob  in  their  front  was  daily  swelling  in 
number,  while  beyond  the  river  still  appeared  the 
red  flag;  their  own  ranks,  meanwhile,  were  being 
rapidly  thinned  by  defection  among  the  new  citi- 

^^  'But  three  in  all  were  killed. .  .Meetings  were  held  to  stop  the  effusion 
of  blood, . .  .but  there  was  no  necessity  for  such  action,  when  no  blood  was 
shed.'  Wells,  in  Utah  Notes,  7. 

^^  *  1st.  The  city  of  Nauvoo  will  surrender.  The  force  of  Reverend  Brock- 
man  to  enter  and  take  possession  of  the  city  to-morrow,  the  17th  of  Septem- 
ber, at  three  o'clock  p.  m.  2d.  The  arms  to  be  delivered  to  the  Quincy  com- 
mittee, to  be  returned  on  crossing  the  river.  3d.  The  Quincy  committee 
pledge  themselves  to  use  their  influence  for  the  protection  of  persons  and 
property,  and  the  officers  of  the  camp  and  the  men  likewise  pledge  them- 
selves. 4th.  The  sick  and  helpless  to  be  protected  and  treated  with  humanity. 
5th.  The  Mormon  population  of  the  city  to  leave  the  state  or  disperse  as  soon 
as  they  can  cross  the  river.  6th.  Five  men,  including  the  trustees  of  the  church, 
and  five  clerks  with  their  families  (William  Pickett  not  one  of  the  number), 
to  be  permitted  to  remain  in  the  city  for  the  disposition  of  property,  free  from 
all  molestation  and  personal  violence.  7th.  Hostilities  to  cease  immediately, 
and  ten  men  of  the  Quincy  committee  to  enter  the  city  in  the  execution  of  their 
duty  as  soon  as  they  think  proper.'  It  will  be  observed  that  nothing  is  said 
about  the  surrender  of  Pickett,     He  was  not  even  arrested. 

'"•The  mob  entered  the  temple.,  instituted  an  inquisition,  and  regardless 
of  the  Mormons  or  new  citizens,  went  from  house  to  house  plundering  cow- 
yards,  pig-pens,  hen-roosts,  and  bee-stands  indiscriminately;  thus  turning  some 
of  their  best  friends  into  enemies,  bursting  open  trunks  and  chests,  searching 
for  arms,  keys,  etc'  p.  343.     Mn  the  temple  ringing  the  bells,  shouting,  and 


On  the  17th  of  September  the  remnant  of  the 
Mormons  crossed  the  Mississippi,  and  on  the  same 
day  the  gentiles  took  possession  of  Nauvoo.*^ 

It  was  indeed  a  singular  spectacle,  as  I  have  said, 
this  upon  the  western  border  of  the  world's  great 
repubHc  in  the  autumn  of  1846.  A  whole  cityful, 
with  other  settlements,  and  thousands  of  thrifty  agri- 

hallooing;  they  took  several  to  the  river  and  baptized  them,  swearing,  throw- 
ing them  backward,  then  on  to  their  faces,  saying:  "The  commandments  must 
be  fulfilled,  and  God  damn  you." '  Hist.  B.  Ytmng,  MS.,  345. 

^*  The  best  narrative,  and  indeed  the  only  one  that  enters  circumstantially 
into  all  the  details  of  the  expulsion  from  Nauvoo,  is  contained  in  the  Assassina- 
tion of  Joseph  and  Hyrum  Smithy  the  Prophet  and  the  Patriarch  of  the  Church 
of  Latter-day  Saints.  Also  a  Condensed  History  of  the  Expulsion  of  the  Saints 
from  Nauvoo  hy  Elder  John  S.  Fullmer  (of  Utah,  U.  S.  A.J,  Pastoi  of  the  Man- 
chester, Liverpool,  and  Preston  Conferences.  Liverpool  and  London,  1855.  The 
work  is  written  from  a  Mormon  standpoint,  but  including  as  it  does  copies  of 
the  despatches  of  Illinois  officers  and  officials,  of  the  stipulations  between  the 
belligerents,  and  of  some  comments  made  by  the  Quincy  Whig,  appears  in 
the  main  reliable.  The  author's  comments  on  the  gentiles  are  sufficiently 
bitter,  and  his  description  of  the  fight  at  Nauvoo  and  the  valor  of  the  saints 
militant  must  of  course  be  t^ken  with  due  allowance.  For  instance:  'Seeing 
our  men  take  possession  of  some  vacant  buildings  on  the  line  of  their  ap- 

E roach,  they  took  a  position  on  an  elevated  spot  of  ground,  and  opened  a 
eavy  cannonade  at  a  distance  of  something  less  than  half  a  mile.  This  was 
returned  with  great  spirit  on  our  part  from  guns  made  of  steam  shafts  that 
earned  six-pound  balls.  Many  were  the  balls  that  we  picked  up  as  they 
came  rolling  and  bounding  among  us,  and  we  sent  them  back  with  as  much 
spirit  and  precision  as  they  were  first  sent.'  p.  37.  Col  Kane  says:  *A  vin- 
dictive war  was  waged  upon  them,  from  which  the  weakest  fled  in  scattered 
parties,  leaving  the  rest  to  make  a  reluctant  and  almost  ludicrously  una- 
vailing defence. '  The  Mormons,  54.  In  the  General  Epistle  of  the  Twelve, 
Dec.  23,  1847,  in  Snow's  Voice  of  Joseph,  14-15,  we  read:  'In  September 
1846  an  infuriated  mob,  clad  in  all  the  horrors  of  war,  fell  on  the  saints  who 
had  still  remained  in  Nauvoo  for  want  of  means  to  remove,  murdered  some, 
and  drove  the  remainder  across  the  Mississippi  into  Iowa,  where,  destitute  of 
houses,  tents,  food,  clothing,  or  money,  they  received  temporary  assistance 
from  some  benevolent  souls  in  Quincy,  St  Louis,  and  other  places,  whose 
names  will  ever  be  remembered  with  gratitude.  Their  property  in  Hancock 
CO.,  Illinois,  was  little  or  no  better  than  confiscated;  many  of  their  houses 
were  burned  by  the  mob,  and  they  were  obliged  to  leave  most  of  those  that 
remained  without  sale;  and  those  who  bargained  sold  almost  for  a  song;  for 
the  influence  of  their  enemies  was  to  cause  such  a  diminution  in  the  value  of 
property  that  for  a  handsome  estate  was  seldom  realized  enough  to  remove 
the  family  comfortably  away;  and  thousands  have  since  been  wandering  to 
and  fro,  destitute,  afflicted,  and  distressed  for  the  common  necessaries  of  life, 
or  unable  to  endure,  have  sickened  and  died  by  hundreds;  while  the  temple 
of  the  Lord  is  left  solitary  in  the  midst  of  our  enemies,  an  enduring  monu- 
ment of  the  diligence  and  integrity  of  the  saints.'  Mention  of  the  expulsion 
from  Nauvoo  is  of  course  made  in  most  of  the  books  published  on  Mormon- 
ism,  but  in  none  of  them,  except  perhaps  in  one  or  two  of  the  most  rabid 
anti-Mormon  works,  which  I  have  not  thought  it  worth  while  to  notice,  is 
the  conduct  of  the  Illinois  mob  defended. 


culturists  in  the  regions  about,  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  driven  beyond  the  border  by  other  citizens :  not 
by  reason  of  their  religion  alone,  though  this  was  made 
a  pretence;  not  for  breaking  the  laws,  though  this  was 
made  a  pretence;  not  on  account  of  their  immorality, 
for  the  people  of  Illinois  and  Missouri  were  not  im- 
maculate in  this  respect;  nor  was  it  altogether  on 
account  of  their  solid  voting  and  growing  political 
power,  accompanied  ever  by  the  claim  of  general  in- 
heritance and  universal  dominion,  though  this  last 
had  more  to  do  with  it  probably  than  all  the  rest 
combined,  notwithstanding  that  the  spirit  of  liberty 
and  the  laws  of  the  republic  permitted  such  massing 
of  social  and  political  influence,  and  notwithstanding 
the  obvious  certainty  that  any  of  the  gentile  political 
parties  now  playing  the  role  of  persecutors  would 
gladly  and  unscrupulously  have  availed  themselves  of 
such  means  for  the  accomplishment  of  their  ends.  It 
was  all  these  combined,  and  so  combined  as  to  engen- 
der deadly  hate.  It  gave  the  Mormons  a  power  in 
proportion  to  their  numbers  not  possessed  by  other 
sects  or  societies,  which  could  not  and  would  not  endure 
it;  a  power  regarded  by  the  others  as  unfairly  acquired, 
and  by  a  way  and  through  means  not  in  accord  with 
the  American  idea  of  individual  equality,  of  equal 
rights  and  equal  citizenship.  In  regard  to  all  other 
sects  within  the  republic,  under  guard  of  the  consti- 
tution, religion  was  subordinated  to  politics  and  gov- 
ernment; in  regard  to  the  Mormons,  in  spite  of  the 
constitution,  politics  and  government  were  subordi- 
nated to  religion. 

And  in  regard  to  the  late  occupants  of  the  place, 
the  last  of  the  Mormon  host  that  now  lay  huddled  to 
the  number  of  640  on  the  western  bank  of  the  river 
in  sight  of  the  city  :^^  if  the  first  departures  from  Nauvoo 
escaped  extreme  hardships,  not  so  these.     It  was  the 

^^  A  few  months  before,  Nauvoo  with  the  neighboring  Mormon  settlements 
had  contained  some  20,000  saints,  of  whom  in  July  about  15,000  were  encamped 
on  the  Missouri  River,  or  were  scattered  through  the  western  states  in  search 
of  employment. 

POOR  CAMP.  23Jf 

latter  part  of  September,  and  nearly  all  were  pros- 
trated with  chills  and  fevers;^^  thereat  the  river  bank, 
among  the  dock  and  rushes,  poorly  protected,  without 
the  shelter  of  a  roof  or  anything  to  keep  off  the  force 
of  wind  or  rain,  little  ones  came  into  life  and  were  left 
motherless  at  birth.^  They  had  not  food  enough  to 
satisfy  the  cravings  of  the  sick,  nor  clothing  .lit  to 
•wear.  For  months  thereafter  there  were  periods 
when  all  the  flour  they  used  was  of  the  coarsest,  the 
wheat  being  ground  in  coffee  and  hand  mills,  which 
only  cut  the  grain;  others  used  a  pestle;  the  finer  meal 
was  used  for  bread,  the  coarser  made  into  hominy. 
Boiled  wheat  was  now  the  chief  diet  for  sick  and  well. 
For  ten  days  they  subsisted  on  parched  corn.  Some 
mixed  their  remnant  of  grain  with  the  pounded  bark 
of  the  slippery  elm  which  they  stripped  from  the 
trees  along  their  route. 

This  encampment  was  about  two  miles  above 
Montrose  on  the  Mississippi,  and  was  called  the 
Poor  Camp.  Aid  was  solicited,  and  within  three 
weeks  a  little  over  one  hundred  dollars  was  collected, 
mostly  in  Quincy,  with  provisions  and  clothing, 
though  the  prejudice  against  them  was  deep  and 
strong.^  Some  of  the  people  were  crowded  into 
tents,  made  frequently  of  quilts  and  blankets;  others 
in  bowers  made  of  brush;  others  had  only  wagons  for 
shelter.  They  suffered  from  heavy  thunder-storms, 
when  the  rain  was  bailed  out  with  basins  from  their 
beds.  Mothers  huddled  their  children  in  the  one 
dress  which  often  was  all  they  possessed,  and  shaking 
with  ague  or  burning  with  fever,  took  refuge  from 
the  pitiless  storms  under  wagons  and  bushes.^ 

•3  While  at  Montrose,  Heber  C.  Kimball  writes  thus  in  his  journal  of  the 
condition  of  his  family,  his  wife  having  a  babe  a  few  days  old,  and  he  himself 
ill  with  ague.  *  I  went  to  the  bed;  my  wife,  who  was  shaking  with  the  ague, 
having  two  children  lying  sick  by  her  side;. .  .the  only  child  well  was  little 
Heber  Parley,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  he  could  carry  a  two-quart  pail  full 
of  water  from  a  spring  at  the  bottom  of  the  hill.  * 

'* '  Such  deaths  occurred  from  exposure  and  fright  in  Nauvoo.  The  camp 
journalist  recorded:  EfiFect  of  persecution  by  the  Illinois  mob.' 

^^  The  trustees  from  Nauvoo  also  distributed  clothing,  and  molasses,  salt, 
and  salt  pork.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1846,  383. 

^'^  Airs  Clara  Young's  Experience,  MS.,  3. 


"  While  the  people  for  the  most  part  were  ill  with 
chills  and  fever,"  says  Wells,  ''quail  fell  into  camp  and 
were  picked  up  with  ease.^^  This  supply  was  looked 
upon  as  miraculous  by  the  half- famished  people.  So 
long  had  they  been  lashed  by  the  fierce  winds  of 
misfortune,  that  now  they  accepted  with  gratitude 
this  indication  of  providential  care. 

Wagons  were  sent  .from  Winter  Quarters  for  the 
removal  of  the  people  from  Poor  Camp;  and  gradually 
all  reached  the  various  stations  in  which  the  Mormons 
had  gathered.^ 

Of  their  long  journey  many  painful  incidents  are 
recorded.  Weakened  by  fever  or  crippled  with  rheu- 
matism, and  with  sluggish  circulation,  many  were 
severely  frost-bitten.  Women  were  compelled  to 
drive  the  nearly  worn-out  teams,  while  tending  on 
their  knees,  perhaps,  their  sick  children.  The  strength 
of  the  beasts  was  failing,  as  there  were  intervals  when 
they  could  be  kept  from  starving  only  by  the  browse 
or  tender  buds  and  branches  of  the  cotton-wood,  felled 
for  the  purpose.^^ 

At  one  time  no  less  than  two  thousand  wagons 
could  be  counted,  it  was  said,  along  the  three  hundred 
miles  of  road  that  separated  Nauvoo  from  the  Mor- 
mon encampments.     Many  families  possessed  no  wag- 

^"  *  On  the  9th  of  October,  while  our  teams  were  waiting  on  the  banks  of  the 
Miss,  for  the  poor  saints, .  .left  without  any  of  the  necessaries  of  life, . .  .and 
nothing  to  start  their  journey  with,  the  Lord  sent  flocks  of  quail,  which  lit 
upon  their  wagons  and  on  their  empty  tables,  and  upon  the  ground  within 
their  reach,  wliich  the  saints,  and  even  the  sick,  caught  with  their  hands 
until  they  were  satisfied.'  Hist.  B.  Young^  MS.,  1847,  9.  This  phenome- 
non extended  some  30  or  40  miles  along  the  river,  and  was  generally  observed. 
The  quail  in  immense  quantities  had  attempted  to  cross  the  river,  but  it  being 
beyond  their  strength,  had  dropped  into  the  river  boats  or  on  the  bank.' 
Wells,  in  Utah  Notes,  MS.,  7. 

^^  See  The  Mormons:  A  Discourse  delivered  before  the  Historical  Society  of 
Pennsylvania,  March  26,  1850,  by  Thomas  L,  Kane.  Philadelphia,  1850.  A 
copy  of  it  will  be  found  at  the  end  of  Orson  Pratt's  Works,  and  in  Mackay's 
The  Mormons,  200-45.  The  story  of  the  Mor.mon  exodus,  as  handed  down 
to  us  by  a  man  of  Colonel  Kane's  powers  of  observation,  would  have  been  a 
valuable  record  were  it  not  plainly  apparent  that  truth  is  too  often  sacrificed 
to  diction.  Among  Mormon  writers  we  find  no  detailed  narrative  of  this 
exodus,  and  among  others  little  that  is  not  borrowed  from  the  colonel's  dis- 

^^  Snow's  Biography,  89. 


ons,  and  in  the  long  procession  might  be  seen  vehicles 
of  all  descriptions,  from  the  lumbering  cart,  under 
whose  awning  lay  stretched  its  fever-stricken  driver, 
to  the  veriest  makeshifts  of  poverty,  the  wheelbarrow 
or  the  two- wheeled  trundle,  in  which  was  dragged 
along  a  bundle  of  clothing  and  a  sack  of  meal — all  of 
this  world's  goods  that  the  owner  possessed. 

On  arriving  at  the  banks  of  the  Missouri,  the 
wagons  were  drawn  up  in  double  lines  and  in  the  form 
of  squares.  Between  the  lines,  tents  were  pitched  at 
intervals,  space  being  left  between  each  row  for  a 
passage-way,  which  was  shaded  with  awnings  or  a 
lattice-work  of  branches,  and  served  as  a  promenade 
for  convalescents  and  a  playground  for  children. 

And  what  became  of  Nauvoo?  The  temple  was 
destroyed  by  fire  and  tempest,*^  and  all  the  wood-work 
consumed,  while  the  rock  was  utilized  for  miles  around 
as  foundations  of  houses,  for  door-steps,  and  other  pur- 
poses. A  French  company  coming  in  later  bought  the 
stone  from  those  in  possession,  and  built  wine-vaults. 
Foundations  of  buildings  were  broken  up,  and  houses 
once  surrounded  by  carefully  tended  flower-gardens, 
pillaged  of  all  that  was  valuable,  were  now  abandoned 
by  their  ruthless  destroyers.*^  *'At  present,"  writes 
Linforth,  *Hhe  Icariansform  the  most  important  part 
of  the  population  of  Nauvoo . . .  They  live  in  a  long 
ugly  row  of  buildings,  the  architect  of  which  and  of 
the  school-house  was  a  cobbler."  In  the  house  built 
for  the  prophet  and  his  family  dwelt  in  1854  the 
prophets  widow,  his  mother,  and  his  family.*'* 

*°The  temple  was  half  destroyed  by  fire  ou  Nov.  19,  1848.  Nauvoo  Pa- 
triot, in  Millennial  Star,  xi.  p.  46;  and  on  May  27,  1850,  further  damaged 
by  a  tornado.  Hancock  Patriot,  in  Mackaj/'s  The  Mormons,  210.  For  cut  of 
remnants,  see  ZAn/orth's  Route  from  Liverpool  to  G.  S.  L.  Valley,  62,  and 
Hyde's  Mormonism,  140.  See  also  George  Q.  Cannon,  in  Juvenile  Instructor ^ 
vol.  ix.  no.  5,  and  WelW  Narrative,  MS.,  41;  Deseret  News,  Aug.  24,  1850; 
Frontier  Guardian,  July  24,  1850. 

*^  As  James  Linforth  describes  in  writing  of  Nauvoo  in  1858. 

^^  Route  from  Liverpool  to  G.  S.  L.  Valley,  63. 




Native  Races  of  the  Missouri — The  Pottawattamies  and  the  Omahas— 
The  Moemons  Welcomed  as  Beethren — ^War  with  Mexico — Califor- 
nia Territory — Mexican  Boundaries— Application  to  the  United 
States  Government  for  Aid — An  Offer  to  Serve  as  Soldiers  Ac- 
cepted—Organization OF  THE  Mormon  Battalion — Departure  of 
the  Battalion — Bounty  Money — March  across  the  Continent — 
The  Battalion  in  California — Matters  on  the  Missouri. 

Among  the  savages  on  either  side  of  the  Missouri, 
the  Pottawattamies  on  the  east  side  and  the  Omahas 
on  the  west  side,  the  outcasts  from  Nauvoo  were 
warmly  welcomed.  "My  Mormon  brethren,"  said 
the  chief  Pied  Riche,^  "the  Pottawattamie  came  sad 
and  tired  into  this  unhealthy  Missouri  bottom,  not 
many  years  back,  when  he  was  taken  from  his  beauti- 
ful country  beyond  the  Mississippi,  which  had  abun- 
dant game  and  timber  and  clear  water  everywhere. 
Now  you  are  driven  away  in  the  same  manner  from 
your  lodges  and  lands  there,  and  the  graves  of  your 
people.  So  we  have  both  suffered.  We  must  help 
one  another,  and  the  great  spirit  will  help  us  both." 

Extreme  care  was  taken  not  to  infringe  in  any  way 
upon  the  rights  of  the  Indians  or  the  government. 
Brigham  counselled  the  brethren  to  regard  as  sacred 
the  burial  customs  of  the  natives;  frequently  their 
dead  were  deposited  in  the  branches  of  trees,  wrapped 
in  buffalo  robes  and  blankets,  with  pipes  and  trinkets 

*  Surnamed  Le  Clerc,  on  account  of  his  scholarship. 




beside  them.  At  Cutler  Park  there  were  friendly 
negotiations  made  with  Big  Elk,  chief  of  the  Omahas, 
.who  said:  "I  am  willing  you  should  stop  in  my  coun- 
try, but  I  am  afraid  of  my  great  father  at  Washing- 

As  the  United  States  pretended  to  hold  the  title 
to  the  land,  it  was  thought  that  the  Pottawattamies 
had  no  right  to  convey  their  timber  to  others;  so 
Brigham  enjoined  that  there  should  be  no  waste  of 
timber  within  these  limits,  but  that  as  much  as  was 
necessary  might  be  used.  A  permit  for  passing 
through    their   territory,   and    for    remaining   while 

About  the  Missouri. 

necessary,  was   obtained   from   Colonel   Allen,   who 
was  acting  for  the  United  States.' 

Although  it  was  late  in  the  season  when  the  first 
bands  of  emigrants  crossed  the  Missouri,  some  of  them 
still  moved  westward  as  far  as  the  Pawnee  villages  on 
Grand  Island,  intending  to  select  a  new  home  before 
winter.  But  the  evil  tidings  from  Nauvoo,  and  the 
destitute   condition  in   which   other  parties   of  the 

*  *  The  Omahas  caused  them  some  trouble,  as  they  would  steal  with  one 
hand  while  we  fed  them  with  the  other.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  46,  Oct.  18th. 

*Hist.  B.  Young  J  MS.,  1846,  98-9.  Maj.  Harvey  brought  the  Mormons 
at  Winter  Quarters  letters  from  Washington,  expecting  them  to  leave  the 
Pottawattamie  lands  in  the  spring.  See  cor.,  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  441-52. 


saints  reached  the  Mormon  encampments,  forbade 
further  progress,  and  all  prepared  to  spend  the  winter 
on  the  prairie.  To  the  Mormon  encampment  on  the 
site  of  the  present  town  of  Council  Blufis  was  after- 
ward given  the  name  of  Kanesville.* 

While  the  saints  were  undergoing  their  infelicities 
at  Nauvoo,  war  had  broken  out  between  the  United 
States  and  Mexico.  At  that  time  New  Mexico  and 
California  were  a  part  of  Mexico,  and  Utah  and  Ne- 
vada were  a  part  of  California.^  Journeying  west 
from  Nauvoo,  California  or  Oregon  would  be  reached. 
The  latter  territory  was  already  secured  to  the  United 
States;  people  were  there  from  the  United  States, 
composing  religious  sects  and  political  parties  as  jeal- 
ous of  their  holdings  as  any  in  Missouri  or  Illinois. 
Vancouver  Island®  was  practically  unoccupied,  but 
the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  would  scarcely  regard 
with  favor  its  occupation  by  a  large  body  of  American 
citizens  whose  government  was  at  that  moment  crowd- 
ing them  out  of  the  Oregon  territory  and  across  the 
Columbia  River. 

But  had  the  Mormons  known  their  destination, 
had  they  known  what  point  among  the  mountains  or 

*  So  called  after  Thomas  L.  Kane.  Here  was  first  issued  on  Feb.  7,  1849, 
the  Frontier  Guardian,  and  its  publication  was  continued  till  March  22,  1852. 
Richards^  Narr.y  MS.,  65;  Richards*  Bibliog.  of  Utah,  MS.,  13.  The  paper 
was  edited  by  Orson  Hyde,  and  makes  a  very  creditable  appearance.  The 
subscription  was  $2  per  year.  In  the  second  number  we  read :  '  Flour  nicely 
put  up  in  sacks  of  from  50  to  100  lbs  each  will  be  received  in  exchange  for 
the  Guardian  at  the  rate  of  $2  per  hundred  pounds,  if  good.'  The  last  num- 
ber of  the  Times  and  Seasons  bears  date  Feb.  15,  1846. 

*  I  frequently  find  California  and  Utah  confounded  by  writers  of  this  early 
period.  The  limits  of  California  on  the  east  were  not  then  defined,  and  it 
was  not  uncommon,  nor  indeed  incorrect,  to  apply  that  term  to  territory  east 
of  the  sierra.  I  find  this  written  in  Snow* 8  Voice  of  the  Prophet,  15:  'The 
pioneers  discovered  a  beautiful  valley  beyond  the  pass  of  the  great  Rocky 
Mts,  being  a  portion  of  the  great  basin  of  Upper  California. '  As  we  shall  see 
later,  the  Mormons  knew  even  less  about  Utah  than  they  did  about  California. 

*Brigham  Young  at  first  suggested  Vancouver  Island.  'There  are  said 
to  be  many  good  locations  for  settlements  on  the  Pacific,  especially  at  Van- 
couver Island.'  Circular  to  the  brethren,  in  Times  and  Sea807is,  vi.  1019. 
In  1845  the  report  was  current  that  the  Mormons  of  Illinois  had  chosen  V.  I. 
as  their  future  home,  the  metropolis  to  be  situated  at  Nootka.  Niles*  Register, 
Ixix.  134.  The  Quincy  Whig  thinks  the  Mormons  intend  to  settle  at  Nootka 
Sound.   Polynesian,  ii.  1846. 


beside  the  sea  was  to  be  their  final  resting-place,  they 
would  not  have  told  it.  When  they  turned  their 
back  on  Nauvoo,  the  whole  western  coast  was  before 
them,  with  its  multitudinous  mountains  and  valleys, 
its  rivers  and  lakes,  and  long  line  of  seaboard.  Of  the 
several  parts  of  this  immense  territory,  ownership 
and  right  of  occupation  were  not  in  every  instance  de- 
termined. The  question  of  the  boundary  line  between 
England's  possessions  and  those  of  the  United  States 
had  stirred  up  no  small  discussion  and  feeling,  and 
out  of  the  present  war  with  Mexico  would  doubtless 
arise  some  changes.^  It  was  a  foregone  conclusion  in 
the  minds  of  many,  before  ever  the  migratory  saints 
had  reached  the  Missouri  River,  that  when  the  pres- 
ent troubles  with  Mexico  were  ended  the  United 
States  would  have  California.  But  however  this  might 
be,  the  saints  had  a  firm  reliance  on  an  overruling 
providence,  and  once  adrift  upon  the  vast  untenanted 
west,  their  God  and  their  sagacity  would  point  out  to 
them  their  future  home.  Thus  it  was  that  while  the 
Mormons  in  the  western  states  took  the  route  over- 
land, another  portion  living  at  the  east  took  passage 
round  Cape  Horn,  the  intention  being  that  the  two 
bodies  of  brethren  should  come  together  somewhere 
upon  the  Pacific  slope,  which  indeed  they  did.^ 

The  national  title  to  what  is  now  the  Pacific  United 
States  being  at  this  time  thus  unsettled,  and  the 
Mormons  having  been  driven  from  what  was  then 

'  In  a  letter  to  Pres.  Polk,  dated  near  Council  Bluffs,  Aug.  9,  1846,  the 
determination  •vras  expressed,  'that  as  soon  as  we  are  settled  in  the  great  basin, 
we  design  to  petition  the  U.  S.  for  a  territorial  govt,  bounded  on  the  north  by 
the  British  and  south  by  the  Mexican  dominions,  east  and  west  by  the  sum- 
mits of  the  Rocky  and  Cascade  M  ts. '  And  again  elsewhere :  '  We  told  Col  Kane 
we  intended  settling  in  the  great  basin  on  Bear  River  Valley;  that  those  who 
went  round  by  water  would  settle  in  S.  F.  That  was  in  council  with  the 
twelve  and  Col  Kane.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  133,  140. 

'In  his  address  to  the  saints  in  Great  Britain,  dated  Liverpool,  1849,  Elder 
John  Taylor  says:  'When  wo  arrive  in  California,  according  to  the  provisions 
of  the  Mexican  goremraent,  each  family  will  be  entitled  to  a  large  tract  of 
land,  amounting  to  several  hundred  acres;  but  as  the  Mexican  and  American 
nations  are  now  at  war,  should  Cal.  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  American 
nation,  there  has  been  a  bill  before  congress  in  relation  to  Or.,  which  will 
undoubtedly  pass,  appropriating  640  acres  of  land  to  every  male  settler.' 
Millennial  Star,  viii.  115. 


the  United  States,  it  was  considered  but  natural,  as 
indeed  it  seemed  to  be  a  necessity,  that  they  would 
take  possession  of  such  unoccupied  lands  in  the  region 
toward  the* Pacific  as  best  suited  them.  But  it  was 
not  necessary  that  they  should  hold  possession  of  such 
lands  in  opposition  to  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  as  they  have  been  charged  with  doing. 

They  now  applied  to  the  government  at  Washing- 
ton for  work,  offering  to  open  roads,  transport  mili- 
tary stores,  or  perform  any  other  service  which  the 
government  might  require  in  this  farthest  west,  even 
to  assist  in  fighting  its  battles.  Such  occupation 
would  be  of  the  greatest  advantage  to  them  in  this 
new  country,  where  land  was  fertile  and  plenty  and 
free,  and  possessing  as  they  did  large  herds  of  cattle 
and  horses  and  sheep,  with  no  market  and  but  little 
money.  And  on  the  other  hand,  being  on  the  ground, 
accustomed  to  work,  and  having  every  facility  at 
hand  without  long  and  expensive  transportation,  they 
could  give  more  and  better  work  for  the  pay  than 
the  government  could  obtain  by  any  other  means. 

They  even  asked  for  aid  direct  about  the  time  the 
exodus  began,  being  represented  at  Washington  by 
Elder  Jesse  C.  Little,^  who,  aided  by  Colonel  Kane, 
Amos  Kendall,  and  others,  brought  the  matter  before 
President  Polk.  While  negotiations  were  yet  in 
progress,  news  arrived  that  General  Taylor  had  al- 
ready won  two  victories  over  the  Mexicans;  where- 
upon the  elder  addressed  a  petition  to  the  president, 
stating  that  from  twelve  to  fifteen  thousand  Mormons 
had  set  forth  from  Nauvoo  for  California,  while  some 
had  departed  by  sea,  and  in  Great  Britain  alone  were 
forty  thousand  converts,  all  resolved  to  join  the  saints 
in  their  promised  land.  Many  of  them  were  without 
means;  they  were  compelled  to  go;  they  wanted  as- 

*  In  the  letter  appointing  and  giving  instructions  to  Elder  Little  is  the 
following:  *If  our  government  should  offer  facilities  for  emigrating  to  the 
western  coast,  embrace  those  facilities  if  possible.  As  a  wise  and  faithful 
man,  take  every  advantage  of  the  times  you  can.'  Tullidge's  Life  of  Brigham 
Young,  48. 


sistance  either  in  the  way  of  work  or  otherwise.  The 
Mormons  were  true-hearted  Americans,  the  memo- 
rial went  on  to  say,  and  if  the  government  would 
assist  them  in  their  present  emergency,  the  petitioner 
stood  ready  to  pledge  himself  as  their  representative 
to  answer  any  call  the  government  might  make  upon 
them  for  service  on  the  field  of  battle. 

Elder  Little  was  taken  at  his  word.  At  a  cabinet 
meeting,  held  a  day  or  two  after  his  petition  was  pre- 
sented, the  president  advised  that  the  elder  be  sent 
at  once  to  the  Mormon  camps,  and  there  raise  a 
thousand  men  to  take  possession  of  California  in  the 
name  of  the  United  States,  while  a  thousand  more 
be  sent  by  way  of  Cape  Horn  for  the  same  purpose, 
on  board  a  United  States  transport.  It  was  finally 
arranged  that  the  elder,  in  company  with  Kane,  should 
proceed  westward,  the  latter  bearing  despatches  to 
Kearny,  then  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  with  a  view  to 
raising  a  corps  of  about  five  hundred  men. 

On  the  19th  of  June,  Kearny  issued  an  order  to 
Captain  James  Allen  of  the  1st  dragoons  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  Mormon  camp,  and  there  raise  four  or 
five  companies  of  volunteers,  to  be  mustered  into  the 
service  of  the  United  States  and  receive  the  pay 
and  rations  of  other  infantry  volunteers.  They  were 
then  to  be  marched  to  Fort  Leavenworth,  where  they 
would  be  armed;  after  which  they  would  proceed  to 
California  by  way  of  Santa  Fe.  They  were  to  enlist 
for  twelve  months,  after  which  time  they  were  to  be 
discharged,  retaining  as  their  own  property  the  arms 
furnished  them. 

In  pursuance  of  his  orders,  Captain  Allen  proceeded 
to  Mount  Pisgah,  where  on  the  26th  he  made  known 
his  mission.  After  a  conference  with  the  church 
council  at  that  point,  Allen  went  to  Council  Bluffs, 
where  on  the  1st  of  July  it  was  determined  by 
President  Young  that  the  battalion  should  be  raised. 
In  two  weeks  the  corps  was  enrolled,  and  mustered 
in  on  the  16th  of  July,  the  president  of  the  church 

Hist.  Utah.    16 


promising  to  look  after  the  wants  of  the  families  of 
those  enlisting. 

Though  in  reality  a  great  benefit  to  the  brethren, 
there  were  some  hardships  connected  with  the  meas- 
ure. ^^  As  Brigham  and  others  were  on  their  way  from 
Council  Bluffs  to  Pisgah  to  aid  in  obtaining  these 
recruits,  they  passed  800  west-bound  wagons.  At 
their  encampments  on  each  side  the  river  there  was 
much  serious  illness, 'and  as  many  of  the  teamsters 
had  been  withdrawn  for  this  campaign,  much  heavy 
work  fell  upon  the  women  and  children,  and  the  aged 
and  infirm.^^ 

After  a  ball  on  the  afternoon  of  the  19th,  the  vol- 
unteers next  day  bade  farewell  to  their  families  and 
friends,  and  accompanied  by  eighty  women  and  chil- 
dren,^^  set  forth  on  their  march/^  on  the  1st  of  August 
arriving  at  Fort   Leavenworth.     Here  the  men  re- 

^°  So  ingrafted  in  their  minds  was  the  idea  of  persecution,  and  so  accus- 
tomed were  they  now  to  complaining,  that  when  the  government  acceded  to 
their  request,  there  were  many  who  believed,  and  so  expressed  themselves, 
that  this  was  but  an  act  of  tyranny  on  the  part  of  the  United  States,  whose 
people,  after  driving  them  from  their  borders,  had  now  come  upon  them  to 
make  a  draft  on  their  healthiest  and  hardiest  men,  forcing  them  to  separate 
from  their  wives  and  children  now  in  the  time  of  their  extremest  need,  under 
penalty  of  extermination  in  case  of  refusal.  And  this  idea,  which  was  wholly 
at  variance  with  the  facts,  is  present  in  the  minds  of  some  even  to  this  day. 
In  order  to  facilitate  enlisting,  or  for  some  other  cause  best  known  to  himself, 
Brigham  deemed  it  best  to  preserve  this  idea  rather  than  wholly  disabuse 
their  minds  of  it;  for  in  his  address  to  the  brethren  on  the  15th  of  July  he 
said:  *  If  we  want  the  privilege  of  going  where  we  can  worship  God  accord- 
ing to  the  dictates  of  our  consciences,  we  must  raise  the  battalion.'  In  hia 
address  at  the  gathering  of  the  pioneers  on  the  24th  of  July,  1880,  Wilford 
Woodruff  said:  '  Our  government  called  upon  us  to  raise  a  battalion  of  500 
men  to  go  to  Mexico  to  fight  the  battles  of  our  country.  This  draft  was  ten 
times  greater,  according  to  the  population  of  the  Mormon  camp,  than  was 
made  upon  any  other  portion  of  our  nation. .  .Whether  our  government  ex- 
pected we  would  comply  with  the  request  or  not,  is  not  for  me  to  say.  But 
I  think  I  am  safe  in  saying  that  plan  was  laid  by  certain  parties  for  our  de- 
struction if  Me  did  not  comply.'  Utah  Pioneers^  33d  Ann.,  20. 

^^ '  Most  of  our  people  were  sick;  in  fact,  the  call  for  500  able-bodied  men 
from  Council  Bluffs  for  Mexico,  by  the  government,  deprived  us  of  about  all 
our  strength,'  Richards'  Rem.,  MS.,  25. 

^^ Compare  official  report  in  U.  S.  Home  Ex.  Doc,  no.  24,  31st  Cong., 
1st  Sess.,  and  Tyler's  Hist.  Mormon  Battalion,  and  note  discrepancies  in  regard 
to  numbers  enlisted  and  discharged.  The  names  of  those  who  reached  Cali- 
fornia will  be  found  in  my  pioneer  register,  Hist.  Cal. ,  this  series. 

^^  'The  members  started  upon  their  pilgrimage  cheerfully, ' says  WoodruflF, 
*  understanding  that  they  occupied  the  place  of  a  ram  caught  in  a  thicket,  and 
were  making  a  sacrifice  for  the  salvation  of  Israel. '  Utah  Pioneers,  20. 


ceived  their  arms  and  accoutrements,  and  to  each  was 
given  a  bounty  of  forty  dollars,  most  of  the  money  be- 
ing sent  back  to  the  brethren  by  the  hands  of  elders 
Hyde,  Taylor,  and  others,  who  accompanied  the  bat- 
talion to  that  point,  and  there  bade  them  God  speed. ^* 

About  the  middle  of  August  the  corps  resumed  its 
march  toward  Santa  Fd,  a  distance  of  seven  hundred 
miles,  arriving  at  that  place  in  two  parties  on  the  9th 
and  12th  of  October.  There  eighty-eight  men  were 
invalided  and  sent  back  to  Pueblo  for  the  winter,  and 
later  a  second  detachment  of  fifty-five,  being  found 
unfit  for  service,  was  also  ordered  to  Pueblo.  ^^  Many 
of  them  found  their  way  during  the  following  year  to 
the  valley  of  Great  Salt  Lake. 

From  Santa  Fe  the  remainder  of  the  troops  set 
forth  for  San  Diego,  a  journey  of  more  than  eleven 
hundred  miles,  the  entire  distance  between  that  town 
and  the  Mormon  camps  on  the  Missouri  exceeding 
two  thousand  miles.  Much  of  the  route  lay  through 
a  pathless  desert;  at  few  points  could  food  be  obtained 
in  sufficient  quantity  for  man  or  beast,  and  sometimes 
even  water  failed.  Wells  were  sunk  in  the  wilderness ; 
but  on  one  occasion,  at  least,  the  men  travelled  for  a 
hundred  miles  without  water.  ^^     Before  leaving  Santa 

i**Here  they  received  100  tents,  one  for  every  6  privates.'  'The  pay- 
master remarked  that  every  one  of  the  Mormon  battalion  could  write  his  own 
name,  but  only  about  one  third  of  the  volunteers  he  had  previously  paid  could 
do  so.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1846,  18.  'Five  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
sixty  dollars  was  brought  in  by  Parley  Pratt  from  Ft  Leavenworth,  being  a  por- 
tion of  the  allowance  for  clothing  paid  the  battalion.  It  was  counselled  that 
this  money  bo  expended  in  St  Louis  for  the  families;  three  prices  have  to  be 
paid  here;. .  .we  wish  they  should  all  act  voluntarily,  so  that  they  may  have 
no  reflections  to  cast  upon  themselves  or  counsellors.'  Id.,  MS.,  1846,  150. 
*  When  the  goods  were  bought,  prices  had  advanced  and  ferriage  was  very 
high,  all  of  which  brought  the  goods  higher  than  was  anticipated,  and  pro- 
duced some  grumbling  in  camp.'  Id.,  MS.,  1847,  12. 

^^  Families  accompanying  the  battalion  were  ordered  to  Pueblo  for  winter 
quarters.  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1846,  2G0.  A  detachment  was  sent  to  Pueblo 
consisting  of  89  men  and  18  laundresses.  Later  in  this  vol.,  I  refer  to  affairs 
at  Pueblo  as  furnished  me  in  a  very  valuablB  manuscript  by  Judge  Stone  of 

*^  In  a  general  order  issued  at  San  Diego  on  Jan.  30,  1847,  by  command  of 
Lieut-col  St  George  Cooke,  then  in  charge  of  the  battalion,  vice  Col  Allen,  de- 
ceased, the  men  are  thus  complimented  on  their  safe  arrival  at  the  shores  of 
the  Pacific:  '  History  may  be  searched  in  vain  for  an  e^ual  march  of  infan- 
try; nine  tenths  of  it  through  a  wilderness,  where  nothmg  but  savages  and 


Fe  rations  were  reduced,"  and  soon  afterward  further 
reduced  to  one  half  and  finally  to  one  quarter  allow- 
ance, the  meat  issued  to  the  troops  being  the  flesh  of 
such  animals  as  were  unable  to  proceed  further,  though 
their  hides  and  entrails  were  eagerly  devoured,  being 
gulped  down  with  draughts  of  water,  when  water 
could  be  had.^^  While  sufiering  these  hardships  the 
men  were  compelled  to  carry  their  own  knapsacks, 
muskets,  and  extra  atnmunition,  and  sometimes  to 
push  the  wagons  through  heavy  sand,  or  help  to  drag 
them  over  mountain  ranges. 

Passing  through  a  New  Mexican  pueblo  on  the 
24th  of  October,  some  of  the  men  were  almost  as 
naked  as  on  the  day  of  their  birth,  except  for  a  breech- 
clout,  or  as  their  colonel  termed  it,  a  '  centre-clothing,* 
tied  around  the  loins.  In  this  plight,  near  the  middle 
of  December,  the  battalion  reached  the  San  Pedro 
River,  some  three  hundred  and  forty  strong,  and  here 
occurred  the  only  battle  which  the  saints  militant 
fought  during  their  campaign — an  encounter  with  a 

wild  beasts  are  found;  or  deserts  where,  for  the  want  of  water,  there  is  no 
living  creature.  There,  with  almost  hopeless  labor,  we  have  dug  deep  wells, 
which  the  future  traveller  will  enjoy.  Without  a  guide  who  had  traversed 
them,  we  have  ventured  into  trackless  prairies,  where  water  was  not  found 
for  several  marches.  With  crowbar  and  pickaxe  in  hand,  we  have  worked 
our  way  over  mountains  which  seemed  to  defy  aught  save  the  wild  goat,  and 
hewed  a  passage  through  a  chasm  of  living  rock,  more  narrow  than  our  wagons. ' 
Smith's  Rise,  Progress,  and  Travels,  10. 

^^  'Until  further  orders,  three  fourths  pound  of  flour,  also  three  fourths 
rations  sugar  and  coffee  will  be  issued.  Beef,  one  and  a  half  pounds  will  be 
issued  for  a  day's  ration.'  Order  No.  11,  Headquarters  Mormon  Battalion, 
Santa  F6.     A  copy  of  it  will  be  found  in  Tyler's  Hist.  Mor.  Battalion,  175-6. 

i_^  During  the  march  from  Santa  Fe  to  San  Diego  a  song  was  composed  by 
Levi  W.  Hancock,  a  musician  belonging  to  company  E.  It  was  entitled  the 
'Desert  Route,'  and  commences: 

While  here  beneath  a  sultry  sky, 
Our  famished  mules  and  cattle  die; 
Scarce  aught  but  skin  and  bones  remain. 
To  feed  poor  soldiers  on  the  plain. 
Chorus:  How  hard  to  starve  and  wear  us  out 
Upon  this  sandy  desert  route. 

We  sometimes  now  for  lack  of  bread, 
Are  less  than  quarter  rations  fed, 
And  soon  expect,  for  all  of  meat, 
Naught  else  than  broke-down  mules  to  eat. 

Id,  181-2. 

Now  half-starved  oxen,  over-drilled. 
Too  weak  to  draw,  for  beef  are  killed; 
And  gnawing  hunger  prompting  men, 
To  eat  small  entrails  and  the  skin. 


herd  of  wild  bulls.  Thence,  without  further  adventure 
worthy  of  note,  they  continued  their  march,  and  reach- 
ing the  Pacific  coast  on  the  29th  of  January,  1847, 
found  the  stars  and  stripes  floating  peacefully  over  the 
town  of  San  Diego.^^ 

A  more  detailed  account  of  the  career  of  the  Mor- 
mon battalion  will  be  found  in  my  History  of  Cali- 
fornia, It  remains  only  to  add  here  that  about  one 
hundred  of  the  men  reached  Salt  Lake  City  in  the 
winter  of  1847,  while  some  remained  on  the  Pacific 
coast.  ^ 

The  alacrity  displayed  by  the  Mormon  president  in 
raising  this  battalion  has  been  ascribed  to  various 
causes;  to  the  fear  of  further  persecution  should  the 
levy  be  refused,  and  to  a  desire  of  showing  that,  not- 
withstanding their  maltreatment,  the  saints  were  still 

'^^  In  A  Concise  Histot^  of  the  Mormon  Battalion  in  the  Mexican  War,  1846 
-1847,  by  Sergeant  Daniel  Tlyer,  (Salt  Lake  City,)  1881,  8vo,  376  pp.,  we 
have  a  most  valuable  book,  and  one  that  forms  the  leading  authority  on 
this  subject.  Though  written,  of  course,  from  a  Mormon  standpoint,  and 
marked  by  the  credulity  of  his  sect,  the  execution  of  the  work  is  all  that  its 
title-page  promises.  In  the  introduction,  occupying  109  pages,  we  have 
President  John  Taylor's  account  of  the  martyrdom  of  Joseph  Smith,  Colonel 
ILane's  discourse  on  the  Mormons,  and  a  poem  by  Eliza  R.  Snow,  entitled 
The  Mormon  Battalion,  and  First  Wagon  Load  over  the  Great  American  Desert. 
The  remainder  of  the  volume  consists  of  original  matter.  Tyler  was  a  mem- 
ber of  company  C  in  the  battalion,  and  no  doubt  speaks  the  truth  when  he 
says  in  his  preface  that  '  neither  labor,  pains,  nor  expense  has  been  spared  in 
the  effort  to  make  this  a  just  and  authentic  history.'  Among  other  authori- 
ties may  be  mentioned  Home's  Migr.  and  SettlemH,  L.  D.  Saints,  MS. ,  32-3; 
Nebeh:r's  Early  Justice,  MS.,  3;  Woodruff's  Rem.,  MS.,  76;  Henry  W.  Big- 
ler's  Diary  of  a  Mormon  in  California,  MS. ,  in  which  last  we  have  a  faithful 
and  interesting  record  of  the  Mormon  battalion  and  Mr  Bigler's  account  of 
the  discovery  of  gold  in  California.  The  Conquest  of  New  Mexico  and  Califor- 
nia: an  Historical  and  Personal  Narrative,  by  P.  St.  George  Cooke,  Brigadier 
and  Brevet  Major-general  U.S.  A.,  N.  Y.,  1878,  12mo,  gives  some  additional 
matter,  as  do  the  journal  and  report  of  that  officer  in  U.  S.  Sen.  Doc.  No.  2, 
30th  Cong.,  Special  Sess. ,  djx^va  House  Ex.  Doc,  30th  Cong.,  IstSess.,  no.  41, 
pp.  549-63.  Cooke,  it  will  be  remembered,  was  in  command  of  the  battalion. 
Items  have  also  been  gathered  from  U.  S.  House  Ex.  Doc,  31st  Cong.,  1st 
Sess.,  uo.  24,  p.  22;  Apostle  Wilford  Woodruff's  Speech,  in  Utah  Pioneers, 
33d  ann.,  19-22;  Smith's  Rise,  Progress,  and  Travels,  8-11;  Tidlidge's  Life  of 
Brigham  Young,  41-76;  Olshav^en,  Gesch.  de  Mor.,  142-4;  and  Kane's  The 
Mormom,  27-9.  Biographical  notices  of  some  of  the  members,  and  the  names 
of  the  women  who  accompanied  the  battalion,  are  given  in  Tidlidge's  Women, 
427,  432,  443-4. 

2°  In  the  Frontier  Guardian,  March  7,  1849,  is  a  notice  copied  from  the  St 
Joseph  Gazette,  stating  that  the  members  of  the  battalion  can  at  once  receive 
their  extra  pay  at  Fort  Leavenworth.  The  notice  is  signed  by  Paymaster 
Thos  S.  Bryant. 


unswerving  in  their  loyalty  to  the  United  States. 
While  all  this  carried  weight,  the  bounty  of  twenty 
thousand  dollars  was  no  insignificant  consideration, 
nor  the  hope  that  this  battalion  might  serve  as  van- 
guard to  Brigham's  host,  provided  he  carried  out  his 
partially  formed  purpose  to  settle  in  California. 

At  the  close  of  1846,  about  twelve  thousand  souls 
had  assembled  in  the '  Mormon  camps,  a  portion  of 
them  being  yet  stationed  as  far  eastward  as  Garden 
Grove.  Of  the  rest  a  few  had  made  their  way 
to  some  Atlantic  port  and  taken  ship  for  Califor- 
nia; many  had  dispersed  throughout  the  country, 
some  of  whom  were  now  gathering  at  the  ren- 
dezvous. Though  the  first  bands  that  crossed  the 
Mississippi  encountered  no  very  severe  hardships,  as 
I  have  said,  the  sufferings  of  those  who  set  forth  later 
have  few  parallels,  even  among  the  pioneers,  who,  a 
year  or  two  afterward,  followed  their  track  westward 
in  search  of  gold.'^^ 

Mount  Pisgah,  the  next  encampment  west  of  Gar- 
den Grove,  was  on  the  middle  fork  of  Grand  River. 
Through  this  winter  of  1846-7,  which  was  one  of 
severest  struggle,  there  was  great  lack  of  food  and 
clothing.  They  could  not  go  on  because  they  had 
no  teams,  most  of  them  being  employed  in  bringing 
forward  the  emigration  from  the  Mississippi.     Many 

2^  Instance  the  experiences  of  Mrs  Richards,  Reminiscences^  MS.,  passim. 
While  on  their  journey  toward  the  Missouri,  having  parted  from  her  husband 
who  was  about  starting  on  a  mission  to  England,  her  little  daughter  was  taken 
dangerously  ill,  and  the  mother  was  prematurely  confined  in  a  wagon  with  a 
son,  who  died  soon  after.  'Our  situation  was  pitiable;  I  had  no  suitable  food 
for  myself  or  my  child;  the  severe  rain  prevented  our  having  any  fire;  on 
the  third  day  we  resumed  our  journey.  In  ten  days  we  reached  Mt  Pisgah; 
my  little  girl  was  very  ill,  and  I  was  also.  We  continued  our  journey  till  we 
reached  my  mother  at  Cutler  Park,  and  here,  after  weeks  of  almost  incred- 
ible suffering,  my  little  daughter  died.  A  few  days  previously  she  had  asked 
for  some  potato  soup,  the  first  thing  she  had  shown  any  desire  for  for  weeks, 
and  as  we  were  then  travelling,  we  came  in  sight  of  a  potato-field.  One  of  the 
sisters  eagerly  a?ked  for  a  single  potato.  A  rough  woman  impatiently  heard 
her  story  throug  i ,  and  putting  her  hands  on  her  shoulders,  marched  her  out 
of  the  house,  say  ig,  "I  won't  give  or  sell  a  thing  to  one  of  you  damned  Mor- 
mons." I  turned  on  my  bed  and  wept,  as  I  heard  them  trying  to  comfort 
iny  little  one  in  her  disappointment.  When  she  was  taken  from  me  I  only 
lived  because  I  could  not  die. ' 


families  were  entirely  out  of  provisions,  and  their  des- 
titute neighbors  were  sorely  taxed. ^^  A  fatal  sick- 
ness swept  through  the  camp,  and  soon  there  were 
not  sufficient  persons  to  nurse  the  sick;  frequently 
burials  were  hastened  with  little  ceremony.  In  the 
spring  of  1847,  Lorenzo  Snow  was  made  president  of 
the  camp.  The  men  were  put  to  work  wherever  they 
could  get  it.  Seed  was  planted,  and  the  result  was 
enough  not  only  for  themselves,  but  they  were  enabled 
to  send  supplies  to  the  camp  at  Council  Bluffs.^ 
Snow  instituted  religious  ceremonies  and  amusements 
to  brighten  and  encourage  them.  He  describes  a  dance 
in  his  log  cabin,  where  clean  straw  was  spread  over 
the  ground  floor,  and  the  walls  draped  with  sheets. 
Turnips  were  scooped  out  and  in  them  were  placed 
lighted  candles,  which,  suspended  from  the  ceiling  of 
earth  and  cane,  or  fastened  on  the  walls,  imparted  a 
picturesque  effect.  Dancing,  speeches,  songs,  and 
recitations  varied  the  exercises,  which  opened  and 
closed  with  prayer. 

On  each  side  of  the  hills  where  now  stands  Council 
Bluffs  could  be  seen  the  white  canvas  tents  of  a  Mor- 
mon encampment,  from  which  arose  at  sunrise  the 
smoke  of  hundreds  of  fires.  After  the  morning  meal, 
the  men  employed  themselves  in  tending  herds,  in 
planting  grain  and  vegetables,  or  in  building  houses 
for  winter.  Many  of  them  were  excellent  craftsmen, 
and  could  fell  a  tree,  and  split  its  trunk  into  boards, 
scantling,  rails,  posts,  or  whatever  were  needed,  as 

^  It  cannot  be  said  that  any  considerable  number  died  of  starvation. 
*Only  those  died  of  it  outright,'  says  Kane  in  The  Mormons,  *  who  fell  in  out- 
of-the-way  places  that  the  hand  of  brotherhood  could  not  reach. .  .K  but  part 
of  a  group  were  supplied  with  provisions,  the  whole  went  on  half  or  quarter 
ration.'  'Articles  of  diet,  such  as  tea,  coflfee,  sugar,  with  every  species  of 
clothing,  were  eagerly  stored  up,  as  possibly  the  last  we  should  ever  see. ' 
Brotvn*8  Testimonies,  MS. ,  24.  '  When  starting  from  Nauvoo,  a  gentile  neigh- 
bor gave  me  a  pound  of  tea,  which  through  sickness  and  great  suflfering  was 
about  all  the  sustenance  I  had  for  some  time.'  Mrs  Richards*  Rem.,  MS.,  20. 

^  *  Parties  were  sent  to  the  gentile  settlements  to  look  for  work,  food,  and 
clothing,  and  elders  Dana  and  Campbell  collected  about  $600  from  the  rich 
gentiles  in  Ohio  and  elsewhere.'  Snow^s  Biography,  91. 


readily  as  the  most  expert   backwoodsmen  of  their 

During  the  summer  and  autumn  months  of  1846, 
the  Papillon  camp,  near  the  Little  Butterfly  River, 
in  common  with  the  others,  was  stricken  with  fever, 
and  with  a  scorbutic  disease  which  the  Mormons 
termed  the  black  canker.  In  the  autumn  drought,  the 
streams  that  discharge  into  the  Missouri  at  this  point 
are  often  little  better  than  open  sewers,  pestilential 
as  open  cesspools,  and  the  river,  having  lost  more  than 
half  its  volume,  flows  sluggishly  through  its  channel 
of  slime  and  sedge.  Of  the  baked  mud  on  either  bank 
is  formed  the  rich  soil  on  which  lay  the  encampments, 
the  site  being  called,  in  their  own  phrase.  Misery 
Bottom.  In  the  year  previous  the  Indians  in  this 
neighborhood  had  lost  one  ninth  of  their  number; 
and  now  that  the  earth  was  for  the  first  time  upturned 
by  the  plough,  the  exhalations  from  this  rank  and 
steaming  soil  were  redolent  of  disease  and  death. 

In  the  camp  nearest  to  Papillon  more  than  one 
third  of  the  company  lay  sick  at  the  beginning  of 
August;  elsewhere  matters  were  even  worse;  and  as 
the  season  advanced  there  were  in  some  of  the  en- 
campments not  one  who  escaped  the  fever,  the  few  who 
were  able  to  stagger  from  tent  to  tent  carrying  food 
and  water  to  their  comrades.  For  several  weeks  it 
was  impossible  to  dig  graves  quickly  enough  for  the 
burial  of  the  dead,^^  and  one  might  see  in  the  open 
tents  the  wasted  forms  of  women  brushing  away  the 
flies  from  the  putrefying  corpses  of  their  children. 

Through  all  these  months  building  was  continually 
going  on  at  Winter  Quarters. ^^    The  axe  and  saw  were 

^* '  There  were  among  them  many  skilled  mechanics,  who  could  work  at  forge, 
loom,  or  turning-lathe.  A  Mormon  gunsmith  is  the  inventor  of  the  excellent 
repeating  rifle  that  loads  by  slides  instead  of  cylinders;  and  one  of  the  neat- 
est finished  fire-arms  I  have  ever  seen  was  of  this  kind,  wrought  from  scraps 
of  old  iron,  and  inlaid  with  the  silver  of  a  couple  of  half-dollars.'  Kane's  The 
Mormons,  36. 

*''»  At  the  camp  situated  on  the  site  of  the  town  of  Florence,  there  were  over 
600  burials.  Kane's  The  Mormons,  51. 

*^  *  Here  we  suflfered  terribly  from  scurvy,  for  want  of  vegetables.  I  was 
a  victim,  and  even  my  little  cmldren  as  young  as  three  years  of  age.     The 


incessantly  at  work  night  and  day.  It  was  a  city  of 
mud  and  logs;  the  houses  had  puncheon  floors  and 
roofs  of  straw  and  dirt,  or  of  turf  and  willows;  they 
were  warm  and  not  unwholesome,  but  would  not  en- 
dure the  thaw,  rain,  and  sunshine.^'' 

There  was  a  camp  at  Cutler  Park  which  was  moved 
to  Winter  Quarters.  Great  difficulty  was  experi- 
enced in  getting  flour  and  meal;  a  little  grain  was 
ground  at  the  government  mill,  and  the  rest  was  ob- 
tained in  Missouri,  a  hundred  and  fifty  miles  distant.^^ 
Brigham  kept  everybody  busy,  and  everything  was 
well  organized  and  systematically  executed.^^  Schools 
were  soon  established,  officers  of  the  church  appointed, 
and  men  sent  on  missions.  The  whole  machinery  was 
apparently  in  as  active  operation  as  it  had  been  at 
Nauvoo.  The  gathering  continued  through  the  sum- 
first  relief  experienced  was  when  a  bag  of  potatoes  was  brought  in  from 
Missouri. .  .It  was  observed  that  those  who  had  milk  escaped  the  trouble.' 
Home's  MigrationSy  MS.,  20. 

2'^  *  The  buildings  were  generally  of  logs  from  12  to  18  feet  long,  a  few 
were  split,  and  made  from  lynn  and  cotton-wood  timber;  many  roofs  were 
made  by  splitting  oak  timber  into  boards,  called  shakes,  about  3  ft  long  and 
6  in.  wide,  and  kept  in  place  by  weights  and  poles;  others  were  made  of 
willows,  straw,  and  earth,  about  a  foot  thick;  some  of  puncheon.  Many 
cabins  had  no  floors;  there  were  a  few  dugouts  on  the  sidehills — the  fire- 
place was  cut  out  at  the  upper  end.  The  ridge-pole  roof  was  supported  by 
two  uprights  in  the  centre  and  roofed  with  straw  and  earth,  with  chimneys 
of  prairie  sod.  The  doors  were  made  of  shakes,  with  wooden  hinges  and 
string  latch;  the  inside  of  the  log  houses  was  daubed  with  clay;  a  few  had 
stoves,'  Hist.  B.  Young ,  MS.,  1846,  534.-  '  The  roofs  were  made  of  logs  laid 
across  with  flags  spread  over  them,  and  earth  spread  over  these.  This  was 
partial  protection  from  the  rain,  but  when  once  it  was  soaked  through  in  a 
heavy  storm,  we  were  at  the  mercy  of  the  rain.'  Richards'  J?ew.,  MS.,  27.  In 
Dec.  1846,  at  Winter  Quarters  there  were  '  538  log  houses  and  83  sod  houses, 
inhabited  by  3,483  souls,  of  whom  334  were  sick.'  Church  Chronology ^  65. 

^^ '  $8,000  was  sent  by  Whitney  to  St  Louis  to  purchase  stones  and  machin- 
ery for  flouring  mills;  and  through  A.  H.  Perkins  a  carding  machine  was 
ordered  from  Savannah.'  Hist.  B.  Young ^  MS.,  Aug.  30,  1846.  'Sugar  and 
cofiee  were  16§  cts  per  lb.;  domestics  and  calicoes  from  18  to  25  cts;  |3  a  cwt. 
for  flour,'  etc. ;  all  of  which  could  be  purchased  in  St  Louis  for  a  third  of  these 
rates.  These  prices  seemed  exorbitant  to  the  Mormons,  though  in  reality 
they  were  not  unreasonable.  In  transporting  the  goods  from  St  Louis  later, 
ferriage  became  so  high  and  prices  were  so  advanced  that  the  brethren  burst 
forth:  'Woe  unto  you,  Missourians!  but  we  are  independent  of  them  and 
can  live  without  them,  for  we  have  thousands  of  cattle  left. ' 

^  'At  a  meeting  of  the  council  July  14th,  it  was  voted  that  colonies  be 
established  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  to  put  in  buckwheat,  and  winter; 
that  a  fort  be  built  on  Grand  Island  and  a  settlement  made  there;  and  that 
Bishop  Miller  and  a  company  go  over  the  mountains.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS., 
1846,  50. 


mer,  but  it  was  deemed  inexpedient  to  move  forward 
that  year.  Some  twelve  hundred  cattle  were  herded 
on  the  rush  bottoms,  about  a  hundred  miles  up  the 

The  building  of  a  water  flouring  mill  was  in  process 
of  construction,  and  Brigham  superintended  the  work. 
As  the  camp  journalist  writes:  "He  sleeps  with  one 
eye  open  and  one  foot  out  of  bed,  and  when  anything 
is  wanted  he  is  on  hand."  The  tithing  collected  was 
distributed  among  the  destitute  at  Mount  Pisgah. 
To  the  gentiles  who  visited  their  camps  such  hospitality 
was  extended  as  their  means  permitted,  which  though 
often  scant  was  never  stinted. 

Within  the  camp  the  women  attended  not  only  to 
their  ordinary  household  duties,  but  were  busily  occu- 
pied spinning,  knitting,  making  leggings  from  deer  and 
elk  skins,  and  in  weaving  willow  baskets  for  market. ^^ 
With  cheerfulness  and  courage  they  adapted  them- 
selves to  their  many  vicissitudes,  their  faith  in  their 
religion  never  swerving,  and  supported  by  it  to  a  pa- 
tient endurance  beyond  human  strength.  Most  of 
them  had  exchanged  their  household  treasures  and 
personal  effects,  even  to  their  table  and  bed  furniture, 
for  stores  of  maize  or  flour,  which  with  milk  were 
their  only  articles  of  diet.  As  evening  approached, 
the  tinkling  of  cattle  bells  announced  the  return  of  the 
men,  when  the  women  went  forth  to  meet  them,  and 
welcome  them  back  to  their  log  hut  and  frugal  meal. 
Then  a  little  later  all  sounds  were  hushed,  save  that  on 
the  still  night  arose  the  strains  of  the  evening  hymn 
and  the  murmur  of  the  evening  prayer,  the  day 
closing,  as  it  had  commenced,  with  a  supplication  for 
the  blessing  of  the  Almighty,  and  with  heartfelt 
thanksgiving  that  he  had  been  pleased  to  deliver  his 
people  from  the  hands  of  their  persecutors. 

During  the  latter  part  of  the  winter  and  toward 
the    early  spring  matters  assumed  a  brighter  look. 

^°  Several  loads  of  willow  baskets  were  manufactured.  Hist.  B.  Young^ 
MS.,  534. 


New-year*s  day  was  ushered  in  at  Winter  Quarters  by 
the  firing  of  cannon.^  There  were  frequent  assem- 
blies for  dancing,  and  in  February  several  picnics 
were  held.  In  inaugurating  these  festivities,  Brig- 
ham  told  the  people  he  would  show  them  how  to  go 
forth  in  the  dance  in  an  acceptable  manner  before  the 
Lord,^  and  to  the  sound  of  music  led  the  dance.  A 
picnic  lasting  for  three  days  was  also  given,  at  which 
three  hundred  of  the  poor  were  feasted.^ 

'^  The  thermometer  was  during  that  week  from  2°  to  8*  below  zero,  later 
falling  several  degrees  lower. 

'^  'I  then  knelt  down  and  prayed  to  God  in  behalf  of  the  meeting, . .  .and 
dedicated  the  meeting  and  house  to  the  Lord, . .  .and  led  forth  in  the  dance.' 
Hist.  £.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  27.  In  an  address  Brigham  said:  'For  some 
weeks  past  I  could  not  wake  up  at  any  time  of  the  night  but  I  heard  the  axe 
at  work, . .  .and  now  my  feelings  are,  dance  all  night  if  you  desire  to  do  so.'  p. 
48.  'The  "Silver  Greys  "  and  spectacled  dames, . .  .some  nearly  a  hundred 
years  old, . .  .dancing  like  ancient  Israel.'  p.  49. 

'*  'There  were  117  poor  adults, . .  .divided  into  three  wards. .  .Shortly  after 
noon  I  met  with  66  of  my  family,  including  my  adopted  children.'  Id.,  p.  53. 




Camp  Near  the  Missouri — Preparations  at  Winter  Quarters — ^Depart- 
ure OF  THE  Pioneer  Band — Elkhorn  Rendezvous— Route  and  Rou- 
tine— Incidents  of  Journey — Approach  to  Zion — ^In  the  Ca^on — 
Hosanna!  Hallelujah! — Entry  into  the  Valley  of  the  Great 
Salt  Lake — Ploughing  and  Planting — Praying  and  Praising — Site 
FOR  A  City  Chosen — Temple  Block  Selected — Return  of  Companies 
TO  Winter  Quarters — Their  Meeting  with  the  Westwaed-bound 
—General  Epistle  of  the  Twelve. 

In  the  spring  of  1847  we  find  the  saints  still  in  camp 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  Missouri.  Considering  what 
they  had  been  called  upon  to  undergo,  they  were  in 
good  health  and  spirits.  There  is  nothing  like  the 
spiritual  in  man  to  stimulate  and  sustain  the  physi- 
cal; and  this  result  is  equally  accomplished  by  the 
most  exalted  piety  of  the  true  believer,  or  by  the 
most  stupid  fanaticism  or  barbaric  ignorance;  for 
all  of  us  are  true  believers,  in  our  own  eyes.  There 
is  nothing  like  religion  to  sustain,  bear  up,  and  carry 
men  along  under  trying  circumstances.  They  make 
of  it  a  fight;  and  they  are  determined  that  the  world, 
the  flesh,  and  the  devil  shall  not  conquer. 

In  the  present  instance  it  was  of  course  a  miracle 
in  their  eyes  that  so  many  of  their  number  were  pre- 
served; it  was  to  this  belief,  and  to  the  superhuman 
skill  and  wisdom  of  their  leader,  and  partly  to  their 
own  concert  of  action,  that  their  preservation  was  due. 

Frequent  meetings  had  been  held  by  the  council  to 
consider  plans  for  further  explorations  by  a  pioneer 



band/  A  call  was  made  for  volunteers  of  young  and 
able-bodied  men,  and  in  April  a  company  was  or- 
ganized, with  Brigham  Young  as  lieutenant-general, 
Stephan  Markham  colonel,  John  Pack  major,  and 
fourteen  captains.  The  company  consisted  of  143 
persons,  including  three  women,  wives  of  Brigham 
Young,  Lorenzo  Young,  and  Heber  C.  Kimball.  They 
had  73  wagons  drawn  by  horses  and  mules,  and  loaded 
chiefly  with  grain  and  farming  implements,^  and  with 
provisions  which  were  expected  to  last  them  for  the 
return  journey. 

Early  in  April  a  detachment  moved  out  of  Winter 
Quarters  for  the  rendezvous  on  the  Elkhorn,  and  on 
the  14th  the  pioneer  band,  accompanied  by  eight  mem- 
bers of  the  council,^  began  the  long  journey  westward 
in  search  of  a  site  for  their  new  Zion.  If  none  were 
found,  they  were  to  plant  crops  and  establish  a  settle- 
ment at  some  suitable  spot  which  might  serve  as  a 
base  for  future  explorations.* 

The  route  was  along  the  north  branch  of  the  Platte, 
and  for  more  than  500  miles  the  country  was  bare  of 

^  The  octagon  house  of  Dr  Richards  in  which  the  council  met  is  described 
as  a  queer-looking  thing,  much  resembling  a  New  England  potato-heap  in 
time  of  frost.  '  Council  voted  a  load  of  wood  for  each  day  they  met  in  his 
house.'  HisL  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  2. 

2  Woodruff's  Journal,  MS.,  Apr.  17,  1847. 

^  John  Taylor,  Parley  Pratt,  and  Orson  Hyde  were  engaged  in  missionary 
work  abroad.  Pratt's  Autobiog.,  383. 

*  The  impression  was  that  they  would  reach  as  soon  as  possible  'the  foot  of 
the  mountains  somewhere  in  the  region  of  the  Yellowstone  River,  perhaps  at 
the  fork  of  Tongue  River,  say  2  days'  ride  north  of  the  Oregon  road,  and  a 
week's  travel  west  of  Ft  Laramie ...  I  informed  Bishop  MiUer  that  when  we 
moved  hence  it  would  be  to  the  great  basin.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  79.  No 
one  knew  whither  they  were  going,  not  even  the  leaders.  *  We  have  learned 
by  letter  to  ISder  G.  D.  Watt  that  a  company  left  Council  Bluflfs  for  the 
mountains  on  the  12th  of  April  to  seek  a  location  for  a  stake  in  Zion.'  Mil- 
lennial Star,  ix.  235.  '  The  pioneers  started  for  the  mountains  to  seek  out  a 
resting-place  for  the  saints.'  Brown's  Testimonies  for  tJie  Truth,  26.  In  Niles^ 
Register,  Ixxii.  206  (May  29,  1847),  we  read:  'Their  intention  is  to  proceed  as 
far  as  possible  up  to  the  period  of  necessary  planting-time,  when  they  will 
stop  and  commence  a  crop.  The  leaders  will  make  but  a  short  delay  at  this 
point,  and  will  proceed  over  into  California  and  communicate  with  or  join  the 
disbanded  forces  of  the  Mormon  battalion,  whose  period  of  service  will  expire 
about  the  Ist  of  July  next.'  'When  President  Young  was  questioned  by  any 
of  the  pioneers  as  to  the  definite  point  of  our  destination,  all  he  could  say  to 
thera  was,  that  he  would  know  it  when  he  should  see  it. '  Erastus  Snow,  in 
Utah  Pioneers,  33d  ann.,  44. 



vegetation.  Roused  by  the  call  of  the  bugle  at  five 
o*clock  in  the  morning,  they  assembled  for  prayers; 
then  they  breakfasted,  and  upon  a  second  call  of  the 
buttle  at  seven  o'clock  they  started,  and  travelled 
about  twenty  miles  for  the  day.  At  night  the  note 
of  the  bugle  sent  each  to  his  own  wagon  to  prayers 
and  at  nine  o'clock  to  bed.  They  rested  on  Sunday, 
giving  up  the  day  to  fasting  and  prayer.  They  were 
ciireful  in  marching  to  preserve  order,  with  loaded  guns 
and  powder-horn  ready.  And  the  better  to  present  a 
compact  front,  the  wagons  were  kept  well  together, 
usually  two  abreast  where  the  ground  would  permit, 
and  the  men  were  required  to  walk  by  the  wagons. 
They  felled  cotton-wood  trees  for  their  horses  and 



Route  of  the  Mormons. 

cattle  to  browse  upon,  and  at  last  were  obliged  to  feed 
them  from  the  grain,  flour,  and  biscuit  they  carried, 
subsisting  meanwhile  themselves  on  game  and  fish. 
In  the  vtilley  of  the  Platte  roamed  such  vast  herds  of 
buffaloes  that  it  was  often  necessary  to  send  parties  in 
advance  and  clear  the  road  before  the  teams  could 
pa^.  At  night  the  wagons  would  be  drawn  up  in  a 
semicircle  on  the  bank,  the  river  forming  a  defence 
upon  one  side.  The  tongues  of  the  wagons  were  on 
the  outside,  and  a  fore  wheel  of  each  was  placed 
against  the  hind  wheel  of  the  wagon  before  it;  all  the 
horses  and  cattle  were  brought  inside  of  the  en- 
closure.    The  corral  thus  formed  was  oblong,  with  an 



opening  at  either  end,  where  was  stationed  a  guard. 
The  tents  were  pitched  outside  of  the  corral.^ 

In  crossing  the  Loup  River  on  the  24th,  they  used 
a  leathern  boat  made  for  this  expedition,  and  called 
The  Revenue  Cutter.  On  the  4th  of  May  letters  were 
sent  back  to  Winter  Quarters  by  a  trader  named 
Charles  Beaumont.  On  the  2 2d  they  encamped  at 
Ancient  Bluff  Ruins.  Here  the  spirits  of  the  people 
reached  such   high  hilarity  that  their  commanding 

CoRRAii  OP  Wagons. 

officer  was  obhged  to  rebuke  them,  whereupon  all 
covenanted  to  humble  themselves.'^ 

Early  in  June  they  reached  the  Black  Hills  by  way 
of  Fort  Laramie.^     Here  they  rested  for  two  or  three 

»  Woodruff's  Journal,  MS.,  April  19, 1847.  On  May  4th  they  'established 
a  post-office  and  guide  system  for  the  benefit  of  the  next  camp  following. 
Every  ten  miles. .  .we  put  up  a  guide-board.' 

^  '  I  have  told  the  few  who  did  not  belong  to  the  church  that  they  were 
not  at  liberty  to  introduce  cards,  dancing,  or  iniquity  of  any  description.* 
Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  90. 

^  Fort  John,  or  Laramie,  was  occupied  by  'James  Bordeaux  and  about 
eighteen  French  half-breeds  and  a  few  Sioux . . .  There  had  been  no  rain  for 
tM  last  two  years. .  .Two  or  three  of  us  visited  Mr  Bordeaux  at  the  fort. 


weeks  to  build  ferry-boats  and  recruit  their  animals. 
Grass  was  now  plentiful;  most  of  the  brethren  de- 
pended upon  their  rifles  for  food,  and  after  having 
prepared  sufficient  dried  meat  for  the  rest  of  the  jour- 
ney, they  continued  on  their  way. 

No  sooner  had  they  crossed  the  river  than  a  horse- 
man, who  had  followed  their  trail  from  Laramie,  rode 
up  and  begged  them  to  halt,  as  near  by  was  a  large 
company  bound  for  Oregon,  for  which  he  asked  con- 
veyance over  the  stream.  The  pioneers  consented, 
stipulating  that  they  should  receive  payment  in  pro- 
visions. Other  parties  following,  the  larder  of  the 
saints  was  replenished.^ 

Travelling  rapidly,  and  a  little  to  the  south  of  what 
was  known  as  the  Oregon  track,^  the  Mormons  ar- 
rived at  South  Pass  in  the  latter  part  of  June,  about 
the  time  when  the  tide  of  emigration  usually  passed 
the  Missouri.  Thence  skirting  the  Colorado  desert 
and  reaching  the  Green  River  country,  the  monotony 
was  broken.  Here  the  brethren  were  met  by  Elder 
Brannan,  who  had  sailed  from  New  York  for  Califor- 
nia in  the  ship  Broohlynj  the  previous  February,  with 
238  saints,  as  before  mentioned.  He  reported  that 
they  were  all  busy  making  farms  and  raising  grain  on 
the  San  Joaquin  River. ^^     As  several  of  the  present 

We  paid  him  $15  for  the  use  of  his  ferry-boat,  Mr  Bordeaux  said  that  this 
was  the  most  civil  and  best-behaved  company  that  had  ever  passed  the  fort.' 
Id.,  MS.,  1847,91. 

^  Snow,  in  Utah  Pioneers,  44.  '  Capt.  Grover  and  eight  others  of  the  pion- 
eers were  left  at  North  Platte  ferry  and  ford  to  ferry  the  companies  that 
should  arrive,  and  especially  to  ferry  the  emigration  from  Winter  Quarters.' 
Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847. 

* '  Milking  a  new  road  for  a  majority  of  more  than  one  thousand  miles 
westward,  they  arrived  at  the  great  basin  in  the  latter  part  of  July, '  General 
Epistle  of  the  Twelve,  in  Millennial  Star,  x.  82.  'He  [Brigham]  and  the  com- 
pany arrived  on  the  24th  of  July,  having  sought  out  and  made  a  new  road 
650  miles,  and  followed  a  trapper's  trail  nearly  400  miles.  Smith's  Rise,  Prog- 
ress, and  Travels,  16;  see  also  Tullidge's  Life  of  Young,  161.  Remysays  that 
an  odometer  was  attached  to  a  wheel  of  one  of  the  wagons,  and  careful  notes 
taken  of  the  distances.  Jour,  to  G.  S.  L.  City,  i.  43^.  *As  I  remember, 
there  was  no  trail  after  leaving  Laramie,  going  over  the  Black  Hills,  except 
very  rarely.  For  a  short  distance  before  reaching  the  Sweetwater,  we  saw  a 
wagon  track  J  it  was  a  great  surprise  and  a  great  curiosity. '  Hist.  B.  Young, 
MS.,  1848,  7. 

^^Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  95;  TvlUdge's  Life  of  Young,  166. 


company  were  ill  with  mountain  fever,  they  encamped 
for  a  few  days.  Thirteen  battalion  brethren  who  were 
out  searching  for  stolen  cattle  now  surprised  them, 
and  Brigham  led  in  three  hearty  cheers.^^  Again  en 
route,  passing  through  the  Green  River  country,  they 
reached  Fort  Bridger.  Soon  after  leaving  this  point 
the  real  difficulties  of  the  journey  commenced.  Led, 
as  the  saints  relate,  only  by  the  inspiration  of  the 
Almighty,^^  Brigham  and  his  band  crossed  the  rugged 
spurs  of  the  Uintah  range,  now  following  the  rocky 
bed  of  a  mountain  torrent,  and  now  cleaving  their 
way  through  dense  and  gnarled  timber  until  they 
arrived  at  Echo  Canon,  near  the  eastern  slope  of  the 
Wasatch  Mountains,  where  for  a  brief  space  the  main 
body  rested,  the  president  and  many  others  being 
attacked  with  mountain  fever. ^^ 

Impatient  of  the  delay,  Brigham,  after  a  formal 

^1*1  exclaimed,  "Hosanna!  hosaima!  give  glory  to  God  and  the  lamb, 
amen  !"  in  which  they  all  joined.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  96.  'Left 
Phineas  Young  and  four  others,  who  had  volunteered  to  return  to  guide  the 

^^  Smith's  Rise,  Progress,  and  Travels,  16.  *  For,'  says  the  author,  'no  one 
knew  anything  of  the  country.'  Snow,  in  Utah  Pioneers,  33d  ann. ,  44,  remarks: 
'  The  president  said  we  were  to  travel  "the  way  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  should 
direct  us."'  Snow  states  that  James  Bridger,  who  had  a  trading  post  which 
still  bears  the  name  of  Fort  Bridger,  when  he  met  the  president  on  the  Big 
Sandy  River  about  the  last  of  June,  and  learned  that  his  destination  was  the 
valley  of  Great  Salt  Lake,  offered  |1,000  for  the  first  ear  of  corn  raised  there. 
*Wait  a  little,'  said  the  president,  'and  we  will  show  you.'  Again,  on  p.  45  he 
says  that,  being  encamped  on  what  is  now  known  as  Tar  Springs,  the  pioneers 
were  met  by  a  mountaineer  named  Goodyear,  who  had  wintered  on  the  site  of 
the  present  city  of  Ogden,  after  planting  grain  and  vegetables  in  the  valley,  but 
with  meagre  results.  The  mountaineer's  report  was  very  discouraging,  but 
to  him  also  Brigham  replied,  'Give  us  time  and  we  will  show  you.'  There  is 
no  evidence  that  as  yet  the  president  knew  anything  about  the  Salt  Lake 
Valley  except  what  he  heard  from  Bridger  and  Goodyear,  or  had  gleaned 
from  the  reports  of  Fremont's  expedition.  'On  the  loth  of  June  met  James 
H.  Grieve,  Wm  Tucker,  James  Woodrie,  James  Bouvoir,  and  six  other  French- 
men, from  whom  we  learned  that  Mr  Bridger  was  located  about  300  miles 
west,  that  the  mountaineers  could  ride  to  Salt  Lake  from  Fort  Bridger  in  two 
days,  and  that  the  Utah  country  was  beautiful.'  Hist.  B.  Yoimg,  MS.,  1847, 
92.  'Half-mile  west  of  Fort  Bridger  some  traded  for  buckskins,  their  cloth- 
ing being  worn  out.'  Id.,  97.  Note  also  the  following:  *Met  Capt.  Bridger, 
who  said  he  was  ashamed  of  Fremont's  map  of  this  coimtry.  Bridger  con- 
sidered it  imprudent  to  bring  a  large  population  into  the  great  basin  until  it 
was  ascertained  that  grain  could  be  raised. ' 

''  'We  had  to  stop  at  Yellow  Creek  and  again  at  the  head  of  Echo  Canon, 
stopping  and  travelling  as  the  sick  were  able  to  endure  the  journey,  until  we 
reached  the  Weber  at  the  mouth  of  Echo  Canon,  and  struck  our  camp  a  few 
miles  below  the  present  railroad  station.'  Utah  Pioneer s^  33d  ann.,  45. 
HiBT.  Utah.    17 


meeting,  directed  Orson  Pratt'*  to  take  the  strong- 
est of  their  number  and  cut  through  the  mountains 
into  the  valley,  making  roads  and  bridges  as  they 
went.  After  crossing  what  were  designated  as  Big 
and  Little  mountains,  the  party,  consisting  of  some 
forty-two  men  having  twenty-three  wagons,  encamped 
in  Emigration  Canon. ^^ 

Thus  the  saints  are  reaching  their  resting-place. 
Their  new  Zion  is  near  at  hand;  how  near,  they  are 
as  yet  all  unaware.  But  their  prophet  has  spoken; 
their  way  is  plain;  and  the  spot  for  them  prepared 
from  the  foundation  of  the  earth  will  presently  be 
pointed  out  to  them.  The  great  continental  chain  is 
penetrated.  In  the  heart  of  America  they  are  now 
upon  the  border  of  a  new  holy  land,  with  its  Desert 

^*  *  Voted,  that  Orson  Pratt  take  charge  of  an  expedition  to  go  on  and  make 
a  road  down  the  Weber  River.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  97.  O.  Pratt  was 
appointed  to  take  23  wagons  and  42  men,  and  precede  the  main  company. 
Church  Chron. ,  65.  Erastus  Snow  says,  in  a  discourse  on  the  Utah  pioneers, 
delivered  in  the  tabernacle  July  25,  1880:  'I  well  remember,  as  we  called  at 
the  wagon  to  bid  the  president  good-by.  Brother  Willard  Richards . . .  asking 
if  he  had  any  counsel  to  give  to  guide  our  movements . . .  Resting  his  elbow 
on  the  pillow  with  his  head  in  his  hand,  he  spoke  feebly, ..."  My  impressions 
are,"  said  he,  "that  when  you  emerge  from  the  mountains  into  the  open 
country  you  bear  to  the  northward,  and  stop  at  the  first  convenient  place  for 
putting  in  your  seed. " ' 

^^  *  The  emigration  route  previous  to  1847  was  via  Laramie  through  South 
Pass  to  Big  Sandy  River.  Then  to  avoid  a  desert  stretch,  down  the  Big 
Sandy  to  its  junction  with  Green  River,  and  across,  then  up  Black's  Fork  to 
junction  with  Ham's  Fork,  and  thence  up  Black's  Fork  to  Fort  Bridger.  The 
Mormons  here  took  the  road  made  by  Hastings  and  the  Donner  company  in 
1846,  bearing  almost  due  west,  crossing  Bear  River,  down  Echo  Caiion  to 
junction  with  the  Weber.  The  Mormons  here  chose  the  Donner  trail,  which 
passed  up  the  Weber  southerly  from  Echo  about  twelve  miles,  then  westerly 
into  Parley's  Park,  then  across  the  hills  northerly  to  the  head  of  Emigration 
Canon,  then  into  the  valley.  As  the  Donner  company  had  passed  over  this 
route  more  recently  than  any  other,  it  seems  to  have  been  followed  as 
probably  the  best,  and  was  usually  travelled  for  many  years.  In  1847,  when 
the  Mormons  entered  the  valley,  there  were  three  wagon  routes  into  it.  The 
first,  down  Bear  River  from  Soda  Springs,  through  Cache  Valley — Capt.  Bart- 
lett's  route  in  1841,  followed  by  Fremont  in  1843;  the  second,  Hastings' 
California  emigration  through  Echo  and  Weber  canons  in  1846;  and  the  third, 
the  Donner  route  of  1846,  described.  The  Mormons  found  a  plain  road  into 
a  fertile,  unoccupied  country;. .  .its  isolation  alone  was  the  cause  of  its  non- 
occupation.'  McBHde's  Route  of  the  Mormons,  MS.  This  manuscript,  to 
which  among  other  favors  I  am  indebted  to  Judge  McBride,  throws  fresh 
light  on  the  question  of  passes  and  routes  in  early  times.  The  author,  one  of 
the  first  to  enter  Utah,  was  second  to  none  in  ability  and  position  at  a  later 

THE  NEW  ZION.  259 

and  Dead  Sea,  its  River  Jordan,  Mount  of  Olives,  and 
Gallilee  Lake,  and  a  hundred  other  features  of  its 
prototype  of  Asia. 

Through  the  western  base  of  the  mountains  extends 
the  canon,  the  two  sides  of  which  are  serrated  by  a 
narrow  stream,  which  along  the  last  five  miles  flings 
itself  from  one  side  to  the  other  a  score  or  two  of 
times,  in  places  tumbling  over  bowlders,  again  quietly 
threading  its  way  over  a  pebbly  bottom,  but  every- 
where cutting  up  the  narrow  and  rugged  gorge  so  as 
to  make  it  most  difficult  and  dangerous  of  passage. 

The  primeval  silence  is  now  broken;  the  primeval 
songs  are  now  disturbed  by  sounds  strange  to  the 
surrounding  hills,  accustomed  only  to  the  music  of 
running  water  and  the  notes  of  birds  and  wild  beasts. 
There  is  the  rumbling  of  the  caravan  as  it  comes 
slowly  picking  its  way  down  the  dark  ravine,  the 
tramping  of  the  horses  upon  the  hard  ground,  and  the 
grinding  of  the  wheels  among  the  rocks  as  they  plunge 
down  one  bank  and  climb  another,  or  thread  their  way 
along  the  narrow  ledge  overhanging  an  abyss,  the 
songs  of  Israel  meanwhile  being  heard,  and  midst  the 
cracking  of  whips  the  shouts  now  and  then  breaking 
forth  of  a  leader  in  Israel  awe-struck  by  the  grandeur 
of  the  scene,  "  Hosanna  to  the  Lord !  hosanna  to  the 
creator  of  all!  hallelujah!  hallelujah!" 

Emerging  from  the  ravine  upon  a  bench  or  terrace, 
they  behold  the  lighted  valley,  the  land  of  promise, 
the  place  of  long  seeking  which  shall  prove  a  place  of 
rest,  a  spot  whereon  to  plant  the  new  Jerusalem,  a 
spot  of  rare  and  sacred  beauty.  Behind  them  and 
on  either  hand  majestic  mountains  rear  their  proud 
fronts  heavenward,  while  far  before  them  the  vista 
opens.  Over  the  broad  plain,  through  the  clear  thin 
air,  bathed  in  purple  sunlight,  are  seen  the  bright 
waters  of  the  lake,  dotted  with  islands  and  bordered 
by  glistening  sands,  the  winding  river,  and  along 
the  creek  the  broad  patches  of  green  cane  which  look 
like  waving  corn.     Raising  their  hats  in  reverence 


from  tlieir  heads,  again  hosannas  burst  from  their  lips, 
while  praise  to  the  most  high  ascends  from  grateful 

It  was  near  this  terrace,  being  in  fact  a  mile  and  a 
half  up  the  canon,  that  Orson  Pratt  and  Erastus 
Snow,  with  their  detach^ment  of  pioneers,  encamped 
on  the  20th  of  July,  1847.  Next  day,  the  ever-mem- 
orable 21st,  to  reach  this  bench,  whence  was  viewed 
with  such  marvellous  effect  the  warm,  pulsating  pano- 
rama before  them,  Pratt  and  Snow  crept  on  their 
hands  and  knees,  warned  by  the  occasional  rattle  of  a 
snake,  through  the  thick  underbrush  which  lined  the 
south  side  of  the  mountain  and  filled  the  canon's 
mouth,  leaving  their  companions  on  the  other  side  of 
the  brush.  After  drinking  in  the  scene  to  the  satis- 
faction of  their  souls,  they  descended  to  the  open 
plain,  Snow  on  horseback,  with  his  coat  thrown  loosely 
upon  his  saddle,  and  Pratt  on  foot.  They  journeyed 
westward  three  miles,  when  Snow  missing  his  coat 
turned  back,  and  Pratt  continued  alone.  After  trav- 
ersing the  site  of  the  present  city,  and  standing  where 
later  was  temple  block,  he  rejoined  his  comrade  at  the 
mouth  of  the  canon.  Together  they  then  returned  to 
camp  late  in  the  evening  and  told  of  their  discoveries. 

The  following  morning  the  advance  company,  com- 
posed of  Orson  Pratt,  George  A.  Smith,^^  and  seven 
others,  entered  the  valley  and  encamped  on  the  bank 
of  Canon  Creek.  They  explored  the  valley  toward 
the  lake,  and  about  three  miles  from  the  camp  found 
two  fine  streams  with  stony  bottoms,  whose  banks 
promised  sufficient  pasturage.  Proceeding  northward, 
they  found  hot  springs  at  the  base  of  the  mountain 
spur.  Upon  their  return  they  were  greeted  by  the 
working  camp  five  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  canon, 
at  what  was  subsequently  known   as  Parley  Canon 

^^  Geo.  A.  Smith  says  in  his  autobiography  that  on  this  journey  he  walked 
1,700  miles  and  rode  some  800  miles  on  horseback.  He  had  25  lbs  of  flour, 
which  he  used  by  the  cupful  for  those  who  were  ill;  for  six  weeks  he  was 
without  bread,  and  like  the  rest  of  the  company,  lived  on  buffalo  meat  and 
other  game. 


creek.^^  On  the  23d  the  camp  moved  some  two  or 
three  miles  northward,  the  site  chosen  being  near  the 
two  or  three  dwarf  cotton-woods/^  which  were  the  only 
trees  within  sight,  and  on  the  bank  of  a  stream  of  pure 
water  now  termed  City  Creek,  overgrown  with  high 
grass  and  willows.  Pratt  called  the  men  together, 
dedicated  the  land  to  the  Lord,  and  prayed  for  his 
blessing  on  the  seeds  about  to  be  planted  and  on  the 
labors  of  the  saints.  Before  noon  a  committee  re- 
turned a  report  that  they  had  staked  off  land  suitable' 
for  crops;  that  the  soil  was  friable,  and  composed 
of  loam  and  gravel.  The  first  furrow  was  thereupon 
turned  by  William  Carter,  and  through  the  afternoon 
three  ploughs  and  one  harrow  w^ere  at  work.  A  dam 
was  commenced  and  trenches  cut  to  convey  water  to 
the  fields.  Toward  evening  their  energetic  labors 
were  interrupted  by  a  thunder-storm.-^^  The  ground 
was  so  dry  that  they  found  it  necessary  to  irrigate  it 
before  ploughing,  some  ploughs  having  been  broken; 
and  it  was  not  until  after  the  arrival  of  Brigham  that 
planting  was  begun. 

The  coming  of  the  leader  had  been  impatiently 
awaited,  although  in  their  ambition  to  have  as  much 
as  possible  accomplished,  the  time  quickly  passed. 
Brigham  was  slowly  following  w^ith  the  remainder  of 
the  company,  and  was  still  so  weak  as  to  be  obliged 
to  be  carried  on  a  bed  in  Wilford  Wordruff's  carriaofe. 
As  they  reached  a  point  on  Big  Mountain  where  the 
view  was  unbroken,  the  carriage  was  turned  into 
proper  position,  and  Brigham  arose  from  his  bed  and 
surveyed  the  country.  He  says:  "The  spirit  of  light 
rested  upon  me  and  hovered  over  the  valley,  and  I 
felt  that  there  the  saints  would  find  protection  and 

*^  Parley  was  always  quite  popular  among  the  brethren,  though  his  judg- 
ment was  not  always  the  best. 

^^  'My  poor  mother  was  heart-broken  because  there  were  no  trees  to  be  seen; 
I  don't  remember  a  tree  that  could  be  called  a  tree.  *  Clara  Young's  Exjjeri- 
ences,  MS.,  5. 

^'  'July  23d,  96°  Fah.  A  company  commenced  mowing  the  grass  and  pre- 
paring a  turnip-patch.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  99. 


safety."^  Woodruff  in  describing  the  scene  says  of 
Brigham:  **He  was  enwrapped  in  vision  for  several 
minutes.  He  had  seen  the  valley  before  in  vision, 
and  upon  this  occasion  he  saw  the  future  glory  of 
Zion. .  .planted  in  the  valley. "^^  Then  Brigham  said; 
"  It  is  enough.  This  is  the  right  place.  Drive  on." 
Toward  noon  on  the  24th  they  reached  the  encamp- 
ment. Potatoes  were  planted  in  a  five-acre  patch  of 
ploughed  ground,  and  a  little  early  corn.^ 

Their  first  impressions  of  the  valley,  Lorenzo  Young 
says,  were  most  disheartening.^^  But  for  the  two  or 
three  cotton-wood  trees,  not  a  green  thing  was  in  sight. 
And  yet  Brigham  speaks  almost  pathetically  of  the 
destruction  of  the  willows  and  wild  roses  growing 
thickly  on  the  two  branches  of  City  Creek,  destroyed 
because  the  channels  must  be  changed,  and  leaving 
nothing  to  vary  the  scenery  but  rugged  mountains, 
the  sage  bush,  and  the  sunflower.  The  ground  was 
covered  with  millions  of  black  crickets  w^hich  the 
Indians  were  harvesting  for  their  winter  food.^*  An 
unusual  number  of  natives  had  assembled  for  this  pur- 
pose, and  after  dinner  gathered  about  the  new-comers, 
evincing  great  curiosity  as  to  their  plans. 

Lumber  was  made  in  the  canons,  or  from  logs  drawn 
thence,  with  whip-saws,  through  the  entire  winter; 

^^Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  99. 

21  Woodruff,  in  Utah  Pioneers,  1880,  23.  See  also  Woodrvfs  Journal,  MS. ; 
Clara  Young's  EocperienceSfMB.;  Utah  Early  Record^  MS.;  Pioneer  Wojnen, 
MS.;  Taylor's  Bern.,  MS. 

'^^ '  I  had  brought  a  bushel  of  potatoes  with  me,  and  I  resolved  that  I  would 
neither  eat  nor  drink  until  I  had  planted  them.'  Woodruff,  in  Utah  Pioneers, 
1880,  23.  *  I  planted  the  first  potato. .  .in  Salt  Lake  Valley,'  says  Geo.  A. 
Smith  in  his  autobiography. 

^Mrs  Clara  Decker  Young  speaks  of  the  distress  she  suffered  at  leaving 
Winter  Quarters,  where  there  were  so  many  people  and  life  so  social;  but  that 
when  she  finally  reached  her  destination  she  was  satisfied.  '  It  didn't  look 
so  dreary  to  me  as  to  the  other  two  ladies.  They  were  terribly  disappointed 
because  there  were  no  trees,  and  to  them  there  was  such  a  sense  of  desolation 
and  loneliness.'  Experience  of  a  Pioneer  Woman,  MS.,  5. 

2* '  The  Indians  made  a  corral  twelve  or  fifteen  feet  square,  fenced  about 
with  sage  brush  and  grease-wood,  and  with  branches  of  the  same  drove  them 
into  the  enclosure.  Then  they  set  fire  to  the  brush  fence,  and  going  amongst 
them,  drove  them  into  the  fire.  Afterward  they  took  them  up  by  the  thou- 
sand, rubbed  off  their  wings  and  legs,  and  after  two  or  three  days  separated 
the  meat,  which  was,  I  should  think,  an  ounce  or  half  an  ounce  of  fat  to  each 
cricket.'  Early  ExpeHences  of  Lorenzo  Young,  MS.,  4. 


afterward,  on  account  of  alarm  at  the  apparent  scarcity 
of  timber,  restrictions  were  put  upon  the  manner  of 
cutting  and  quantity  used.  Certain  fines  were  im- 
posed as  a  penalty  for  disobedience;  for  fuel  only  dead 
timber  was  allowed,  and  while  there  was  sufficient, 
the  restraint  excited  some  opposition.^ 

The  next  day  was  the  sabbath;  and  as  had  been 
the  custom  at  Nauvoo,  two  services  were  held,  George 
A.  Smith,  followed  by  Heber  C.  Kimball  and  Ezra 
T.  Benson,  preaching  the  first  sermon,  and  in  the 
afternoon  the  meeting  was  addressed  by  Wilford 
Woodruff,  Orson  Pratt,  and  Willard  Richards,  One 
cause  for  thankfulness  was  that  not  a  man  or  an  ani- 
mal had  died  on  the  journey.  The  sacrament  was 
administered,  and  before  dismissing  the  saints,  the 
president  bade  them  refrain  from  labor,  hunting,  or 
fishing.  "You  must  keep  the  commandments  of  God," 
he  said," or  not  dwell  with  us;  and  no  man  shall  buy 
or  sell  land,  but  all  shall  have  what  they  can  cultivate 
free,  and  no  man  shall  possess  that  which  is  not  his 

On  the  27th,^  the  president,  the  apostles,  and  six 
others  crossed  a  river  which  was  afterward  found  to 
be  the  outlet  of  Utah  Lake,  and  thence  walked  dry- 
shod  over  ground  subsequently  covered  by  ten  feet  of 
water  to  Black  Bock,  where  all  bathed  in  the  lake, 
Brigham  being  the  first  to  enter  it.^^  The  party  re- 
turned to  camp  on  the  following  day,  when  a  council 
was  held,  after  which  the  members  walked  to  a  spot 
midway  between  the  north  and  south  forks  of  a 
neighboring  creek,  where  Brigham  stopped,  and  strik- 
ing the  ground  with  his  cane,  exclaimed,  "  Here  will 

**  *  Taylor  and  Pratt  took  the  lead;  through  them  this  understanding  about 
the  timber  occurred.'  Nebeker^s  Early  Justice,  MS.,  4. 

"^^  On  Monday,  the  26th,  the  president  and  his  apostles  ascended  Ensign 
Peak,  so  called  on  account  of  a  remark  made  by  Brigham:  *  Here  is  a  proper 
place  to  raise  an  ensign  to  the  nations. '  Ihid.  See  also  Utah  Early  Records^ 
MS.,  4;  Woodruff's  Journal,  MS.;  Neheker's  Early  Justice,  MS.  WoodruJBf 
was  the  first  who  stood  on  the  top  of  the  peak. 

'^  On  this  day  was  commenced  the  first  blacksmith's  shop,  the  property  of 
Burr  Frost. 


be  the  temple  of  our  God."^^  This  was  about  five 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon.  An  hour  later  it  was  agreed 
that  a  site  should  be  laid  out  for  a  city  in  blocks  or 
squares  of  ten  acres,  and  in  lots  of  an  acre  and  a 
quarter,  the  streets  to  be  eight  rods  wide,  with  side- 
walks of  twenty  feet. 

At  eight  o'clock  on  the  same  evening  a  meeting  was 
held  on  the  temple  square,  and  it  was  decided  by  vote 
that  on  that  spot  the  temple  should  be  built/^  and  from 
that  spot  the  city  laid  out. 

On  the  29th  of  July  a  detachment  of  the  battal- 
ion, which  had  wintered  at  Pueblo,^"  to  the  number  of 
150,  under  Captain  James  Brown,  arrived  in  the  val- 
ley; they  were  accompanied  by  fifty  of  the  brethren 
who  had  started  the  year  previous  from  the  Missis- 
sippi. On  the  following  evening  a  praise  service  for 
their  safe  arrival  was  held  in  the  brush  bowery ,^^  has- 

28  *  This  was  about  the  centre  of  the  site  of  the  Temple  we  are  now  build- 
ing.'  Utah  Pioneers,  33d  ami.,  23. 

2^  '  Some  wished  for  forty  acres  to  be  set  apart  for  temple  purposes,  but  it 
was  finally  decided  to  have  ten  acres;. .  .the  base  line  was  on  the  south-east 
corner,  and  government  officials  afterward  adopted  it  as  the  base  meridian 
line. '  Taylor's  Reminiscences,  MS. ,  21 .  When  the  elders  anived  from  England 
they  brought  with  them  to  Winter  Quarters,  just  before  the  starting  of  the 
pioneers,  '  two  sextants,  two  barometers,  two  artificial  horizons,  one  circular 
reflector,  several  thermometers,  and  a  telescope,'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847, 
82.  Thxis  Orson  Pratt  was  enabled  to  take  scientific  observations.  He  reported 
the  latitude  of  the  north  line  of  temple  square,  which  was  ten  acres  in  size,  to 
be  40°  45'  44"  n.,  and  its  longitude  111°  26'  34"  w.  From  George  W.  Dean's 
observations  in  1869,  taken  at  the  temple  block,  the  results  were  lat.  40°  46' 
2",  long.  111°  53'  30".  Rept  Coast  Survey,  1869-70.  In  taking  lunar  dis- 
tances for  longitude,  it  is  usual  to  have  four  observers,  but  Orson  Pratt  had  no 
assistant;  hence  probably  the  discrepancy.  On  August  16th  it  was  deter- 
mined that  the  streets  around  the  temple  block  should  be  called  respectively 
North,  South,  East,  and  West  Temple  streets,  the  others  to  be  named,  as  re- 
quired. First  North  street.  Second  North  street,  First  South  street,  Second 
South  street,  etc. 

'"  Says  Mrs  Clara  Young:  'Before  reaching  Laramie  three  of  the  pioneers 
were  sent  to  Pueblo  to  tell  the  families  there  to  strike  their  trail  and  follow 
them  to  their  settlement.'  Ex.  of  a  Pioneer  Woman,  MS.,  7.  *  The  men  of 
this  detachment  were  on  their  way  to  San  Francisco,  but  their  wagons  break- 
ing down  and  their  cattle  being  in  very  poor  condition,  they  were  compelled 
to  turn  aside  and  await  further  orders.'  Utah  Early  Records,  MS.,  8. 

^'  For  many  years  these  boweries  of  trees  and  brush  had  been  constructed 
when  any  large  number  of  the  people  needed  a  temporary  place  of  shelter. 
This  one  was  40 X 28  feet.  Col  Markham  reported  at  this  meeting  'that  13 
ploughs  and  3  harrows  had  been  stocked  during  the  past  week,  3  lots  of  groimd 
broken  up,  one  lot  of  35  acres  planted  in  corn,  oats,  buckwheat,  potatoes, 
beans,  and  garden  seed.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  103-4.  'On  the  23th 
H.  G.  Sherwood,  in  returning  from  an  excursion  to  Cache  Valley,  brought  aii 


tily  constructed  for  the  purpose  by  the  battalion 

During  the  next  three  weeks  all  were  busily  at 
work,  tilling  the  soil,  cutting  and  hauling  timber, 
making  adobes,  and  building,  ambitious  to  accom- 
plish as  much  as  possible  before  the  main  body  of 
the  pioneer  band  should  start  on  its  return  journey  to 
report  to  the  brethren  and  to  promote  further  emi- 
gration. The  battalion  brethren  moved  their  wagons 
and  formed  a  corral  between  the  forks  of  City  Creek. 
Brigham  exhorted  the  brethren  to  be  rebaptized,  him- 
self setting  the  example,  and  reconfirming  the  elders. 
On  the  8th  of  August  three  hundred  were  immersed, 
the  services  commencing  at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
During  the  month  twenty-nine  log  houses  had  been 
built,  either  with  roofs  or  read}^  for  the  usual  substi- 
tute, a  covering  of  poles  and  dirt.  These  huts  were  so 
arranged  as  to  carry  out  their  plan  of  forming  a  rect- 
angular stockade,^^  the  president  and  Heber  C.  Kim- 
ball being  the  first  to  take  possession  of  their  dwellings. 

On  the  17th  of  August  twenty-four  pioneers  and 
forty-six  of  the  battalion  set  out  on  their  return  to 
Winter  Quarters.^ 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  2  2d  a  conference  was  held, 
at  which  it  was  resolved  that  the  place  should  be 
called  the  City  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake.  The  term 
*  Great'  was  retained  for  several  years,  until  changed 
by  legislative  enactment.  It  was  so  named  in  con- 
tradistinction to   Little  Salt   Lake,  a  term  applied 

Englishman  with  him,  named  Wells,  who  had  been  living  in  New  Mexico  for 
Bome  years.'  Hist.  B.  Youncj,  MS.,  1847,  109.  On  the  2ist  A.  Carrington,  J. 
Brown,  VV.  W.  Eust,  G.  Wilson,  and  A.  Calkins  made  the  ascent  of  the  Twin 
Peaks,  15  miles  south-east  of  the  stockade,  and  the  highest  mountain  in  the 
AVasatch  Range,  its  elevation  being,  as  they  reported,  11,219  feet.  These 
were  probably  the  first  white  men  who  ascended  this  mountain. 

32  They  were  8  or  9  feet  high,  and  16  or  17  feet  long,  by  14  wide.  Hist.  B. 
Young,  MS.,  1847,  110.  'We  were  the  first  to  move  into  the  fort;  our  house 
had  a  door  and  a  wooden  window,  which  through  the  day  was  taken  out  for 
light,  and  nailed  in  at  night. .  .There  was  also  a  port-hole  at  the  east  end  of 
the  fort,  which  could  be  opened  and  closed  at  pleasure. ,  .We  had  adobe  chim- 
neys and  a  fire-place  in  the  corner,  with  a  clay  hearth.'  Young's  Pioneer 
Women,  MS.,  6. 

3'  'With  34  wagons,  92  yoke  of  oxen,  18  horses,  and  14  mules,  in  charge  of 
Shadrach  lloundy  and  Tunis  Rappelyc.  Lt  Wesley  Willis  was  in  charge  of 
the  battalion  men.'  Richards'  Narr.,  MS.,  13-14. 


to  a  body  of  water  some  two  hundred  miles  to 
the  south,  situated  in  what  was  later  known  as  Iron 
county,  near  Parowan,  and  which  has  since  almost 
disappeared.  The  stream  connecting  the  two  great 
lakes  was  named  the  Western  Jordan;  now  called  the 
Jordan,  and  the  whole  region  whose  waters  flow  into 
the  lake  was  distinguished  as  the  great  basin. ^  On 
the  26th  a  second  company,  consisting  of  107  per- 
sons,^^  started  for  Winter  Quarters.  Brigham  Young 
and  Heber  C.  Kimball  set  forth  on  horseback  a  little 
in  advance  of  the  others,  but  turning  back,  they  waved 
their  hats  with  a  cheery  "Good-by  to  all  who  tarry," 
and  then  rode  on. 

*'We  have  accomplished  more  this  year,"  writes 
Wilford  Woodruff,  '*  than  can  be  found  on  record  con- 
cerning an  equal  number  of  men  in  the  same  time 
since  the  days  of  Adam.  We  have  travelled  with 
heavily  laden  wagons  more  than  a  thousand  miles, 
over  rough  roads,  mountains,  and  canons,  searching 
out  a  land,  a  resting-place  for  the  saints.  We  have 
laid  out  a  city  two  miles  square,  and  built  a  fort  of 
hewn  timber  drawn  seven  miles  from  the  mountains, 
and  of  sun-dried  bricks  or  adobes,  surrounding  ten 
acres  of  ground,  forty  rods  of  which  were  covered 
with  block-houses,  besides  planting  about  ten  acres  of 
corn  and  vegetables.  All  this  w^e  have  done  in  a 
single  month.  "^^ 

At  Winter  Quarters  active  preparations  had  been 
making  for  following  the  pioneers  at  the  earliest  op- 
portunity. Throughout  the  spring  all  was  activity. 
Every  one  who  had  teams  and  provisions  to  last  a 
year  and  a  half  was  preparing  to  move,  and  assist- 
ing those  who  were  to  remain  to  plough  and  sow. 
Parley  P.  Pratt,  having  returned^''  from  England  short- 

'*  *  It  was  also  called  The  Great  North  American  Desert.'  Taylor^  Rem,^ 
MS.,  22. 

'^  With  36  wagons,  71  horses,  and  49  mules. 

»^  Woodruff's  Journal,  MS.,  78. 

^" '  I  found  my  family  all  alive  and  dwelling  in  a  log  cabin;  they  had,  how- 
ever, suffered  much  from  cold,  hunger,  and  sickness . . .  The  winter  had  been 


ly  before  Brigham's  departure,  was  left  in  charge  of 
the  first  companies  ordered  westward.  On  the  4th  of 
July,  1847,  they  set  forth  for  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
numbering  in  all  1,553  persons.^ 

A  complete  organization  of  the  people  was  effected, 
according  to  a  revelation  of  the  Lord  made  through 
Brigham  on  the  14th  of  January,  1847.^  They 
were  divided  into  companies,  each  with  one  hundred 
wagons,  and  these  into  companies  of  fifty  wagons, 
and  ten  wagons,  every  company  under  a  captain  or 
commander.  Two  fifties  travelled  in  double  columns 
if  practicable.  When  a  halt  was  called  the  wagons 
were  arranged  as  in  the  march  of  the  pioneers,  form- 
ing a  temporary  fort,  with  its  back  opening  upon  the 
corral  formed  by  the  two  semicircles.  The  cattle 
were  th^n  driven  into  the  corral  under  charge  of  the 
herdsmen.  When  ready  to  march,  the  captain  of 
each  ten  attended  to  his  company,  under  the  super- 
vision of  the  captain  of  fifty.  Advance  parties  each 
day  selected  the  next  camping-ground.  In  the  ab- 
sence of  wood,  fires  were  made  from  buffalo  chips  and 
sage  brush.  The  wagons  had  projections  extending 
over  the  sides,  making  the  interior  six  feet  wide. 
Hen-coops  were  carried  at  the  end  of  each  wagon, 
and  a  few  young  pigs  were  brought  for  use  in  the 
valley.  Great  care  was  used  to  prevent  a  stampede 
of  the  animals,  as  they  appeared  to  recognize  the 
peculiarities   and   dangers    of  the   new  country  and 

very  severe,  the  snow  deep,  and  consequently  horses  and  cattle  had  been  lost. 
. . .  My  wagons  were  overhauled  and  put  in  order,  tires  reset,  chains  repaired, 
yokes  and  bows  arranged  in  order,  wagon  bows  made  and  mended.'  FraWs 
Autobiog.,  397-8.  'The  companies  were  organized  by  Elder  P.  P.  Pratt  and 
myself,  as  near  as  we  could  in  accordance  with  instructions  left  by  Pres. 
Young. '  Taylor'' s  Rem. ,  MS. ,  7. 

^^  This  company  is  distinguished  as  the  first  immigration.  It  was  supplied 
with  580  wagons,  2,213  oxen,  124  horses,  887  cows,  358  sheep,  716  chickens,  and 
35  hogs.  Utah  Early  Records,  MS.,  17.  Smith  says  about  700  wagons.  Rise, 
Progress,  and  Travels,  16.  Kearny's  and  Fremont's  parties  met  Pratt's  com- 
panies at  Loup  River;  and  according  to  Martin'' s  Narr.,  ^42  in  Col.,  MS., 
122,  John  Young  was  appointed  president  and  John  Van  Cott  marshal. 

'*  This  was  called  '  the  word  and  will  of  the  Lord  concerning  the  camp 
of  Israel.'  Like  all  revelations,  it  was  in  scriptural  phraseology,  and  very 
explicit  in  its  directions.  It  was  also  read  by  Brigham  to  his  people  in  Salt 
Lake  City  on  the  1st  of  August. 


were  easily  alarmed.  The  organization  and  order  in 
the  camp  was  so  perfect  that  not  unfrequentl}^  half 
an  hour  after  a  halt  the  people  sat  down  to  a  com- 
fortable meal  of  fresh  bread  and  broiled  meat.*° 

At  the  beginning  of  their  journey,  jealousy,  bicker- 
ing, and  insubordination  arose  among  them,  and  a  halt 
was  called  for  the  purpose  of  holding  a  council  and 
adjusting  matters.  For  several  hundred  miles  they 
followed  the  trail  of  the  pioneers,  and  now  were  ap- 
proaching the  president  and  his  men,  who,  encamped 
between  Green  River  and  the  Sweetwater,  had  sent 
forward  two  messengers*^  to  ascertain  the  progress 
and  condition  of  the  company.  Upon  hearing  of  the 
difficulties  that  had  arisen,  Brigham  sent  for  Pratt 
and  censured  him  severely  for  defects  in  the  manage- 
ment of  the  party  at  the  start,  and  for  misunderstand- 
ings on  the  road.  Pratt  humbly  acknowledged  his 
faults  and  was  forgiven.  While  the  president  and 
council  were  at  prayer,  the  Sioux  improved  the  occa- 
sion by  stealing  a  number  of  horses,  which  proved  a 
serious  loss. 

Pratt  now  returned  to  his  command,  and  without 
special  incident  reached  the  Salt  Lake  settlement  on 
the  19th  of  September;  the  companies  arriving  in  de- 
tachments at  intervals  of  several  weeks. 

Brigham's  band  was  scantily  provisioned  for  the 
journey  to  Winter  Quarters.*^  The  number  that  had 
already  gathered  at  Salt  Lake  had  drawn  heavily  on 
the  pioneers'  resources,  and  they  set  out  depending  for 
subsistence  on  game  and  fish.  They  travelled  more 
rapidly  in  returning,*^  although  most  of  them  were 
compelled  to  walk.     A  few  days  after  the  Indian  dep- 

*°From  account  of  their  journeyings  furnished  me  in  Taylor's  Rem. ^  7-12. 

"  0.  P.  Rockwell  and  E.  T.  Benson. 

*2  Among  them  was  a  party  of  battalion  men  who  were  entirely  destitute 
except  for  a  very  small  quantity  of  beef,  which  was  soon  exhausted.  General 
Epistle  of  the  Twelve,  in  Millennial  Star,  x.  83. 

*^ '  Camped  on  the  south  side  of  the  Platte.  We  were  42  days  in  going  to 
the  valley  from  this  point,  and  only  23  days  in  returning. '  Hist.  B.  Young, 
MS.,  1847,  115. 

A  DAY  OF  JUBILEE.  269 

redation  mentioned  during  the  council,  the  Mormons 
were  attacked  by  a  large  war  party  of  Sioux,  who  again 
carried  off  many  horses.  The  meeting  of  the  battal- 
ion and  pioneer  brethren  with  Parley  Pratt's  company 
was  an  occasion  of  rejoicing  to  all.**  On  the  7th  of  Sep- 
tember the  former  arrived  at  the  Sweetwater.  Here, 
with  the  assembled  companies,  a  jubilee  was  held  and 
a  feast  of  good  things  prepared.  While  the  men  cut 
down  brush  and  constructed  a  bowery,  the  women, 
with  great  trouble,  unpacked  their  dishes  and  table 
furniture,  delighted  at  the  opportunity  of  assisting 
at  such  an  event.  A  fat  heifer  was  killed,  and  what- 
ever luxuries  were  m  camp  were  now  produced.  A 
slight  snow  fell,  but  in  no  degree  marred  their  merri- 
ment; the  feast  was  followed  by  music  and  dancing, 
and  by  accounts  of  the  pioneers'  experiences  in  en- 
tering upon  and  settling  their  new  Zion;  after  prayer 
the  company  dispersed.*^  The  remnants  of  the  ban- 
quet were  left  with  the  eastern-bound  train,  and  as 
they  separated  each  bade  the  other  God  speed.  A 
fortnight  before  reaching  Winter  Quarters  a  small  dele- 
gation met  Brigham's  company  with  most  welcome 
supplies.  On  the  31st  of  October,  when  Ma  thin  one 
mile  of  the  settlement,  Brigham  called  his  men  to- 
gether, praised  them  for-their  good  conduct,  blessed  and 
dismissed  them.  They  drove  into  town  in  order  an 
hour  before  sunset.  The  streets  were  crowded,  and 
friends  pressed  forward,  shaking  hands  as  they  passed 
through  the  lines.  " 


During  this  season  an  abundant  harvest  had  been 
gathered  by  the  brethren  at  their  encampments  near 

**  'Met  Spencer's  advance  company  Sept.  3d,  with  76  wagons;  we  had  a 
joyful  meeting;  on  the  4th  met  encampment  of  75  wagons;  on  the  5th  162; 
and  on  the  8th  met  the  last  company  of  saints.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  1847. 

*»  'AH  felt  greatly  encouraged.  We  now  knew  for  the  first  time  our  des- 
tination; we  had  talked  of  California,  and  knew  not  until  now  where  we  should 
settle.'  Home's  Migrations,  MS.,  22. 

*^ '  We  were  truly  rejoiced  once  more  to  behold  our  wives,  children,  and 
old  friends,  after  an  absence  of  six  months,  having  travelled  over  2,000  miles . . . 
and  accomplished  the  most  important  mission  in  this  last  dispensation. '  HisU 
B.  Young,  MS.,  1847,  122. 


the  Missouri,  though  sickness  was  an  ever-present 
guest;  and  many  of  their  number  who  could  least  be 
spared  were  scattered  throughout  the  world  as  mis- 
sionaries in  Europe,  and  as  far  westward  as  the  Sand- 
wich Islands,  as  soldiers  in  California,  or  as  laborers 
wherever  they  could  find  a  livelihood  in  the  western 
states.  The  winter  was  passed  quietly  and  in  content, 
most  of  the  saints  preparing  for  their  migration  in  the 
spring.  Meanwhile,  on  the  23d  of  December,  1847, 
a  general  epistle  of  the  twelve  was  issued  to  the 
brethren  and  to  the  gentiles.  In  this  it  was  stated 
that  they  were  at  peace  with  all  the  world,  that  their 
mission  was  to  extend  salvation  to  the  ends  of  the 
earth,  and  an  invitation  was  extended  to  "  all  presi- 
dents, and  emperors,  and  kings,  and  princes,  and  no- 
bles, and  governors,  and  rulers,  and  judges,  and  all 
nations,  kindreds,  tongues,  and  people  under  the  whole 
heaven,  to  come  and  help  us  to  build  a  house  to  the 
name  of  the  God  of  Jacob,  a  place  of  peace,  a  city  of 
rest,  a  habitation  for  the  oppressed  of  every  clime." 
Then  followed  an  exhortation  for  the  saints  to  gather 
unto  Zion,  promising  that  their  reward  should  be  a 
hundred-fold  and  their  rest  glorious.  They  must 
bring  "  their  gold,  their  silver,  their  copper,  their 
zinc,  their  tin,  and  brass,  and  iron,  and  choice  steel, 
and  ivory,  and  precious  stones;  their  curiosities  of 
science, ...  or  anything  that  ever  was,  or  is,  or  is  to 
be  for  the  exaltation,  glory,  honor,  and  salvation  of 
the  living  and  the  dead,  for  time  and  for  all  eternity."*^ 
Such  a  gathering  of  saints  and  gentiles  would  of 
itself  have  constituted  an  earthly  Zion,  especially  for 
the  president  and  the  twelve,  who  held  virtual  control 
over  their  brethren's  property.  Among  the  gentiles 
one  would  think  that  such  rhodomontade  could  not 
fail  to  bring  discredit  on  the  Mormon  faith  and  the 
Mormon  cause,  but  no  such  result  followed.  As  will 
be  mentioned  later,  their  missions  were  never  more 
prosperous  than  during  the  years  when  at  their  new 

"  The  full  text  of  this  epistle  is  given  in  the  Millennial  Star,  x.  81-8. 


stake  of  Zion  the  saints  were  employed,  not  in  adorn- 
ing their  temple  with  gold,  silver,  and  precious  stones, 
but  in  building  rough  shanties,  hewing  timber,  hoeing 
corn,  and  planting  potatoes. 

The  trite  maxim  commencing  JEquam  memento  was 
one  which  the  saints  had  taken  well  to  heart,  and  on 
few  was  the  mens  cequa  in  arduis  more  firmly  stamped 
than  on  the  brow  of  him  who,  on  christmas  eve,  the 
day  after  his  invitation  to  the  princes  and  potentates 
of  all  the  earth,  was  appointed  president  of  the  church 
of  Jesus  Christ  of  latter-day  saints.  And  while  in 
adversity  there  were  none  more  steadfast,  it  must  be 
admitted  there  were  few  in  whom  success  developed 
so  little  of  pride  and  of  vainglory.  From  this  time 
forth  Brigham  Young  was  to  the  saints  as  a  prophet 
— ^yea,  and  more  than  a  prophet:  one  on  whom  the 
mantle  had  fallen  not  unworthily.  By  his  foresight 
he  had  saved  his  people  from  dispersion,  and  per- 
chance his  faith  from  annihilation.  Hounded  by  a 
mob,  he  had  led  his  followers  with  consummate  tact 
throughout  their  pilgrimage,  and  in  a  wilderness  as 
yet  almost  untrodden  by  man  had  at  length  estab- 
lished for  them  an  abiding-place. 

After  the  departure  of  Brigham  from  Salt  Lake, 
John  Smith,  the  prophet's  uncle,  was  nominally  pres- 
ident of  the  camp;*^  but  upon  the  arrival  of  John 
Taylor  and  Parley  P.  Pratt  their  precedence  was  ac- 
knowledged and  they  were  placed  in  charge.*®  There 
were  no  laws  until  the  latter  part  of  this  year,  though 
certain  penalties  were  assigned  for  certain  crimes  and 
executed  by  the  people.  As  there  was  no  jail,  the 
whipping-post  was  substituted,  but  used  only  two  or 
three  times.     In  such  cases  the  high  council  tried  the 

**  Afiairs  were  controlled  by  the  high  council,  consisting  of  twelve  high- 
priests.  Salt  Lake  City  was  a  stake  of  Zion,  with  president  and  other  oflScers. 
'At  the  conference  on  Oct.  3d  Father  John  Smith  was  elected  president  of 
the  stake  of  Zion  and  patriarch  of  the  church.  Brigham  Young  was  sus- 
tained as  president  of  the  whole  church.'  Hist.  B.  Young,  MS.,  117. 

^^Nebeker's  Early  Justice,  MS.,  4. 


prisoner,  and  sentenced  him.  "President  Young  was 
decidedly  opposed  to  whipping,"^^  says  George  Q. 
Cannon,  "but  matters  arose  that  we  considered  re- 
quired punishment  at  the  time."^^ 

During  this  period  men  and  women  voted  by  ballot 
in  matters  relating  to  government.  Women  had 
already  voted  in  religious  meetings  by  the  uplifted 
hand,  but  this  is  probably  the  first  instance  in  the 
United  States  where  woman  suffrage  was  permitted. 
Utah  at  that  time,  however,  was  not  a  part  of  the 
United  States,  and  before  its  admission  as  a  ter- 
ritory the  privilege  was  withdraw n.^'^ 

^°  '  I  had  to  chastise  one  in  that  way  for  stealing.'  Id.,  MS.,  4. 

^^ '  For  instance,  one  of  our  best  men  now,  who  was  then  young,  was  ac- 
cused of  riding  on  horseback  with  a  girl  in  front  of  him.  This  was  looked 
upon  as  indecorous.  He  and  others  guilty  of  the  same  thing  were  severely 
reprimanded.*  G.  Q.  Cannon,  in  Taylor's  Rem.,  MS.,  12-13. 

^2  Taylor's  Rem.,  MS.,  14.  Herewith  I  give  a  list  of  the  Utah  pioneers 
of  1847:  Adams,  Barnabas  L.;  Angel,  Truman  0.;  Allen,  Rufus;  Attwood, 
Millen;  Badger,  Rodney;  Barney,  Lewis;  Barnham,  Charles  D.;  Benson, 
Ezra  T.;  Billings,  Geo.  P.;  Boggs,  Francis;  Brown,  Geo.;  Brown,  John; 
Brown,  Nathaniel  Thomas;  Bullock,  Thos;  Burke,  Charles;  Burnham,  Jacob 
D.;  Byard,  Robert;  Carrington,  Albert;  Carter,  William;  Case,  James; 
Chamberlin,  Solomon;  Chessley,  Alexander  P.;  Clayton,  William;  Cloward, 
Thos  P.;  Coltrin,  Zebedee;  Craig,  James;  Crosby,  Oscar;  Curtis,  Lyman; 
Gushing,  Hosea;  Davenport,  James;  Dewey,  Benjamin  F.;  Dixon,  John; 
Driggs,  Starling;  Dykes,  William;  Earl,  Sylvester  H. ;  Eastman,  Ozro;  Egan, 
Howard;  Egbert,  Joseph;  Eldredge,  John  S.;  Ellsworth,  Edmund;  Empey, 
William  A.;  Ensign,  Datus;  Everett,  Addison;  Fairbanks,  Nathaniel;  Farr, 
Aaron;  Fitzgerald,  Perry;  Flake,  Green  (colored);  Fowler,  John  S.;  Fox, 
Samuel;  Freeman,  John  M.;  Frink,  Horace  M.;  Frost,  Burr;  Gibbons,  An- 
drews.; Gleason,  JohnS.;  Glines,  Eric;  Goddard,  Stephen  H.;  Grant,  David; 
Grant,  Geo.  R. ;  Greene,  John  Y. ;  Grover,  Thomas;  Hancock,  Joseph;  Hanks, 
Sidney  A.;  Hanson,  Hans  C. ;  Harmon,  Appleton  M.;  Harper,  Charles  A.; 
Henrie,  William;  Hewd,  Simeon;  Higbee,  John  S. ;  Holman,  John  G. ;  Ivory, 
Matthew;  Jackman,  Levi;  Jacobs,  Norton;  Johnson,  Artemas;  Johnson,  Luke; 
Johnson  Philo;  Kelsey,  Stephen;  Kendall,  Levi  N. ;  Kimball,  Ellen  S.  (wife 
of  H.  C.  K.);  Kimball,  Heber  C;  King,  William  A.;  Klineman,  Conrad; 
Lark,  Hark  (colored);  Lewis,  Tarlton;  Little,  Jessie  C. ;  Losee,  John  G.; 
Loveland,  Chancey;  Lyman,  Amasa;  Marble,  Samuel  H.;  Mar kham,  Stephen; 
Matthews,  Joseph;  Mills,  George;  Murray,  Carlos;  Newman,  Elijah;  Nor- 
ton, John  W. ;  Owen,  Seely;  Pack,  John;  Pierce,  Eli  H.;  Pomeroy,  Francis 
M. ;  Powell,  David;  Pratt,  Orson;  Reddin,  Jackson;  Rappelye,  Tunis;  Rich- 
ards, Willard;  Rockwell,  Orrin  P.;  Rockwood,  Albert  P.;  Rolfe,  Benjamin 
W.;  Rooker,  Joseph;  Roundy,  Shadrach;  Schofield,  Joseph  S. ;  Scholes, 
George;  Sherwood,  Henry  G. ;  Shumway,  Andrew  P.;  Shumway,  Chailes; 
Smith,  George  A.;  Smoot,  Wm  C.  A.;  Snov/,  Erastus;  Stevens,  Roswell; 
Stewart,  Benjamin  F.;  Stewart,  James  W.;  Stringham,  Briant;  Summe,  Gil- 
burd;  Taft,  Seth;  Tanner,  Thomas;  Taylor,  Norman;  Thomas,  Robert  T.; 
Thornton,  Horace  M.;  Thorpe,  Marcus  B.;  Tippitts,  John  H.;  Vance,  Will- 
iam P.;  Walker,  Henson;  Wardel,  George;  Weiler,  Jacob;  Wheeler,  John; 
Whipple,  Edson;  Whitney,  Horace  K.;  Whitney,  Orson  K.;  Williams,  Al- 
mon  L.;  Woodard,  George;  Woodruff,  Wilford;  Woolsey,  Thomas;  Words- 


On  the  16th  of  November,  0.  P.  Kockwell,  E.  K. 
Fuller,  A.  A.  Lathrop,  and  fifteen  others  set  forth 
for  California  to  buy  cows,  mules,  mares,  wheat,  and 
seeds.  They  bought  two  hundred  head  of  cows  at 
six  dollars  e